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JANUARY,  1917 

SPECIAL  ARTIGLES 


New  Year  Greetings 

From  the  Relief  Society  Presidency. 

Isobers  New  Year  Dinner 

Diana  Parrish. 

Home  Science  Department 

Macaroni   as   a   Substitute  for  Meat. 
Janette  A.  Hyde. 

Relief  Society  Calendar 

Watchman,  What  of  the  Year? 


Organ  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church 

of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 

Room  29,  Bishop's  Bldg.,Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

$1.00  a  Year — Single  Copy  10c 

Vol.  IV. 


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CMD 


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"Utah-Idaho" 

—the  Quality  Standard 

The  high  6ttrwdard  which  we  set 
for  Utah-Idaho  Sugar  is  maintained 
every  day  in  the  year.  By  strict 
adherence  to  this  standard,  Utah- 
Idaho  Sugar  has  won  its  way  into 
most  of  the  homes  of  these  moun- 
tain 6tates. 

If  by  chance  you  have  not  tried 
Utah-Idaho  Sugar,  we  urge  you  to 
do  so.  We  are  confident  if  you 
once  try  it,  you  will  continue  to 
use  it.  Call  your  grocer  today, 
and  ask  him  to  send  you  a  sack  of 

Utah-Idaho  Sugar 

ABSOLUTELY    PURE 

UTAH-IDAHO  SUGAR  CO. 

JOSEPH    r.    SMITH.    PnniDINT 
THOS.  P    CUTLER,  ViCB-Pnss.  and  Gin •  l  Man. 


TWO  BOOKS 

Family  Record  of  Temple  Work  for 
the  Dead.  A  simplified  form,  with 
complete  instructions  for  properly  re- 
cording this  work. 

L.  D.  S.  Family  and  Individual  Record 
Arranged  specially  for  recording  in  a 
most  desirable  and  concise  form,  im- 
portant events  in  the  lives  of  the  mem- 
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Have  You  Read  The  Women  of  The  Bible,  ^SSSW  If  not,  Why  not? 

The  book  will  help  you  in  your  Theology  Lessons,  it  will  give  you 
a  greater  insight  and  love  for  the  Bible  characters,  and  will  also 
make  you  glad  that  you  are  a  woman  and  a  sister  to  these  good  and 
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The  Relief  Society  Magazine 

Owned  and  Published  by  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 


CONTENTS. 

JANUARY,  1917. 

Relief  Society  Calendar 1 

General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society 2 

New  Year  Epistle 3 

Mrs.  Alice  Merrill  Home 10 

Life's  Wintry  Way Marie  Jenesn  11 

A  Forceful  Business  Venture Ida  Stewart  Peay  14 

Isobel  Gives  a  New  Year's  Dinner Diana  Parrish  16 

Mothers  in  Israel Mary  A.  S.  Winters  21 

Mother Alfred    Lambourne  23 

Home  Evening  Entertainment Morg  24 

Home  Science  Department Janette  A.  Hyde  26 

Notes  from  the  Field Amy  Brown  Lyman  30 

Current  Topics James  H.  Anderson  34 

Editorial  :     A  Call  to  the  Women  of  the  Church 36 

High  Cost  of  Living 39 

Guide   Lessons    41 


ADVERTISERS*    DIRECTORY. 

Pa.ronize  those  who  advertise  with  us 

BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  CO.,  Vermont  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE  MUSIC  CO.,  45  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

DESERET   SUNDAY    SCHOOL   UNION    BOOK   STORE,   44   East   South 

Temple  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
DESERET  NEWS  BOOK  STORE,  Books  and  Stationery,  Salt  Lake  City. 
KEELEY  ICE  CREAM  CO.,  55  Main,  260  State  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
MERCHANTS'  BANK,  Third  South  and  Main  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
McCONAHAY,  THE  JEWELER,  64  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
RELIEF  SOCIETY  BURIAL  CLOTHES,  Beehive  House,  Salt  Lake  City. 
GENEALOGICAL  SOCIETY,  60  East  South  Temple. 
OREGON  SHORT  LINE  RAILWAY,  Salt  Lake  City. 
STAR  PRINTING  CO.,  30  P.  O.  Place,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SANDERS,  MRS.  EMMA  J.,  Florist,  278  So.  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SOUTHERN  PACIFIC  RY.,  Second  Floor,  Walker  Bk.  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
THOMAS  STUDIO,  Photographs,  44  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
TAYLOR,  S.  M.  &  CO.,  Undertakers,  251-257  E.  First  So.  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
UTAH-IDAHO  SUGAR  COMPANY,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 
UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL  BANK,  Salt  Lake  City. 
UTAH  AGRICULTURAL  COLLEGE,  Logan,  Utah. 
"WOMEN  OF  THE  BIBLE,"  by  Willard  Done. 
Z.  C.  M.  I.,  Salt  Lake  City. 


e 

Women 
Bank  Here 


*\ 


Many  women  are  availing 
themselves  of  the  conveniences 
ami  efficient  service  of  this 
hank.  They  like  the  human  at- 
mosphere, the  sunshine  that 
pours  through  the  big  plate 
gl>88  windows,  the  courteous 
treatment  and  the  absolute  se- 
curity of  doing  business  with 
this  strong  bank. 

We  solicit  your  checking  or 
savings  account  or  both.  Four 
per  cent  on  savings. 

"The  Bank  with  a  Personality" 

Merchant's  Bank 

Capital     $250,000.      Member    of 

Salt   Lake   Clearing   House. 

Jolin     Pingree,     Prest.;     O.     P. 

Soule,    V.    P.;    Moroni    Helner, 

V.   P.;   Radcllffe  Q.   Cannon,   L. 

J.    Hays,    Asst.   Cashiers. 

Cor.  Main  and  Third  South, 
Salt  Lake  City,  I  tali 


ARE  WE  OF  ISRAEL? 

By  GEO.  REYNOLDS 

A  NEW  EDITION 
NOW  READY 

Paper  Binding         25c  Postpaid 

Deseret  Sunday  School  Union  Book  Store 

44  East  on  South  Tbmple 
Salt  Lake  City,    -     Utah 


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SALT  LAKE'S 
LADY  FLORIST 

Mrs.  Emma  J.  Sanders 

278  South  Main  Street 
Schramm-Johnton  No.  5 

Phone  Wasatch    2815 

Salt  Lake  City.  -  Utah 


BURIAL  INSURANCE 
IN   THE  BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE   COMPANY 

The  women  of  the  Relief  Society  have  now  the  opportunity  of  securing 
a  sufficient  sum  for  proper  burial  by  the  paymnt  of  a  small  monthly  amount. 
The  moment  you  sign  you  policy  your  burial  expenses  are  assured  without 
burdening    your    children.       Talk    to    us    about    this.  RELIEF    SOCIETY 

HEADQUARTERS,   or 

Beneficial  Life  Insurance  Company 

Relief  Society  Department 

HOME    OFFICE:      VERMONT    BUILDING,    SALT    LAKE    CITY,    UTAH 


THE|_ 
UTAH  STATE 
NATIONAL 
-    BANK 

SAtT  LAKE  CITY 
llTAH 


IT  IS  THE  PURPOSE 
of  this  Bank  at  all 
times  to  render  help- 
ful service  and  make 
the  handling  of  your 
banking  business  sat- 
isfactory and  pleasant. 


UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL 
BANK 

Your   Account   is   Cordially   Invited 
Joseph  F.  Smith,  Pres. 


Established  I860        Incorporated  1908 

S.M.TAYLOR  &  Co. 

Undertakers  and  Embalmers 

Successors  to 

Joseph  E.  Taylor 

The  Pioneer  Undertaker  of  the  West 
Fifty-three  years  in  one  location — 

251-257  East  First  South  Street 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Efficient    Service,    Modern    Methods 
Complete  Equipment 


Relief  Society  Calendar. 


JUnuary   1917 

SunJ1on.TueWedThu.Fn.  Sat 

I  23456 
75  910111213 
14151617151920 
21222324252627 
25293031 


April        1917 

SuaMonTueWedThu  Fri. Sat. 

I  234567 

5  91011121514 
15161715192021 
22232425  2&$72S 
2930  ^^ 


July 

SuaMon.TueWedThaj 

I  23456 
5  910111213/ 
15161715192021 
22232425262725 
293031 


October    1917 

SuaMonTueWedThu  Fri  Sat 

1  23456 
75  910111213 
141516(7151920 
21222324252627 
25293031 


February    1917 

Sun.Mon.Tue.WedThu.Fri.  Sal- 

1  23 
45675910 
I1 121314151617 
15192021222324 
25262725 


March      1917 

Sun.MoaTueWedThu.Frt  Sat. 

I  23 

45675910 
I1 121314151617 
15192021222324 
25262725293051 


3456759 

10111213141516 
0212223 
2627252930 


12l31415fl6>715 
19202122232425 
262725293031 


September  1917 

SuaMon.TueWed.Thu.Fri. Sat. 


2345675 
9101112131415 
16171519202122 
^242526272529 


November   1917 

SuaMoaTueWedThu.Fri.  SaJ. 

1  23 

4  5  6  7  5  9 10 
I1 12 13 14 15 1617 
15192021222324 
252627252930 


December  1917 

SunMon  Tue Wed  Thu.Fri  Sat. 
I 

2345675 

9101112131415 
161715 19202122 
2V#.2526272529 


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THE 


Relief  Society  Magazine 


Vol.  IV.  JANUARY,  1917.  No.  1. 


New  Year  Epistle 

Of  the  Presidency  and  General  Board  of  the  Relief 
Society,  to  Officers  and  Members  Everywhere. 

We  offer  to  you  our  sincere  greetings  and  congratulations  at 
this  auspicious  season,  for  the  arduous  and  useful  work  we  have 
been  enabled  to  perform  during  the  past  year;  while  we  render 
thanks  and  gratitude  to  our  Father  in  heaven  that  he  has  given  us 
the  opportunity,  strength  and  time  to  accomplish  this  labor.  The 
ward  and  stake  branches  of  the  Relief  Society  throughout  the 
Church  have  been  active  and  diligent.  No  complaints  reach  us 
of  indifference  and  inactivity,  while  every  report  received 
breathes  a  spirit  of  good  cheer,  hope  and  faith.  It  therefore  be- 
hooves us  at  this  time  to  felicitate  ourselves  and  you  upon  the 
peaceful  close  of  the  year,  1916,  and  the  hopeful  opening  of  the 
year  1917. 

GENERAL  BOARD  ACTIVITIES. 

The.  members  of  the  General  Board  have  been  very  active 
in  visiting  the  71  stakes  throughout  the  Church.  Like  the  stake 
officers  who  perform  a  similar  task  in  their  own  district,  our  sis- 
ters are  happy  in  the  sacrifices  of  time,  strength  and  absence 
from  home,  because  of  the  good  accomplished  and  the  love  and 
companionship  offered  to  the  officers  by  the  members  who  wel- 
come our  general  and  stake  visitors  with  open  arms.  We  rejoice 
in  the  spirit  of  hospitality  which  everwhere  obtains  in  this  So- 
ciety, and  feel  to  bless  those  who  open  their  homes  and  minister 
to  the  general  and  stake  officers  at  sundry  times  and  places. 
President  Emmeline  B.  Wells  herself  visited  ten  stakes  last  year 
and  is  still  able  to  travel  comfortably  and  profitably.     Among 


4  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

the  visits  paid  by  our  General  Board  members  was  that  under- 
taken by  our  General  Secretary,  Mrs.  Amy  Brown  Lyman,  our 
General  Treasurer,  Mrs.  Emma  A.  Empey,  and  the  Business 
Manager  of  our  Magazine,  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde.  These  sis- 
ters were  accompanied  by  the  Misses  Emily  and  Edith  Smith,  the 
two  lovely  daughters  of  President  and  Mrs.  Julina  L.  Smith. 
They  visited  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Eastern  States  Mission 
and  its  branches  in  Philadelphia,  Boston,  New  York,  Toronto, 
and  other  places;  the  Northern  States  Mission  Society  in  Chi- 
cago, and  branches  of  the  Society  of  that  mission;  the  Society  of 
the  Central  States  Mission,  located  at  Independence,  Mo.,  and 
the  Society  of  the  Western  States  Mission,  in  Denver.  These 
sisters  also  visited  the  historic  scenes  connected  with  our  early 
Church  history,  and  while  they  brought  home  much  valuable  in- 
formation and  inspiration,  they  also  left  with  the  sisters  where 
they  visited,  the  good  spirit  of  hope,  faith  and  trust  in  our  heav- 
enly Father. 

THE  MISSIONS. 

The  organization  of  the  Society  is  complete,  so  far  as  we 
know.  There  have  been  many  changes  in  ward  and  stake  of- 
ficers, and  while  we  have  said  good-by  reluctantly  to  those  who 
have  passed  out  and  passed  on,  we  welcome  the  new  comers  into 
our  official  ranks.  The  missions  have  never  been  in  such  splen- 
did working  order  as  they  are  today.  Particularly  active  is  the 
Northern  and  Central  States  and  the  California  Missions.  Here 
cur  lesson  work,  Magazine,  genealogy  and  general  Relief  Society 
interests  have  been  actively  carried  forward  for  a  long  period. 
The  Eastern  States  Mission  recently  reorganized,  and  the  West- 
ern and  Southern  States  Society  with  the  Northwestern 
States,  all  of  them  organized  in  later  years,  are  forging  rap- 
idly ahead  in  every  line  of  Relief  endeavor.  The  growth  of  the 
Society  in  the  European  Mission  has  been  phenomenal.  jWe  are 
exceedingly  proud  and  grateful  for  the  work  done  in  that  war- 
swept  land  of  Europe,  by  our  sisters,  presided  over  until  this 
summer  by  Sister  Ida  B.  Smith,  wife  of  President  Hyrum  M. 
Smith.  The  European  Relief  Society  was  engaged  during  tin- 
past  year  principally  in  the  preparation  of  clothing  and  food 
materials  for  the  destitute  families  of  the  soldiers  in  the  trenches 
in  the  various  nations  which  are  at  war,  and  where  our  branches 
are  located. 

SCHOOL   OF   OBSTETRICS    AND    NURSING. 

Our  School  of  Obstetrics  and  Nursing  is  successfully  going 
forward  in  this  city,  and  a  course  in  invalid  cookery  has  been 


NEW  YEAR  EPISTLE.  5 

added  to  the  other  courses.  We  recommend  our  stake  and  ward 
officers  to  increase  the  scope  of  this  work  by  sending  to  us  prop- 
erly qualified  students  each  year,  so  that  the  wards  and  towns  can 
be  supplied  with  Relief  Society  nurses,  who  are  now  such  a 
necessary  part  of  our  social  organization. 

PUBLIC  HEALTH   WORK. 

Closely  associated  with  this  work  has  been  the  activity  man- 
ifested in  our  public  health  department.  It  was  thought  advis- 
able to  associate  our  efforts  in  Salt  Lake  with  the  city  Board  of 
Health  in  assisting  to  supply  the  milk  depots  with  Relief  Society 
nurses  and  matrons  for  these  stations.  Great  good  has  thus  been 
accomplished. 

our  "magazine." 

Our  Relief  Society  Magazine  has  succeeded  beyond  our  ut- 
most expectations.  We  thank  you  for  your  generous  support, 
and  suggest  that  you  increase  your  efforts  to  make  this  Magazine 
the  best  possible  official  organ  and  medium  of  communication 
between  your  general  officers,  stake  and  ward  Relief  Societies. 
We  increased  the  size  of  our  Magazine  16  pages,  during  the  past 
year,  and  so  rapidly  did  our  subscriptions  pour  in  during  the 
first  three  months  that  we  were  obliged  to  issue  hundreds  of 
copies  more  than  we  had  at  first  planned  for.  The  editorial  policy 
of  the  Magazine  has  been  to  supply  clean,  wholesome,  cheerful 
and  helpful  articles,  consisting  of  the  various  departments  found 
there,  with  the  addition  of  the  lesson  work  which  occupies  the 
most  important  part  of  our  Magazine.  We  are  greatly  en- 
couraged with  the  good  reports  which  come  from  all  parts  of  our 
Relief  Society  concerning  the  Magazine  and  feel  that  it  has  been 
a  worthy  successor  to  the  noble  Woman's  Exponent  which  was 
so  long  and  ably  conducted  and  edited  by  our  General  President. 
Emmeline  B.  Wells.  The  increased  expense  of  paper  for  this 
year,  and  of  all  other  matters  incurred  in  our  publication,  has 
been  a  serious  problem,  but  we  hope  to  make  no  changes  in  our 
subscription  price  and  the  other  features  of  our  Magazine.  By 
strict  economv  of  the  management,  and  your  own  generous  sup- 
port, we  shall  reach  the  end  of  the  year  successfully  and  satis- 
factorily. 

GENEALOGY   AND   TEMPLE   WORK. 

The  efforts  put  forth  in  the  study  of  genealogy  and  in  the 
taking  of  excursions  to  the  various  temples  by  the  members  of 
this  Societvare  worthv  of  the  highest  commendation.    The  First 


C  RELIEF  SOCIETY  M.  IGAZINE. 

Presidency  of  the  Church  and  the  General  Board  of  the  Gen- 
ealogical  Society  of  Utah,  together  with  the  Presidents  of  the 
various  temples  have  expressed  commendation  and  appreciation 
of  the  work  done  by  the  sisters  in  this  matter.  We  should  not 
slacken  our  efforts,  for  this  work  lies  at  the  foundation  of  our 
spiritual  life.  Other  temples  are  building,  and  others  still  will 
be  built,  in  the  near  future,  provided  the  Saints  continue  their 
activities  in  this  direction.  We  suggest  to  you  all  the  motto 
adopted  by  the  Genealogical  Committee  of  our  General  Board  in 
regard  to  every  phase  of  this  genealogical  and  temple  work.  "I  .v\ 
us  provoke  the  brethren  to  good  works,  and  not  provoke  the 
brethren  while  we  are  doing  the  work."  We  suggest  the  continu- 
ance of  primary  genealogical  lessons  in  the  various  wards,  and  that 
each  member  of  the  Society  shall  attend  one  day  in  a  temple  dur- 
ing the  year  1()17.  or  arrange  for  a  substitute.  Excursions  on  regu- 
lar days  to  the  Temples  should  be  undertaken,  always  with  the 
sanction  and  approval  of  the  presiding  priesthood.  We  hope  you 
\'ill  prepare  the  index  cards  which  have  been  partially  distributed, 
and  send  them  back  to  this  office  as  soon  as  you  have  completed 
your  task.     More  can  be  furnished  on  application  to  this  office. 

GUIDE  WORK. 

The  Theological  lessons  will  be  supplemented  this  year  by 
suggested  chapters  for  reading  the  Scriptures.  We  are  very 
desirous  of  having  our  members  devote  a  portion  of  each  day 
to  the  reading  of  the  Scriptures.  In  the  rush  and  hurry  of 
modern  life  this  pleasing  pioneer  custom  has  been  considerably 
neglected  and  we  are.  therefore,  giving  a  series  of  chapter  read 
ings  which  will  illustrate  and  supplement  our  Theological  les- 
sons. The  Lite]  rv  lessons  will  appeal  to  all  of  our  members, 
for  they  will  'cip  us  to  understand  the  written  page  and  to 
develop  a  taste  for  good  literature  which  otherwise  is  likely  to 
be  swept  out  of  existence,  in  the  flood  of  cheap  papers  and  mag- 
azines which  come  to  our  homes.  We  congratulate  ourselves 
upon  this  new  study,  and  trust  you  will  find  it  but  a  supplementary 
key  added  to  the  splendid  lessons  on  Art  and  ArchitecUire  which 
have  been  given  during  the  past  two  years.  , 

HOME   SCIENCE  LESSONS. 

The  General  Board  have  united  forces  with  the  President  of 
the  Agricultural  College  of  Utah  and  his  associate  teachers,  in  the 
presentation  of  our  Home  Science  lessons.  The  study  of  Do- 
mestic Science  and  Art  with  associated  studies  in  Sanitation  and 
the  care  of  children,  has  become  a  home  necessity  everywhere. 


NEW  YEAR  EPISTLE.  7 

We  have  felt,  therefore,  the  wisdom  of  taking  advantage  of  the 
Smith-Lever  provision  which  enables  any  organized  body  of 
women  to  receive  trained  help  from  the  Agricultural  Colleges,  in 
the  United  States,  through  the  College  Extension  Division,  in 
any  line  of  domestic  problems.  Our  lessons  which  are  prepared 
by  experts,  under  the  charge  of  the  Agricultural  College  of  Utah, 
will  provide  material,  while  their  teachers  can  be  invited  to  visit 
your  wards  and  towns  to  lecture  on  these  subjects  whenever  you 
are  disposed  to  ask  for  their  services.  We  would  suggest  that 
you  assist  in  establishing  this  work  on  a  firm  foundation,  and 
congratulate  you  on  the  pleasing  results  already  obtained.  Ar- 
rangements have  been  completed  so  that  free  scholarships  in  the 
District  Round-Ups  and  in  the  Agricultural  College  itself  are 
offered  to  our  Relief  Society  chosen  delegates. 

PENNY   SUBSCRIPTION   FUND. 

The  Penny  Subscription  Fund  which  was  very  modestly  un- 
dertaken and  which  was  heartily  approved  by  the  First  Presi- 
dency of  the  Church  and  the  Presiding  Bishopric,  has  resulted  in 
a  contribution  which  already  exceeds  our  fondest  hopes.  Every 
woman  who  thus  contributes  of  her  means  and  teaches  her  chil- 
dren and  grandchildren  the  beauty  of  this  expression  of  sweet 
philanthropic  emotions,  will  both  benefit  the  temples  in  receiving 
the  funds,  and  herself  and  family  in  the  enlarged  sympathies  and 
spiritual  understanding  which  will  result  through  the  exercise 
of  this  voluntary  contribution. 

CLOTHING  FOR  THE  DEAD. 

The  department  of  clothing  for  the  dead,  conducted  in-  this 
city  has  grown  to  substantial  proportions.  The  clothing  pre- 
pared under  the  supervision  of  Counselor  Julina  L.  Smith  is  of 
the  best  materials  obtainable,  and  the  workmanship  thereof  is 
exquisite  in  design  and  beautiful  in  execution.  All  prices  are 
arranged  to  suit  the  varying  needs  of  individuals  whose  loved 
ones  are  to  be  clothed  and  laid  away.  In  due  time  the  labor  and 
advantages  of  this  department  will  extend  in  scope  into  the 
various  stakes.  With  larger  quarters  in  this  city  and  more  ex- 
tended opportunities  for  growth,  we  shall  hope  to  make  this  de- 
partment of  great  value  to  every  member  of  this  Society  and 
this  Church. 

RELIEF  SOCIETY   HOME. 

Our  home  for  women  and  girls  is  crowded  all  the  time  and 
we  could  wish  for  larger  quarters,  but  prudence  dictates  a  modest 


X  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

and  economical  adjustment  of  our  resources  and  we,  therefore, 
have  not  as  yet  suggested  any  change  in  our  present  admirable 
an  1  cofortable  home. 

INSURANCE. 

We  invite  the  sisters  to  investigate  and  to  accept  of  this 
excellent  means  of  insuring  themselves  a  decent  and  modest 
burial  as  well  as  the  other  forms  of  domestic  insurance  opened 
i  i  us.  Capitalized  at  home,  every  dollar  paid  in  to  this  fund 
builds  up  our  home  state  and  our  own  people,  thus  preventing 
the  outflow  of  money  which  is  now  pouring  out  of  this  state 
to  eastern  insurance  centers.  This  department  should  be  patron- 
ized liberally  by  all.  as  it  is  here  at  headquarters. 

GENERAL  CONFERENCES. 

The  two  conferences  of  the  year  were  highly  successful  and 
productive  of  great  good.  Especially  was  the  Teachers'  Conven- 
tion, during  the  October  conference,  full  of  suggestions  and  hints 
to  the  great  body  of  women  who  form  our  teachers'  quorums. 
The  topics  suggested  for  the  teachers  to  use  will  assist  them  in 
the  furtherance  of  their  good  work.  The  Exchange  I.ureau.  in 
the  Presiding  Bishop's  Office,  should  be  patronized  by  all  our 
members  who  have  any  need  for  it.  We  are  always  glad  to 
welcome  representatives  from  our  stakes  at  these  general  con- 
ferences, and  we  feel  that  all  of  us  need  them  as  a  source  of  mu- 
tual assistance  and  inspiration. 

OUR  CHARITY. 

We  rejoice  in  the  continued  activity  of  our  charitable  works 
anil  realize  that  it  is  largely  through  the  continuous  efforts  of  our 
sisters  that  there  is  so  little  poverty  and  suffering  amongst  this 
people.  I  et  this  always  be  the  foundation  stone  of  our  Relief 
Society  structure. 

Again,  we  would  suggest  the  emphasis  which  should  be 
placed  upon  our  Testimony  Meetings.  These  are  the  means  of 
inspiring  testimonies  in  those  who  have  them  not.  of  strengthen- 
in:;  the  faith  in  the  hearts  of  those  who  have  already  been  con- 
verte rl,  and  of  encouraging  and  blessing  the  sisters  everywhere. 
Center  your  efforts  and  give  the  best  of  your  loving  devotion, 
after  your  home  duties  have  been  accomplished  satisfactorily,  to 
the  buildjng  up  and  developing  of  the  Relief  Society,  not  "strew- 
ing our  ways  to  stranger-.'-  as  the  Bible  phrases  it,  not  giving  our 
ti<-st  love  to  wordlv  pursuits  and  associations;  but  let  us  confine 


NEW  YEAR  EPISTLE.  9 

cur  labor  chiefly  within  our  own  ranks  and  amongst  the  people 
of  God. 

<o* 

THE  REFORM    MOVEMENT. 

The  First  Presidency  have  called  upon  our  Society  to  unite 
with  the  Young  Ladies  and  Primary  Associations  in  a  reform 
movement,  and  the  General  Committees  from  these  three  Boards 
are  actively  engaged  in  the  formulation  of  plans  and  resolutions 
which  will  be  key-notes  to  us  all  in  our  conduct  for  the  year 
1917.  We  are  in  the  world,  but  we  should  not  partake  of  the 
evils  thereof.  Modesty  in  dress,  restraint  of  appetite,  observance 
of  the  Sabbath  Day,  and  of  the  Word  of  Wisdom,  decorum  and 
dignity  in  our  public  worship  and  amusments  should  character- 
ize the  conduct  and  habits  of  every  member  of  this  Society.  We 
are  responsible,  in  great  measure,  for  the  good  or  bad  conduct 
of  our  sons  and  daughters.  With  our  long  experience  and  train- 
ing, with  good  words  and  good  work,  we  feel  secure  in  offering 
an  assurance  to  the  Presiding  Authorities  of  the  Church  that 
this  Society  and  all  its  members  will  actively  engage  in  carrying 
out  their  counsels  to  the  very  letter. 

We  offer  to  you,  dear  sisters,  the  hand  of  fellowship  and 
biessing  for  the  year  1917,  the  testimony  of  the  General  Presi- 
dent, Emmeline  B.  Wells,  her  close  association  with  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith  and  the  founding  of  this  Society,  and  with  all  the 
subsequent  leaders  thereof,  her  unquestioned  integrity  to  the 
truth,  her  keen  intelligence  and  her  wise  adaptation  to  constantly 
developing  conditions,  constitute  her  the  leading  voice  and  pres- 
ence amongst  our  sex  today.  The  testimony  of  her  Counselors 
and  her  Board  joins  with  hers  in  the  happy  announcement  to 
you  and  to  the  world  at  large,  that  as  the  mothers  and  wives  of 
the  sons  of  men  who  hold  the  Priesthood  in  this  day  and  genera- 
tion, we  will  stand  shoulder  to  shoulder  with  them  in  establishing 
righteousness  upon  this  earth,  that  peace  may  come  to  all  men 
of  good  will,  and  to  the  end  that  Christ's  Kingdom  may  reign 
upon  earth  as  it  does  in  heaven. 

Emmeline  B.  Wells.  President. 

Clarissa  S.  Williams,  First  Counselor. 

Tulina  L.  Smith,  Second  Counselor. 


Mrs.  Alice  Merrill  Home. 

The  officers  and  members  of  the  Relief  Society 
will  be  surprised  to  learn  of  the  release  of  Sister 
Alice  Merrill  Home,  grand-daughter  of  our  late 
beloved  and  honored  President  Bathsheba 
W.  Smith,  who  felt  it  best  to  relax  her 
arduous  labors  by  leaving  the  General  Board, 
for  wise  and  sufficient  reasons.  Sister  Home 
has  been  a  power  for  good  during  the  long  years 
she  has  been  associated  with  the  General  Board 
of  this  Society.  Particularly  efficient  has  been 
->,  her  labor  in  the  realm  of  Art,  for  she  is  keenly 

susceptible  to  the  beautiful  in  nature  and  to 
man's  expressions  of  beauty  in  every  form. 
Her  book  Devotees  and  Their  Shrines  has  been  widely  cir- 
culated, and  has  reached  thousands  of  women  who  have  been 
lifted  up  by  its  teachings  into  the  realm  of  harmony  and  loveliness, 
unable  to  attend  to  their  board  duties. 

Mrs.  Home  has  been  equally  efficient  and  active  in  her  labors 
as  chairman  of  the  Public  Health  committee.  She  has  performed 
a  very  unique  task  during  the  past  summer  in  the  milk  stations, 
which  have  been  under  her  charge,  associated  with  the  city  au- 
thorities. All  forms  of  sanitation  and  private  and  public  health 
are  vitally  important  to  this  public-spirited  worker,  and  the  Gen- 
eral Board  will  miss  her  labors  in  this  and  many  other  directions. 
While  we  greatly  regret  parting  with  Sister  Home,  we  ad- 
mire the  courage  and  wisdom  of  her  decision  to  sever  her  con- 
nection with  the  Board  when  she  found  it  impossible  to  do  justice 
to  both  her  public  and  private  labors.  We  would  commend  her 
example  to  others  of  our  sisters  who  occupy  positions  in  our  vari- 
ous boards,  but  who  are  unable  to  perform  their  labors  there.  An 
honorable  release  from  such  positions  would  be  of  advantage  to 
both  the  individual  who  had  the  wisdom  to  ask  for  it,  and  to  the 
organization  who  would  thus  be  relieved  of  members  who  are 
unable  to  atend  to  their  board  duties. 

The  General  Board  tendered  to  Sister  Home  a  complimentary 
luncheon  Thursday,  November  25,  in  their  own  rooms,  on  which 
occasion  everything  was  as  merry  as  a  marriage  bell.  The  hon- 
ored guest  herself  was  a  beam  of  sunshine,  while  the  committee 
on  the  luncheon  and  program,  consisting  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C. 
McCune, Mrs. Emily  S.Richards.  Mrs. Carrie  S.  Thomas,  and  Mrs. 
Janette  A.  Hyde,  were  distinctly  joyous,  not  to  say  hilarious  in 
the  discharge  of  their  immediate  functions.  President  Wells  and 
her  counselors  laughed  and  said  witty  and  pleasant  things  in  full 


MRS.  ALICE  MERRILL  HORNE.  11 

sympathy  with  the  pleasant  occasion.     The  following  lines  were 
read  by  a  member  of  the  Board  : 

LINES  TO  ALICE  MERRILL  HORNE. 

Whenever  there's  a  meeting,  there's  a  parting-  by  the  way, 
And  so  we  meet  to  part  again,  on  this  auspicious  day. 
Of  all  the  meetings  and  the  partings,  since  ever  I  was  born, 
This  is  the  oddest  parting  with  our  gifted  Alice  Home. 

She's  helped  us  with  our  Guide  work ;  she's  done  her  active  part, 

In  making  every  meeting  a  little  work  of  art. 

She's  planned,  she's  worked,  she's  run  about  to  teach  the  mothers 

how 
To  get  the  babies'  pure  milk  right  from  a  healthy  cow. 

She's  helped  us  see  the  beauty  in  a  daisy  by  the  brook, 
And  made  the  world  more  lovely  in  the  pages  of  her  book, 
She's  striven  for  the  bright  things,  and  tried  to  help  us  find 
That  life  is  not  all  drudgery,  if  we  have  an  open  mind. 

And  so  we'll  miss  our  Alice,  but  wherever  she  may  go, 
She'll  take  with  her  our  blessing,  and  a  lot  of  love  also. 
We  know  that  she  will  daily  strive  to  do  her  fullest  duty, 
Still  bringing  to  the  world  a  love  of  Nature  and  of  beauty. 


LIFE'S  WINTRY  WAY. 

Hand  in  hand  two  lovers  wandered 

In  a  storm,  one  wintry  day, 
Laughing  gaily  at  the  snowflakes 

Which  were  falling  every  way. 
Isn't  life,  she  gaily  whispered. 

One  great  day  of  sweet  content? 
And  if  we'd  seek  for  God's  own  beauty, 

We'd  rejoice  whate'er  He  sent. 

Thus  they  spoke  because  there  lingered 

In  their  hearts  a  thrill  of  love 
Given  early  in  life's  morning 

When  they  left  their  home  above. 
But  as  years,  with  trial  and  crosses, 

Came  to  change  and  chill  their  hearts, 
They  let  care  drive  out  the  pleasures 

Which  once  seemed  of  their  lives  a  part. 


12  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Once  again  we  find  them  wandering, 

Aged  and  bent  one  wintry  day, 
Mid  the  storms  of  life  together 

Toiling  slowly  on  their  way. 
Life  is  changed  for  these  two  lovers, 

They  have  found  it  cold  and  stern. 
O  how  gladly  they  would  change  it, 

If  their  youth  would  but  return. 

Youth  comes  but  once  to  mortals. 

Old  age,  with  frost  and  snow, 
Sets  seal   forever  on  them 

As  they  wander  here  below. 
Though  hopes  of  youth  lay  blighted, 

Their  dead  beneath  their  feet, 
They  learned  sweet  faith  from  trials 

And  the  bitter  grew  more  sweet. 

To  those  who  now  are  living 

With  sorrow  day  by  clay, 
You're  learning  faith  and  patience, 

For  love  points  out  the  way. 
There  is  beauty  in  the  future, 

There  is  youth  for  you  again  ; 
Pray  and  cling  to  God's  own  promise, 

Life's  struggle's  not  in  vaiji. 

'Tis  the  path  ordained  by  Father, 

You  are  treading  here  on  earth, 
And  if  you  His  pathway  follow, 

He  will  test  and  prove  your  worth. 
In   His  furnace  He  will  try  you 

Till  you' soar  above  life's  ill; 
So  rejoice  in  tribulation. 

Row  in  meekness  to  His  will. 

Tho'  your  youth  has  long  since  vanished, 
Let  your  hopes  be  ever  young ; 
'  Gladly  take  what  He  will  send  you, 

Sing  I  lis  praise  with  heart  and  tongue. 
Though  the  future  now  is  hidden 

'Xeath  the  snowflakes  falling  fast, 
These  will  vanish  with  the  sunshine 
Which  the  Lord  will  send  at  last. 
Basalt,  Idaho.  Marie  Jensen. 


A  Forced  Business  Venture. 

A  YOUNG  WIFE'S  STORY. 

Ida  Stewart  Peay. 

It  is  a  tragedy  for  a  man  with  a  family  to  be  "laid  off,"  or. 
at  least,  I  felt  it  so  when  in  the  first  five  years  of  our  married  life, 
my  husband  was  out  of  work  six  different  times.  Once  eleven 
weeks  elapsed  before  he  could  again  secure  a  job,  and  such  trying 
times  were  intensified  by  the  knowledge  that  three  bright,  hearty 
children  looked  to  us  for  proper  care. 

I  knew  my  husband  was  not  an  unsatisfactory  workman. 
Hundreds  of  other  men,  moderately  capable,  as  well  as  entirely 
honest  and  industrious,  who  also  hired  out  their  services  by  the 
day  at  unskilled  labor,  suffered  a  like  experience.  Their  engage- 
ments depended,  apparently,  upon  the  rush  periods  of  the  various 
business  concerns  of  the  city. 

One  day  when  my  companion  came  home  "laid  off"  again,  I 
bitterly  deplored  conditions  which  made  it  practically  impossible 
for  a  father,  able  and  anxious  to  earn  a  livelihood,  to  secure  con- 
tinuous employment.  It  seemed  as  if  I  could  hardly  bear  the 
thought  of  want  and  deprivation  the  words  "laid  off"  conjured. 
They  were  a  tragedy  to  me  as,  no  doubt,  they  were  and  still  are 
to  thousands  of  others ;  yet  I  felt  obliged  to  admit,  upon  reflection, 
there  was,  obviously,  no  other  course  for  the  "day  laborer"  but  to 
work  or  idle  at  the  pleasure  and  convenience  of  the  "managers" 
of  the  world's  affairs. 

Then  I  asked  my  husband  seriously,  if  he  could  not  go  into 
business  for  himself,  and  be  one  of  the  "managers."  As  he  was 
only  a  common  "day  laborer"  without  a  trade  or  any  special  train- 
ing or  education,  without  capital,  and  moreover  involved  to  the 
extent  of  a  thousand  dollars  for  our  little  home,  the  idea  looked 
preposterous.  Nevertheless,  because  of  our  desperate  predicament, 
we  talked  over  all  the  possibilites,  finally  evolving  a  plan  that 
?ctually  appeared  feasible,  and  the  trial  was  decided  upon. 

In  our  home  town,  a  western  city  of  some  ten  thousand  in- 
habitants, my  husband  had  worked  most  of  the  time  at  a  big 
foundry  and  machine  shop,  where  he  evidenced  considerable  na- 
tive mechanical  ability,  and  acquired  a  good  deal  of  knowledge  and 
skill  in  iron  work.  He  was  never  "fired"  from  this  place,  merely 
being  "laid  off."  from  time  to  time,  as  were  most  comparatively 
new  hands  in  dull  seasons.  He  now  approached  a  fellow  workman 
at  the  foundry,  who  Mas  well  acquainted  with  all  kinds  of  iron 


1-i  RELIEF  SOCIETY  M.  \C.\ZINE. 

welding,  and  suggested  to  him  that  they  form  a  partnership  and 
open  a  blacksmith  and  general  repair  shop.  The  man  had  never 
thought  of  such  a  course,  but  he  felt  satisfied  that  with  their 
combined  experience  they  could  take  care  of  that  kind  of  business. 
A l=o,  he.  too.  was  eager  to  become  more  independent,  ami  after 
due  consideration,  the  partnership  was  effected. 

The  new  firm  first  found  and  bought  a  piece  of  property, 
forty  feet  front  by  twelve  rods  back  on  the  center  or  main  street 
of  the  city.  The  price  was  seven  hundred  dollars,  making  a  debt 
of  three  hundred  fifty  for  each  man  to  shoulder,  and  each,  there- 
upon, agreed  to  pay  $5  a  month  until  the  principal  and  interest, 
which  latter  was  charged  at  the  rate  of  eight  per  cent,  were  paid 
off. 

Next  my  husband  proposed  to  put  up  the  building,  if  his  as- 
sociate  in  the  venture  would  furnish  sufficient  tools  with  which  to 
begin  work.  This  being  accepted,  the  shop  was  built  of  corrugated 
iron  with  rubberoid  roofing,  the  cost  reaching  something  over  one 
hundred  dollars.  A  lumber  company  furnished  the  material 
promising  to  take  shop  work  for  one-half  of  the  amount,  and  $2 
per  month  for  the  other  half,  until  the  debt  was  liquidated.  The 
partner  made  a  similar  arrangement  to  obtain  the  tools,  and  thus, 
within"  fourteen  days  after  the  first  inception  of  the  plan,  the 
two  laborers,  with  a  neat  sign  painted  on  the  front  of  the  red 
building,  began  to  do  business  for  themselves. 

Their  troubles,  however,  were  by  no  means  over.  Several 
days  passed  without  the  appearance  of  even  one  customer.  A 
few  Job's  comforters  poked  their  heads  in  at  the  door  to  sniff  and 
say  they  didn't  know  when  these  fellows  had  learned  the  black- 
smith trade,  but  hoped  they'd  do  all  right.  Those  were  dark 
hours  fraught  with  discouraging  possibilities.  I  sought  out  the 
wife  of  my  husband's  partner,  and  we  made  it  up  between  us 
that  our  homes  should  abound  with  such  mottes  as,  "Never  give 
up."  "Keei)  smiling."  "All  things  come  to  those  who  t  work  and) 
wait,"  etc.  The  men  caught  the  spirit  and  became  more  deter- 
mined to  succeed.  They  studied  "blacksmith"  magazines  and  jour- 
nals at  night,  built  fires  in  their  forges,  and  hammered  on  their 
anvils  at  practice  work  all  day.  They  made  simple  tools,  repaired 
everything  about  their  own  premises  and  appeared  to  be  mighty 
busy. 

At  last  their  patience  was  rewarded  by  a  few  customers, 
though  at  the  tm\  of  the  first  month  only  $15  a  piece  had  been 
earned.  All  the  same,  we  women  were  hopeful,  and  pointed  out 
the  undeniable  fact  that  $15  was  more  than  they  made  when  "laid 
off,"  so  we  urged  them  to  "keep  hammering." 

The  second  month  $30  for  each  man  was  secured,  which 
seemed  encouraging,  even  if  it  wasn't  a  living  wage.    To  be  sure, 


A  FORCED  BUSINESS  VENTURE.  15 

we  had  no  luxuries  in  those  days,  but  we  were  very  happy  for  all 
that,  finding  a  wealth  of  pleasure  in  working  towards  the  accom- 
plishment of  an  end.  The  partners  vied  with  each  other  in  devis- 
ing new  and  economical  business  methods ;  while  we  wives  were 
enthusiastically  trying  to  see  which  could  contrive  and  serve  the 
cheapest,  yet  the  most  wholesome  and  tasty  meals.  We  ransacked 
old  chests  for  clothes  to  remodel,  became  acquainted  with  dyes, 
found  the  remnant  and  bargain  counters,  and  tried  our  hands  at 
millinery.  We  joked  and  laughed  away  many  difficulties,  and 
struggled  on.  Better  still,  the  new  "managers"  "kept  hammering," 
and  became  more  proficient  daily  in  their  chosen  vocation. 

The  end  of  the  first  year  found  them  realizing  $50  per  month 
each.  This  sum  was  as  much  as  either  had  received  as  wages  at 
the  Foundry,  and  being  constant,  proved  quite  satisfactory. 

But  happily  their  success  did  not  stop  at  this  point.  Instead, 
the  business  of  the  little  firm  continued  to  grow  rapidly  and  stead- 
ily until  their  respective  salaries  crept  up  to  $75  per  month  and 
finally  after  ten  years  to  $100,  and  is  still  on  the  upward  move. 
All  because  they  dared  to  venture,  risked  everything,  then  sacri- 
ficed, schemed  and  labored  diligently  and  persistently  to  "make 
good." .  . 

The  moderate  prosperity  that  rewarded  their  honest  efforts 
has  brought  these  two  bread-winners  a  pride  and  contentment  that 
is  inspiring  to  witness.  They  now  boast  a  splendid  shop  equip- 
ment, their  property  has  doubled  in  value,  they  occupy  a  place  of 
usefulness  in  the  community,  their  firm  name  is  known  for  re- 
liability, and  best  of  all,  they  can  never  again  be  "laid  off." 


TOO  BUSY. 

We  are  busy  folks  in  a  busy  world.     Too    busy    to    take    a   walk   in    the 
Madly  rushing  to  and  fro.  woods 

There    are    so    many   things   to   be     With    the    dear    one    who     lon&s 
,  to  go. 

e'  Too  busy  to  write  a  letter  of  love 

So  many  places  to  go,  To  the  mother  aged  and  slow; 

That  we  haven't  time  to  really  live,  Too  busy  to  visit  a  friend  who  is  ill 

So  we  put  it  off,  with  a  sigh  Who    has    almost    forgotten    to 

And  we  dream  of  the  wonderful  smile; 

things  we'll  do  Too  busy  to  do  a  thousand  things 

In  the  beautiful  by  and  by.  That  would  be  really  worth  while. 

Too  busy  to  think  of  a  cheery  word 

To  pass  to  a  comrade  who's  sad. 
Too  busy  to  kiss  the  face  of  a  child 

That  its  little  heart  might  be  glad. 
Too  busy  to  rest,  too  busy  to  pray, 

Too  busy  to  laugh  or  to  smile, 
Too   busy  doing  the   lesser  things — 

To  make  life  really  worth  while. 

Mrs.  Parley  Nelson, 
manti,  utah. 


Isobel  Gives  a  New  Year's  Dinner 

And  Brings  Mother  to  the  Rescue. 
By  Diana  Farrish. 

Fate  seemed  to  be  against  Tom's  and  Isobel's  New  Year's 
Eve  dinner  party  from  the  start.  The  very  day  itself  began  with 
a  blinding  storm,  which  made  one  feel  disagreeable.  It  was  so 
dark  that  she  and  Tom  were  half  an  hour  late  in  getting  up.  The 
baby  waked  and  hindered  them  with  a  peevish  fretting  so  that 
Tom  was  three-quarters  of  an  hour  later  than  usual,  when  he 
dashed  off  the  porch  to  catch  a  car  for  the  office  without  kissing 
Isobel  goodbye.  Both  of  them  were  annoyed  that  he  should  be 
late  for  work  on  the  very  day  that  he  was  going  to  bring  his  man- 
ager and  his  wife  home  for  dinner.  It  looked  as  if  he  were  mak- 
ing extraordinary  preparations.  Tom  wanted  the  dinner  to  be 
without  pretense — just  the  usual  sort  of  dinner  that  they  had 
every  night. 

Isobel  watched  Tom  from  the  door  with  her  lace  cap  awry. 
Indeed  it  came  dangerously  near  covering  completely  one  eye.  In 
her  dismay  at  not  being  kissed  goodbye,  she  scarcely  noticed  it. 
Then  suddenly  bethinking  herself •  of  the  task  before  her  she 
wheeled  about.  A  puff  of  smoke  from  the  chafing-dish  met  her 
eye.  Her  nose  told  her  that  the  electric  current  under  it  had  not 
been  turned  off  and  that  the  remains  of  the  scrambled  eggs  from 
breakfast  had  been  burned  into  abominable-smelling  gas.  She 
switched  off  the  current  and  carried  the  blackened  pan  to  the 
kitchen.     The  burnt  eggs  struck  her  as  being  a  bad  omen. 

Isobel  gathered  the  dishes  into  the  sink,  busily  planning  the 
while  the  best  procedure  for  the  day.  The  pastry  must  be  made 
immediately  after  the  dishes  were  finished.  The  thought  of  mak- 
ing pastry  on  the  day  of  company  was  rather  disturbing.  Indeed, 
Isobel  was  conscious  of  a  feeling  of  guilt  when  she  recalled  that 
she  had  spent  the  two  days  before  in  shopping  and  at  parties  in- 
stead of  beginning  preparations  for  the  dinner  for  Mr.  Benson 
and  his  wife.  She  wondered  if  she  could  not  omit  the  pastry 
from  her  menu, but  she  remembered  that  Tom  had  asked  especially 
to  have  green  pea  patties,  as  he  had  told  Mr.  Benson  about  the 
delicious  ones  Isobel  could  make  and  had  promised  to  let  him 
sample  them.  No,  Tom  should  not  be  disappointed,  and  Isobel 
splashed  into  the  dishes  so  that  she  could  make  good  her  promise. 

As  she  dried  the  first  plate  she  heard  a  faint  sound  of  crying 
from  the  bedroom.     In  her  deep  absorption  she  had  forgotten  to 


ISOBEL  GIVES  A  NEW  YEAR'S  DINNER.  17 

feed  and  dress  the  baby.     She  listened  again.     The  cries  grew 
stronger  and  she  hastened  in. 

"Darling!    Did  oo's  muver  forget  oo?"  she  gurgled. 

Tommie  howled  the  louder,  no  doubt  to  show  appreciation 
of  his  mother's  attention. 

"There,  there,"  she  soothed  with  queer  little  twists  of  the 
voice  which  we  like  to  use  on  infants.  But  the  infant  could  not 
be  soothed  and  while  he  was  being  bathed,  dressed  and  fed,  he 
cried  fretfully.  Poor  Isobel  was  nearly  distracted  when  she 
finally  got  him  into  his  little  bed  asleep. 

"Mercy!  it's  half  past  eleven,"  she  screamed,  glancing  at  the 
clock,  "and  I  haven't  done  one  thing!" 

Isobel  pondered.  Better  to  give  up  the  idea  of  pastry — but 
Tom's  promise  to  Mr.  Benson.  Why,  oh  why,  had  the  boy  prom- 
ised to  give  the  "boss"  a  taste  of  his  wife's  pastry?  Again  Isobel 
resolved  that  her  husband  should  not  be  disappointed.  Leaving 
the  dishes  unfinished,  she  began  on  the  pastry,  in  order  to  get  it 
into  the  ice-chest  to  chill  properly.  Carefully  she  measured  the 
ingredients  for  the  wonderful  paste.  A  pound  of  flour,  and  a 
pound  of  butter.  Sift  the  flour,  then  work  in  part  of  the  butter. 
Add  sufficient  ice-water  to  make  a  dough  of  the  right  consistency. 
Isobel  proceeded  slowly  with  the  intricate  folding  in  of  the  re- 
maining butter.  How  queer  the  butter  seemed  today.  It  was 
impossible  to  get  it  right.  The  flour  seemed  to  stick  to  it  in  large 
lumps.  Some  of  the  flour  was  full  of  butter  and  some  of  it  was 
totally  without.  She  worked  the  paste  round  and  round.  In  her 
anxiety  she  worked  it  too  long,  and  the  paste  formed  into  a  sticky 
mass,  instead  of  crisp-looking  dough.  In  desperation,  she  added 
a  little  more  flour,  hoping  to  get  the  right  results.  But  it  was  no 
use.  With  disturbing  visions  beginning  to  haunt  her,  she  pushed 
the  stuff  into  the  refrigerator.  Then  she  turned  hastily  to  her 
dishes. 

As  she  put  her  hands  into  the  dish  pan,  she  glanced  nervously 
at  the  clock.  She  was  shocked  to  see  the  fingers  pointing  to  half- 
past  one.  She  had  spent  two  hours  with  the  wretched  paste! 
Horrified,  she  considered  again.  The  mayonnaise  must  be  made 
that  very  minute,  if  they  were  to  have  salad.  It  also  must  be 
chilled  thoroughly.  Isobel  brought  olive  oil  from  the  refrigerator 
and  broke  the  yolks  of  two  eggs  into  a  bowl.  She  beat  the  eggs 
hurriedly,  mentally  chiding  herself  the  while  for  so  foolishly  leav- 
ing her  preparation  until  the  last  day.  She  added  a  pinch  of  salt 
to  thicken  the  yolks,  and  beat  on  and  on.  Then  a  drop  of  oil 
into  the  eggs,  beating  slowly  and  carefully.  A  little  more  oil, 
more  beating  and  the  dressing  was  beautifully  thick  and  yellow. 
Now  a  spoonful  of  lemon  juice  and  then  the  oil  again.  The  rest 
was  easy.  The  mayonnaise  being  well  started,  the  oil  could  be 
poured  in  more  rapidly.       She  turned  in  a  thin  stream,  which 


18  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

thickened  up  quickly  under  the  beater.  She  lifted  the  can  again. 
A  thin  stream  started  slowly  out  and  ended  in  drops.  Isobel  sank 
into  a  chair  in  consternation.  The  oil  can  was  empty.  With  a 
sinking-  heart  she  realized  that  it  was  Wednesday  afternoon  and 
the  grocery  stores  were  all  closed.  She  also  painfully  remem- 
bered that  the  Bensons  disliked  any  sort  of  boiled  salad  dressing. 

Isobel  pulled  herself  together  sharply.  There  was  not  a 
minute  to  be  lost.  Banishing  the  disturbing  thoughts  of  the 
dishes  and  the  untidy  house,  she  brought  in  the  chickens.  She 
cut  the  string  from  the  parcel  and  turned  out  two  big,  fat  chickens 
in  a  fresh  bed  of  parsley.  Joe,  the  Italian  poultryman,  had  kept 
his  word  very  well. 

"I  clean  him  very  good,  madam.     I  clean  him  very  good." 

Encouraged  by  the  appearance  of  the  poultry,  Isobel  made 
haste  with  the  stuffing,  which  was  to  be  made  with  nothing  less 
delectable  than  chestnuts.  She  opened  the  bag  of  nuts  and  after 
determined  and  painful  effort  succeeded  in  tearing  them  from 
their  shells.  Nothing  daunted,  she  proceeded  according  to  the 
directions  of  the  cook-book,  and  poured  boiling  water  over  The 
wonderful  nuts.  Yes,  Isobel  was  making  chestnut  stuffing  for 
the  first  time.  She  was  going  against  the  oldest  maxim  her 
mother  possessed — "Never  try  a  new  dish  for  company." 

It  seemed  as  if  the  boiling  water  created  an  immediate 
affinity  between  those  nuts  and  their  tough  brown  skins.  Isobel 
gingerly  pulled  one  of  them  out  and  tried  to  peel  off  the  skin. 
It  stuck  like  the  proverbial  paper  on  the  wall.  She  tried  another 
— and  another — and  another — she  cut  her  finger  with  the  sharp 
little  knife.     Then  she  tried  another — 

At  that  moment  the  telephone  rang  frantically.  It  was  a 
shock  to  Isobel.  It  woke  Tommie  up  and  started  him  crying. 
The  bell  kept  on  ringing.     Isobel  rushed  to  answer  it. 

"Hello,"  she  shrieked,  "hello !" 

"Number  please,"  cooed  the  cool,  honey-sweet  voice  of  the 
telephone  operator. 

"Number!"  screamed  Isobel;  "didn't  you  just  ring  here?" 

"Wrong  number,"  floated  over  the  wire  and  the  telephone 
switch  clicked  in  Isobel's  ear. 

She  hung  up  the  receiver  and  started  toward  the  bedroom 
Taking  up  the  baby,  she  walked  the  floor  with  him.  It  was  not 
scientific  to  do  such  a  thing,  "but  for  that  matter  the  latest  authori- 
ties on  baby-raising  disapproved  of  picking  the  child  up  at  all. 
He  should  be  left  to  cry  until  he  stopped.  Any  way,  she  was  not 
in  a  mood  for  science,  so  she  patted  the  baby  and  bounced  him 
about  as  she  fretted  over  the  dinner. 

"I  was  silly  to  leave  all  these  things  until  today.  And  I 
should  have  done  what  Tom  told  me  to — get  Bessie  to  tend  the 
baby.     I—" 


10SBEL  GIVES  ANEW  YEAR'S  DINNER.  19 

A  dreadful  squall  from  Tommie  cut  short  her  reflection. 
"What  ever  is  the  matter  with  this  child  ?" 

She  walked  hurriedly  to  and  fro  swinging  and  swaying  her 
son.  She  undid  his  clothes  and  made  an  exhaustive  examination 
for  any  stray  pins  which  are  the  terror  of  the  young  mother's  life. 
And  still  the  child  cried.  Isobel  was  trembling  now.  She  was 
terrified  by  the  violent  screams.  Back  and  forth,  back  and  forth 
she  paced  utterly,  helpless  to  know  what  to  do.  Should  she  tele- 
phone Tom?  Tom  was  probably  busy  with  Mr.  Benson.  It 
might  mean  a  disturbance.  Should  she  telephone  her  mother? 
She  didn't  like  to  bother  her  mother — anyway  who  would  hold  the 
baby  while  she  did  telephone?  Back  and  forth,  back  and  forth. 
At  length  she  dropped  into  a  chair  exhausted  by  the  excitement 
and  worry.  Tears  rolled  down  her  cheeks  and  mingled  with  those 
of  the  howling  baby. 

Just  then  there  was  a  slight  tap  at  the  door,  and  mother, 
smiling  brightly,  pushed  in. 

"You  poor  dear,"  began  mother,  totally  ignoring  the  appear- 
ance of  the  house,  "the  baker-boy  told  me  he  heard  your  baby 
crying,  so  I  came  over." 

Isobel  could  not  speak.  She  weakly  handed  the  baby  to  her 
mother. 

Mother  felt  the  child,  examined  his  clothes  and  then  laying 
him  face  downward  over  her  arm,  she  walked  into  the  kitchen. 

"About  what  I  thought,"  she  murmured  to  herself  as  she 
poured  boiling  water  over  the  powdered  catnip  leaves  which  she 
had  ventured  to  bring  along.  While  the  tea  steeped,  she  tried  to 
soothe  the  child  who  seemingly  affected  by  her  very  presence, 
quieted  down  to  fitful  squeaks.  A  little  cream  and  a  little  sugar 
in  the  tea  and  then  between  squeals  Tommie  was  fed  his  "catnip 
tea,"  mother's  faithful  "cure-all." 

"Will  he  be  all  right?"  asked  the  frightened  daughter,  fol- 
lowing her  mother  into  the  kitchen. 

"Quite,"  answered  mother. 

The  very  relief  seemed  to  unnerve  Isobel  further.  She  wept 
unrestrainedly,  meanwhile  telling  mother  of  her  distress. 

"I  should  have  done  the  pastry  yesterday,  all  the  things  for 
that  matter.  Today  everything  I  touched  went  wrong.  The 
paste  is  a  complete  failure,  and  all  my  butter  is  gone  except  what 
1  need  for  the  table.  My  oil  was  gone  and  I  did  not  know  it  until 
too  late.  And  I  couldn't  skin  the  horrid  chestnuts,"  spluttered 
Isobel  between  sobs. 

Mother's  eyebrows  went  up  at  the  word  "chestnuts."  Wisely 
she  refrained  from  asking  questions.  She  tip-toed  into  the  bed- 
room and  laid  the*  sleeping  baby  down. 

"Now  about  dinner." 


20  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

She  came  back  into  the  kitchen  and  glanced  at  the  clock. 
Three  o'clock.  Without  scruple  mother  rolled  up  the  sleeves  of 
her  best  afternoon  blouse.  She  tied  an  apron  round  her  waist. 
"How  would  it  be  to  serve  the  asparagus  hot  with  butter  and 
serve  plain  letttuce  as  a  salad  with  that  old  Spanish  dressing  made 
of  cream?"  Isobel  nodded  acquiescence.  "You  run  along  and 
straighten  these  rooms,  and  lay  the  table.  I'll  get  these  things 
started." 

In  the  face  of  disaster  mother  was  the  seasoned  soldier — 
Isohel  the  raw  recruit.  The  way  mother  whiped  into  that  dinner 
was  something  to  glory  in.  Under  her  swift  fingers,  a  little  flour, 
lard,  salt  and  water  become  crisp  crinkling  patties  of  a  perfect 
brown.  Under  her  skilful  hands,  bread  crumbs,  a  little  butter, 
finely  minced  onion  ana  seasoning  became  the  savory  filling  that 
sent  a  tempting  fragrance  from  the  kitchen  when  the  chickens 
went  into  the  oven.  A  little  whipped  cream  thinned  with  a  few 
drops  of  vinegar,  sweetened  with  sugar  and  toned  up  with  paprika 
developed  into  a  salad  dressing  fit  to  grace  a  king's  table. 

Isobel  came  into  the  kitchen  and  found  the  transformation. 
She  knew  what  wizard  deeds  her  mother  could  do,  but  it  seemed 
to  her  they  had  never  been  so  magical  before. 

"Now  you  get  into  your  dinner  dress,  dear.  You  will  have 
time  for  a  little  rest.  I'll  take  baby  home  with  me  and  send 
Beatrice  over  to  help  you." 

Isobel  choked  up  again. 

"How  can  you  be  so  wonderful,  mother?  How  can  I  thank 
you  or  return  the  kindness?  And  however  did  you  know  how 
to  manage  the  baby  ?" 

Mother  rolled  down  her  sleeves  slowly. 

"Wait  till  you  have  seven." 

And  she  smiled  her  knowing  little  smile. 


On  the  cultivation  of  the  minds  of  women  depends  the  wis- 
dom of  men. 

A  woman  is  the  equal  of  man — when  she  is. — Elbert  Hub- 
bard. 


Mothers  in  Israel. 

Mary  Ann  Stearns  Winters. 

DEPARTURE   FROM    COMMERCE. 

[We  give  in  this  number  another  of  the  vivid  sketches  written  by 
that  gifted  pioneer  mother,  Mrs.  Winters.  These  articles  began  in 
our  last  volume,  and  are  given  exactly  as  prepared  by  the  author.  No 
historical  connecting  links  have  been  supplied,  as  our  Church  teems 
with  such  material.  These  sketches,  fragmentary  as  they  are,  cast  a 
food  of  light  on   those  past,  stormy  days. — Editor.] 

On  August  29,  1839,  we  left  Commerce  in  a  covered  wagon 
with  two  horses,  and  traveled  across  the  country  toward  the  great 
lakes.  Besides  Brother  Pratt  and  my  mother  there  were  the  two 
little  boys,  Parley  and  Nathan,  and  myself ;  and  also  accompany- 
ing us  were  Brother  Orson  Pratt  and  Hyrum  Clark,  but  they  soon 
left  us  and  went  preaching  through  the  country  as  they  passed 
along.  The  first  days  of  the  journey  I  enjoyed  very  much  as  we 
were  traveling  over  flower-decked  prairies,  and  through  beautiful 
groves.  Best  of  all,  we  were  again  free  and  happy — not  afraid 
of  mobs  and  violence — in  a  land  of  friendliness,  meeting  sym- 
pathy on  every  hand.  Brother  Pratt  was  again  at  liberty — our 
protector  was  with  us — he  had  started  on  a  mission  and  was 
preaching  wherever  we  stopped,  the  Saints  received  us  joyfully 
and  with  open  arms  and  hearts,  asking  innumerable  questions  of 
our  trials  and  troubles  in  Missouri,  and  we  little  children  who 
had  been  in  the  prison  received  no  small  share  of  their  attention. 
love  and  sympathy.  And  the  little  Parley,  the  child  of  promise, 
was  caressed  and  with  tearful  eyes  hugged  to  the  hearts  of  the 
motherly  sisters  who  entertained  us.  And  these  people  were  all 
settled  in  comfortable  homes  with  plenty  around  them — and  after 
all  that  we  had  suffered  and  passed  through,  this  journey  seemed 
to  me  like  a  triumphal  march  through  the  land  of  promise. 

In  a  few  days  I  took  the  ague  and  was  very  sick.  When  the 
fever  came  on,  I  suffered  greatly  with  the  jolting  of  the  wagon, 
and  thought  I  could  not  possibly  endure  it ;  but  mother  would 
encourage  and  comfort  me,  and  as  the  hours  rolled  on,  my  fever 
would  get  lower  and  by  the  time  we  came  to  a  stopping  place,  I 
would  be  able  to  get  up  and  join  with  the  other  children.  In 
about  two  weeks  the  chills  left  me,  and  by  the  time  we  arrived  at 
Brother  Anson  Pratt's  at  Detroit,  Michigan,  I  had  fully  recovered 
my  health  and  could  enjoy  the  company  of  Brother  Pratt's  chil- 
dren. The  friendships  then  formed  between  us  have  continued 
through  all  our  lives.     Sister  Pratt  was  a  kind,  motherly  woman. 


22  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

and  gained  the  love  and  respect  of  her  acquaintances ;  but  I  never 
saw  her  after,  and  when  I  again  met  my  little  friends  they  were 
motherless.  After  our  happy  visit  with  them  for  two  or  three 
weeks,  we  took  a  boat  to  cross  the  lake,  and  while  on  the  boat  a 
little  incident  occurred  that  made  a  lasting  impression  on  my 
mind.  Mother  had  bought  some  candy  before  starting — had 
given  some  to  us  children,  and  we  were  not  to  have  any  more  for 
the  present,  but  the  hand-bag  was  in  plain  sight,  and  my  love  for 
candy  overcame  my  obedience.  I  reached  and  took  out  a  very 
few  pieces.  They  were  coriander  seeds  coated  with  sugar,  about 
the  size  of  a  pill,  and  very  rough.  I  walked  away  a  few  steps 
to  eat  my  forbidden  fruit,  feeling  very  guilty,  then  gave  a  little 
hop  to  ease  my  conscience,  when  one  of  the  pieces  went  the  wrong 
way  and  I  choked  very  badly  and  thought  I  would  surely  die,  but 
someone  caught  me  and  began  pounding  me  on  the  back  when 
out  came  the  candy  and  rolled  across  the  floor,  and  I  was  relieve;! 
both  in  body  and  mind,  for  now  mother  knew  about  it,  and  I 
would  not  have  to  worry  under  a  hidden  guilt.  When  all  was 
quiet  again,  mother  drew  me  to  her  and  talked  very  seriously  to 
me  about  the  sin  of  disobedience,  and  that  -there  was  always  a 
penalty  for  wrong-doing,  and  that  this  act  of  mine  might  have 
cost  me  my  life — that  things  done  in  secret  were  always  brought 
to  light,  and  in  some  cases  were  to  be  proclaimed  upon  the  house- 
top. All  this  made  a  very  deep  impression  on  my  mind,  for  I  felt 
that  I  had  been  very  severely  punished  for  what  I  had  done ;  and 
in  all  the  long  years  since  then,  I  have  seen  her  words  verified 
in  thousands  of  incidents.  Nothing  of  importance  occurred  to  me 
during  the  remainder  of  the  journey,  and  we  arrived  in  New 
York  to  find  a  large  branch  of  the  Church  enjoying  the  faith  of 
the  gospel,  and  the  meeting  was  a  joyous  one  with  the  friends  we 
had  left  two  years  before,  as  also  with  the  new  converts  that 
flocked  to  meet  us.  We  soon  took  up  our  abode  in  Mott  street. 
and  Sister  Eliza  Nelson  provided  the  furniture  to  furnish  the 
house  and  came  to  live  with  us. 


Oh,  what  more  holy  than  a  mother's  love, 
That  which  endures  all  other  ties  above? 
That  love  which  falters  not  when  others  fail, 
A  lamp  in  life,  a  lamp  o'er  death's  own  vale! 
Though  to  the  world  we  naked  are    and  poor, 
Yet  there  a  temple  where  we  dwell  secure. 
There  is  the  sacred  lamp,  which  burns  for  aye, 
Most  steadfast  love  that  dwells  in  mortal  clay. 
There  is  the  gift  all  pure  of  selfish  aim, 
The  mother's  love,  the  one  exhaustless  flame! 
In  mother's  love,  whatever  else  our  lot, 
Oh,  there  the  love  which  gives  and  wearies  not! 
If  life's  one  hope  becomes  but  hope  that's  been, 
Yet  on  a  mother's  love  the  soul  may  lean. 
Though  all  forsake  us,  hers  a  love  to  save, 
Her  love  is  from  our  cradle  to  her  grave. 

Alfred  Lambourne. 


Home  Evening  Entertainment. 

By  Morg. 

It  was  Friday  evening,  and  the  Arbor  family  were  gathered 
around  the  fire  in  their  comfortable  living  room.  The  family  con- 
sisted of  Henry  Arbor,  who  was  a  successful  business  man  and 
farmer;  his  wife  Jean;  Mara,  the  eldest,  a  quiet,  gentle  home 
girl ;  Charlie,  the  tall  son  who  was  his  father's  right  hand ;  Lottie 
and  Ella,  the  twins,  who  were  attending  the  county  high  school ; 
Harold,  aged  fourteen  ;  Jemima,  usually  called  "Jim,"  and  the 
last  one  dearly  loved  by  all  whose  name  was  Lilian. 

"Tonight  is  our  home  evening,"  said  Lottie,  "and  it's  mother's 
turn  to  take  charge." 

"Goody,"  said  Jim,  "we  will  sure  have  a  dandy  time,  for 
mother  has  been  baking  something  all  day.  Oh,  I  nearly  told," 
laughed  the  happy  girl. 

A  knock  sounded  at  the  door,  and  old  Sister  McDonald  was 
brought  in,  followed  closely  by  Brother  Sandy  McNab,  the  black- 
smith, who  lived  near  by. 

"It's  a  braw  nicht  the  nicht,"  said  he  as  he  drew  up  a  com- 
fortable chair  near  the  fire. 

"I  know  what  we  are  going  to  have  tonight,"  cried  Ella. 
"Something  Scotch!"  she  continued.  "Mother  has  had  on  her 
far-away  look  all  day." 

"Thinking  of  the  bonny  heather  hills,  and  the  Scotch  blue- 
bells, mother?"  queried  Charlie.  , 

"Yes,"  answered  his  mother  with  a  smile,  "and  as  tonight  is 
the  25th  of  January,  and  the  anniversary  of  Robert  Burns,  the 
poet,  we  are  going  to  have  a  'Burns'  nicht'  program." 

"Ah,  now  we  know  why  you  invited  Sister  McDonald,"  said 
Mara,  "she  was  born  near  the  poet's  birthplace,  and  can  tell  us 
all  about  the  Banks  and  Braes  o'  Bonny  Doon." 

"We  will  have  our  evening  worship  first,"  announced  father 
quietly. 

After  their  scripture  reading  and  hymn,  the  family  knelt  for 
prayer  which  was  offered  reverently  by  brother  Charlie. 

"We  will  first  sing  'Sweet  Afton,'  "  said  mother.  "Harold, 
pass  around  those  copies  you  made  for  me  yesterday  on  your  type- 
writer." 

The  tune  was  quickly  found  in  the  Sunday  School  book,  page 
224,  and  all  joined  in  singing  the  dear  old  song.  Mara  then  read 
a  brief  sketch  of  the  life  of  the  poet  Burns,  and  Sister  McDonald 
told  of  the  humble  cot  on  the  banks  of  the  Doon  where  the  poet 
was  born. 


HOME  EVENING  ENTERTAINMENT.  25 

"Now  pa,  it's  your  turn,"  said  mother,  and  father  read  "The 
Cotter's  Saturday  Night." 

"It's  my  turn  now,"  said  Lottie.  "I'll  play  my  new  piece, 
'Tarn  o'Shanter's  Ride,'  "  and  the  lively  girl  danced  over  to  the 
piano  and  played  it  vigorously. 

"I  will  tell  you  about  Tarn  o'Shanter,"  said  Harold.  "We 
had  it  in  our  school  books,"  and  the  boy  told  something  of  the 
ride  of  Tarn  o'Shanter  and  his  old  mare  Meg. 

A  tub  of  apples  swimming  in  water  was  next  brought  in  and 
they  spent  a  noisy  half  hour  ducking  for  them. 

Brother  McNab  next  took  the  floor  and  entertained  them 
with  a  number  of  old  songs. 

"There  was  a  lad  was  born  in  Kyle." 

"Scots  wha  hae,"  etc.,  piped  the  quavering  old  voice. 

"Let's  all  sing  'Comin'  Thro'  the  Rye,'"  said  Jim,  and  the 
jolly  crowd  gathered  around  the  piano  again. 

After  the  song  Brother  McNab  brought  out  some  picture 
postals,  and  a  pleasant  half  hour  was  spent  among  the  Banks  and 
Braes  o'Bonny  Scotland. 

Refreshments  were  then  served  by  mother  assisted  by  Mara. 
Dainty  squares  of  gingerbread,  shortbread,  scones  and  currant 
mead  were  passed  around. 

The  evening's  pleasure  was  brought  to  an  end  by  singing 
"Auld  Lang  Syne."  The  company  formed  a  circle,  crossed  and 
then  joined  hands,  and  circled  round  and  round  while  singing. 

"I  like  that,"  lisped  baby  Lilian  as  she  danced  round  in  glee. 

"Bobby  Burns  is  all  right,"  echoed  the  twins  and,  "we  had  a 
fine  time.  Next  month  it  will  be  our  turn  and  we  will  have  a 
patriotic  evening  for  it's  Lincoln's  and  Washington's  birthday." 

"And  Valentine  day,  too,"  said  Jim  sleepily. 

"Good  nicht,  and  God's  blessings  on  ye  for  your  kindly  hos- 
pitality," said  the  visitors  as  they  left  the  happy  family  group. 

RECIPE  FOR  SWEET  MILK  SCONES. 

Add  sugar,  nutmeg  and  currants  to  any  good  biscuit  dough 
and  bake  either  on  griddle  or  in  the  oven. 

CURRANT    MEAD. 

To  one  quart  boiling  water,  add  juice  of  two  lemons,  one 
tumbler  of  currant  jelly,  and  a  little  cinnamon  or  nutmeg.  Stir 
until  jelly  is  well  mixed.  If  not  sweet  enough  add  sugar.  (Ex- 
cellent for  colds.) 

"Morg"  will  be  pleased  to  help  you  with  your  programs  for 
home  entertainment  parties,  socials,  etc.  Address,  Entertainment 
Editor,  Relief  Society  Magazine.  Enclose  a  stamped,  ad- 
dressed envelope. 


Home  Science  Department. 

By  Janette  A.  Hyde. 

Macaroni  as  Meat. 

In  these  times  of  high  cost  of  living,  it  is  quite  necessary  for 
the  good  housewife  to  understand  the  value  of  foods,  so  that  in 
serving  a  meal,  she  may  get  good,  nourishing  foods,  without  buy- 
ing the  most  expensive. 

When  serving  a  pound  of  macaroni,  we  may  be  assured  of 
having  a  much  larger  amount  of  nutriment  than  in  a  pound  of 
beef  steak,  and  feel  also  assured  that  we  are  saving  money  as 
well.  We  may  feel,  too,  another  satisfaction  from  its  use  in  this, 
that  we  are  helping  to  sustain  home  industry,  as  we  have  a  splen- 
did grade  of  macaroni  made  here  at  home.  A  fine  variety  of 
spaghetti  is  also  manufactured  in  Utah,  and  serves  for  many 
useful  dishes.  Macaroni  is  a  very  convenient  and  easily  prepared 
article  of  food,  and  while  it  is  somewhat  the  same  as  our  bread,  it 
is  cooked  and  served  so  differently,  that  it  furnishes  us  a  great 
variety  of  food. 

Macaroni  should  always  be  cooked  in  boiling  hot,  salt  water 
fiom  30  to  40  minutes  before  it  is  used;  and,  combined  with 
other  articles  of  food,  such  as  grated  or  sliced  cheese,  tomatoes, 
milk,  oysters,  fish,  corn,  etc.,  it  makes  a  delicious  dish. 

We  give  here  a  few  tested  macaroni  recipes : 

Escalloped  macaroni  zvith  corn. 
%  package  macaroni. 

1  pt.  corn. 
1^2  cups  milk. 

2  tablespoons  butter. 

Break  macaroni  into  one  inch  lengths.  Boil  40  minutes  in  salt 
water,  throw  into  cold  water  and  drain.  Season  the  corn  with 
salt  and  pepper,  add  milk  and  butter,  mix  with  macaroni,  and 
bake  in  oven  until  brown.  Cheese  may  be  added  for  variety,  or  a 
little  chopped  parsley. 

Macaroni  Italienne. 

2  lbs.  beef. 

3  strips  of  salt  pork. 
2  sliced  onions. 

l/i  cup  mushrooms. 

1  quart  tomatoes. 

Yi  lb.  macaroni. 

4f  tablespoons  grated  cheese. 

Dash  cayenne  pepper  and  salt. 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT.  27 

Cut  up  beef,  salt  pork  and  onions.  Place  in  kettle  on  the 
back  of  stove  to  cook  about  Y  hour.  Then  add  tomatoes,  mush- 
rooms, and  simmer  for  about  two  hours.  Cook  macaroni  in  boil- 
ing- water  30  minutes,  and  drain.  Put  in  buttered  baking  dish, 
and  add  all  the  other  ingredients,  then  season  with  salt  and  pepper, 
and  add  a  layer  of  grated  cheese  on  top.  This  is  most  excellent; 
try  it. 

To  spaghetti  which  has  been  boiled  in  salt  water  twenty 
minutes,  add  one  can  of  tomatoes  which  have  been  strained.  Cut 
one  green  pepper,  one  red  pepper,  and  take  three  tablepsoonfuls 
of  sugar.     Salt  to  taste. 

Add  spaghetti  to  juice  of  tomatoes,  then  add  4  tablespoons 
olive  oil  or  sweet  butter  just  before  serving. 

Boil  one-half  package  of  macaroni,  drain,  and  put  one  layer 
of  macaroni,  and  alternate  with  grated  cheese  in  a  baking  dish, 
until  all  the  macaroni  is  used  up.  Place  on  top  a  thick  layer  of 
cheese,  cover  with  milk,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and  bake 
one-half  hour  in  quick  oven. 

Cold  fish  may  be  used  with  macaroni,  instead  of  the  cheese, 
thus  forming  another  variety  of  macaroni  dishes  to  be  enjoyed 
by  the  family. 

Macaroni  and  oysters. 

Y\  lb.  macaroni. 

1  can  oysters  or  about  3  dozen  fresh  oysters. 

Yi  cup  cream  sauce. 

Yz  cup  of  cream. 

*/2Cup  grated  cheese. 

^tablespoon  chopped  green  pepper. 

Boil  macaroni  40  minutes,  drain  liquor  from  oysters.  Boil 
and  season  with  salt  and  pepper.  Put  in  baking  dish,  placing  a 
layer  of  macaroni,  then  oysters ;  alternate  until  all  has  been  used. 
Then  sprinkle  with  chopped  pepper,  cover  with  the  liquor  from 
the  oysters,  and  cream  sauce.  Add  cheese  last,  and  bake  for  about 
25  minutes. 

THE  MEDICINAL  AND  HYGIENIC  VIRTUES  OF  THE 

LEMON. 

If  the  testimony  of  the  Sicilian  Citrus  Chamber  is  given  due 
consideration  in  determining  the  status  of  a  lemon,  it  deserves  an 
important  place  in  the  list  of  first  aids.  According  to  the  author- 
ity mentioned,  the  lemon  aids  are  chiefly  medicinal  and  hygienic. 
Its  juice  is  of  value  in  treating  diphtheria  and  gout.  For  ordinary 
colds,  it  is  a  great  specific.  It  will  cure  slight  wounds  and  chil- 
blains.   The  juice  of  several  lemons  taken  every  day  will  help  to 


28 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


cure  rheumatism  and  prove  an  antidote  for  diabetes;  small  slices 
applied  to  corns  will  ease  the'pain. 

As  a  cleansing  agent  and  beautifier,  the  reputation  of  the 
Union  soars  still  higher.  The  juice  whitens  the  hands,  improves 
the  complexion,  helps,  if  anything  can,  to  remove  freckles.  In  the 
culinary  department,  it  ranks  with  salt  and  sugar  in  general  use- 
fulness, and  as  a  furniture  polish  its  oil  is  beyond  reproach. 

And  yet  to  be  dubbed  "a  lemon"  is  considered  uncompli- 
mentary ! 

A  Quickly  made  Silver-Plating  Poivder. 
A  good  silver-plating  power  can  be  made  of  chloride  of  sil- 
ver, 3  oz. ;  salt  of  tartar.  6,  oz. ;  prepared  chalk,  2  oz. ;  common 
salt,  3  oz.    Mix  well. 

NOTES 

Science  is  doing  so  much  for  the  woman  in  her  house  labors 
that  it  would  seem  impossible  to  offer  any  new  short-cut  in  time  or 
in  domestic  work,  and  yet,  this  is  exactly  what  has  been  done 
through  the  invention  of  one  of  our  Utah  boys.  , 

He  has  devised  a  cold  water  washer  which  will  take  any  or- 
dinary clothes,  and  especially  babies  soiled  napkins  and  handker- 


GATES   COM)   WATER    WASHER 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT.  29 

chiefs,  and  whirling  them  about,  without  paddle  or  heat,  cleanse 
them  perfectly.  The  invention  is  a  simple  galvanized  tin  affair 
in  which  the  water  is  forced  on  a  tangent  from  the  water  tap  and 
the  force  thus  generated  whirls  the  clothes  round  and  round  and 
round,  till  they  are  thoroughly  cleansed.  Dirty  clothing,  such  as 
underwear  and  bed  linen,  needs  boiling,  but  the  young  inventor 
declares,  and  really  proves,  that  such  clothing  may  be  dropped 
dry  into  boiling  suds,  left  for  20  minutes  and  then  dipped  into 
this  machine  without  wringing,  when  the  clothing  is  perfectly 
cleansed  of  dirt  and  suds  and  comes  out  immaculately  clean  and 
spotless.  Only  one  wringing  is  needed  and  that  the  last- process 
of  all.  The  clothes  are  dipped  into  the  boiler  without  wringing, 
dipped  out  without  wringing,  out  of  the  machine  and  then  wrung 
once  and  hung  on  the  line. 

Women  of  long  experience  who  are  using  the  machine  and 
who  recommend  it  heartily,  are :  Mrs.  Julina  L.  Smith,  Mrs. 
Janette  A.  Hyde,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune,  Mrs.  Augusta  W. 
Grant,  Mrs.  Leah  D.  Widtsoe.  who  all  declare  that  washing  has 
lost  its  terrors.  A  child  can  use  the  contrivance,  and  the  whole 
washing  can  be  done  in  the  bath  room  over  the  bath-tub  when  the 
clothes  are  not  sufficiently  soiled  to  need  boiling. 

We  are  glad  to  recommend  any  labor-saving  device  to  our 
readers,  and  any  one  who  wishes  further  information  may  address 
The  Gates  Manufacturing  Co..  672  North  First  West  Street,  Salt 
Lake  City,  Utah. 


NOTICE  TO  AGENTS. 

In  sending  in  new  lists  please  write  names  of  old  subscribers 
as  they  were  sent  in  last  year,  and  as  they  appear  on  the  margin 
of  their  Magazine.  Also  state  on  lists  whether  they  are  old  or 
new  subscribers. 


Notes  from  the  Field. 

By  Amy  Brown  Lyman,  General  Secretary. 


Northwestern  States  Mission. 

This  picture  of  the  Spokane  Relief  Society  was  taken  after 
a  work-day  meeting-  held  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Amelia  Guff, 
President  of  the  Society.  Mrs.  Guff  and  her  first  counselor, 
Florence  Stadelmann,  both  recently  resigned  on  account  of  ill 
health,  and  Mrs.  Julia  Miller  has  been  appointed  president,  with 
Mrs.  Mary  Sorenson  and  Mrs.  Pauline  Van  Cleave  as  counselors. 
Mrs.  Cora  Guff  is  the  secretary,  and  Mrs.  Nellie  Kinrade  is 
treasurer. 

Mrs.  Mattie  J.  Ballard,  President  of  the  Northwestern  States 
Relief  Society,  reports  a  very  successful  convention  held  in  the 
Montana  Conference  at  Butte.  The  following  interesting  items 
were  among  those  reported :  In  the  Butte  Society  there  are  four- 
teen members  enrolled,  all  of  whom  are  subscribers  to  the  Relief 
Society  Magaizine,  which  makes  a  l(XKr  ward  in  that  respect. 
The  average  attendance  is  eight.  In  Anaconda,  50%  of  the 
members  are  subscribers  of  the  Magazine. 

The  Great  Falls  Society,  organized  on  April  24th.  has  a 
membership  of  five  and  has  a  good  attendance  at  the  weekly 
meetings. 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD.  31 

The  Helena  Society  has  a  membership  of  eight,  average  at- 
tendance of  five. 

The  Dillon  branch  has,  during  the  year,  made  eleven  quilts 
and  eleven  articles  of  clothing. 

The  Lima  Society,  just  organized,  has  held  only  three  meet- 
ings and  has  four  subscriptions  for  the  Magazine. 

Eastern  States  Mission. 

Sunday,  September  24th,  was  observed  in  all  the  branches  of 
the  Eastern.  States  Mission  as  Genealogical  Day.  This  observ- 
ance was  greatly  appreciated  by  the  Relief  Society  in  the  Mission, 
and  gave  a  new  impetus  to  its  work. 

The  New  York  and  Brooklyn  Relief  Societies  have  been 
combined  into  one  society,  with  the  following  officers :  President, 
Mrs.  Bertha  Eccles  Wright;  First  Counselor,  Mrs.  Leona  Mon- 
son ;  Second  Counselor,  Carmen  Benson;  Secretary,  Janetle 
Easton. 

A  branch  of  the  Relief  Society  has  recently  been  organized 
in  Albany,  New  York.  The  members  are  taking  great  interest 
in  their  Guide  work,  and  are  making  use  of  the  splendid  genea- 
logical library  in  the  Educational  Building  of  that  city.  This 
branch  is  the  infant  organization  of  the  Mission,  and  is. composed 
of  a  mere  handful  of  members,  but  they  are  very  energetic,  and 
are  determined  to  make  a  success  of  their  Society. 

The  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  Relief  Society  recently  held  a  bazaar,  at 
which  they  sold  quilts,  aprons,  and  art  needle  work.  During 
the  day,  two  meals  were  served.  The  total  receipts  were  $73.00. 
After  the  expenses,  which  amounted  to  $15,  were  taken  out,  the 
Society  had  a  balance  of  $58.00.  This  is  an  excellent  showing, 
and  especially  when  we  take  into  consideration  that  this  Society 
was  organized  last  May,  and  has  an  organization  of  only  fifteen 
members. 

The  West  Virginia  Society  has  devoted  most  of  the  summer 
to  the  making  of  quilts,  and  children's  dresses  for  those  who 
suffered  the  loss  of  home  and  property  in  the  spring  floods  in 
that  locality. 
Northern  States  Mission. 

The  Detroit  Branch  of  the  Northern  States  Mission  reports 
some  interesting  items  connected  with  their  summer  work.  Dur- 
ing the  months  of  July  and  August,  a  special  reading  course  was 
provided  by  the  eight  members,  fifteen  books  and  335  articles 
being  read  by  them.  Most  of  this  reading  was  done  at  home, 
and  was  reported  and  discussed  at  the  meetings.  Among  the 
books  and  articles  read  were  Elias,  by  O.  F.  Whitney ;  Ra- 
tional Theology,  by  John  A.  Widtsoe,  and  The  Other  Wise  Man, 
by  Van  Dyke,  and  such  articles  as  Senator  Reed  Smoot's 
article  on  "Home  Economics,"  Bulletins  on  Parental  Care,  Meats, 


32  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Canned  Fruits,  and  Jellies,  Food  for  the  Young,  Infantile  Par- 
alysis, etc. 

In  a  letter  from  this  Mission,  we  learn  that  a  Mrs.  Nogle  of 
Grand  Rapids,  Michigan,  has  sent  in  for  Temple  purposes  $15.00, 
which  she  earned  picking  cucumbers  on  shares. 

Mrs.  Flora  F.  Brinkerhoff,  President  of  the  Munsey,  Ind., 
Society,  writes  of  a  little  plan  adopted  by  her  organization  to  raise 
funds.  Each  member  donated  ten  cents,  and  was  asked  to  take 
the  ten  cents  and  make  what  she  could  with  it  in  a  given  length 
of  time.  For  example,  one  woman  bought  one  and  one- fourth 
vards  of  light  calico,  made  three  dust-caps  and  sold  each  for  ten 
cents,  netting  thirty  cents.  She  took  ten  cents  of  this  money  and 
bought  one  yard  of  heavy,  unbleached Tnuslin,  and  made  a  clothes- 
pin apron,  which  she  sold  for  twenty  cents.  Thus,  in  a  short 
time,  she  had  made  forty  cents  with  the  original  ten  cents  as 
capital. 

Mrs.  Brinkerhoff  states  that  every  page  of  the  Maga&ixe  is 
appreciated,  and  that  the  contents  meet  all  their  needs. 

Mrs.  Georgiana  Willard,  of  Peoria,  111.,  writes  that  the  MAG- 
AZINE is  one  of  the  best  papers  ever  offered  for  the  development 
of  women,  adding  that  the  second  year  is  an  improvement  over 
the  first. 

Mrs.  Bertha  Lynday  of  Indianapolis,  Ind.,  writes  appre- 
ciatingly  of  the  Theological  lessons  taken  up  during  the  year*. 
She  says,  "Our  own  ideals  of  true  womanhood  have  been  elevate  ! 
by  the  study  of  these  noble  women  of  the  Bible  who  have  only 
too  often  been  underestimated  bv  the  sectarian  ministers  of  to- 
day." 

]  Vest  em  States  Mission. 

Mrs.  Annie  C.  Hansen,  President  of  the  Boulder,  Colorado. 
Relief  Society  writes:  "We  enjoy  studying  the  lessons  outlined 
it-,  the  Magazine  very  much.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  valuable 
matter  in  them.  The  Magazine,  as  a  whole,  is  very  interesting 
— so  much  so.  that  men  are  often  seen  scanning  its  pages  care- 
fully." 

Snozuflake  Stake.  The  Wilford  Ward  Relief  Society  has  re- 
cently sustained  a  severe  loss  in  the  death  of  their  Secretary — 
Mrs.  Adeline  H.  Savage,  a  faithful  and  energetic  worker  in  the 
organization. 

Mrs.  E.  St.  Clair  Thomas,  field  secretary  of  the  Congres- 
sional Union  of  the  United  States,  has  been  in  Arizona  for  some 
time,  soliciting  the  support  of  the  women  of  Arizona  in  the  in- 
terest of  the  Susan  B.  Anthony  Amendment. 

Benson  Stake.  From  one  small  ward  in  the  Benson  stake. 
$25.00  was  raised  in  one  month  for  the  Penny  Subscription  Fund. 

Paroivan  Stake.     In  some  of  the  wards  in  the  Parowan  stake 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD.  33 

where  it  has  been  impossible  to  get  competent  teachers  for  gene- 
alogy,- the  brethren  have  assisted  with  the  class  work. 

Curlezu  Stake.  On  July  12th,  Curlew  stake  made  an  excur- 
sion to  the  Logan  Temple,  taking  64  Relief  Society  workers. 

Raft  River  Stake.  In  one  of  the  wards  in  this  stake,  a  Re- 
lief Society  member  has  taken  care  of  a  family  of  seven  for  five 
months.  This  family  had  just  emigrated  to  this  country,  and 
was  without  a  home.  They  were  given  this  kind  care  until  they 
could  get  located. 

Bannock  Stake.  The  hospital  at  Soda  Springs  is  visited 
every  day  by  at  least  one  Relief  Society  member. 

In  Thatcher  First  ward,  a  sister  who  was  sick  eleven  weeks, 
was  taken  care  of  night  and  day  by  Relief  Society  workers. 

Pocatello  Stake.  In  a  recent  Temple  excursion  from  this 
far-away  stake,  20  members  visited  the  Logan  Temple.  In  addi- 
tion to  this  visit,  a  fund  of  $103.00  was  left  for  work  to  be  hired. 

Special  Donation.  Ten  dollars  was  recently  sent  to  the  Gen- 
eral Board,  with  the  following  note  attached:  "For  the  Poor." 
As  there  was  no  signature  it  has  been  impossible  to  acknowledge 
the  receipt  of  the  same.  The  General  Board  takes  this  method 
of  expressing  gratitude  and  appreciation  for  this  gift. 

Genealogy.  Senator  Reed  Smoot  recently  wrote  us  that  he 
had  sent  for  the  Director  of  the  Census — Mr.  Samuel  L.  Rogers 
— and  had  explained  to  him  the  necessity  of  changing  the  present 
census  to  contain  the  names  of  the  individual's  parents,  date,  and 
place  of  birth,  in  accordance  with  suggestions  made  by  Mr. 
Duncan  McAllister,  late  Chief  Recorder  of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple. 
Mr.  Rogers  was  much  interested,  and  promised  to  take  the  matter 
up  at  once,  adding  that  this  could  be  done  without  much  extra 
expense.  Mr.  Rogers  will  write  to  Dr.  Alvin  Plummer,  of  San 
Francisco,  head  of  the  Public  Records  Committee  of  the  Interna- 
tional Genealogical  Federation  with  that  end  in  view.  The  Sen- 
ator explained  to  Mr.  Rogers  that  our  people  are  very  much  in- 
terested in  genealogy,  and  thus  won  the  instant  sympathy  and 
interest  of  the  director. 

Reports.  The  report  forms  of  1916  and  the  Teachers'  Books 
for  1917,  have  been  sent  out  to  the  stake  presidents  for  distribu- 
tion to  the  wards.  The  Stake  Secretaries  have  been  asked  to  re- 
turn the  compiled  stake  reports  to  the  General  Office  by  Tanuarv 
15th. 

Teachers'  Books.  The  Teachers'  Books  are  larger  and  more 
complete  than  they  were  last  year.  Because  they  have  been  en- 
larged and  because  of  the  increase  of  the  price  of  paper,  the  books 
will  cost  the  wards,  delivered — 10c  each.  We  especially  request 
the  teachers  to  use  the  books  according  to  the  printed  instructions 
therein. 


Current  Topics. 

James  H.  Anderson. 

Rumaina,  having  entered  the  European  war  field  against 
the  Teutonic  allies,  has  been  subjected  to  the  grinding  process 
which  crushed  Servia. 


German  gains  in  the  Balkans,  with  the  exception  of  those 
in  Macedonia,  and  about  equal  German  losses  on  the  western 
front,  are  the  sum  of  European  war  progress  the  past  month. 


Federal  control  of  railways  in  the  United  States  is  being 
discussed  in  Congressional  circles,  with  some  prospect  that  ac- 
tion to  that  end  mav  become  an  administration  program. 


Peace  advocates  are  becoming  urgent  for  a  settlement  of 
the  Old  World  embroilment,  but  the  present  outlook  is  that  1917 
will  not  see  the  end  of  the  great  conflict  there. 

More  massacres  of  Armenians  are  reported  in  Turkey. 
From  the  accounts  given,  there  would  seem  to  be  but  few  of 
that  class  of  religionists  left  in  the  sultan's  dominions. 


Francis  Joseph,  emperor  of  Austria-Hungary  for  within 
two  weeks  of  sixty-eight  years,  died  on  Nov.  21.  and  is  suc- 
ceeded by  his  grand-nephew,  Charles  Joseph,  who  takes  the  title 
of  Charles  I.  The  national  policies  will  be  along  practically  the 
same  lines  as  heretofore. 


Simon  Bamberger,  a  well  known  Utah  citizen  of  Jewish 
lineage,  was  elected  governor  of  the  State  of  Utah.  It  is  gener- 
ally understood  that  his  ability  as  a  business  man  and  as  one  of 
the  builders  of  the  State  will  be  directed  toward  giving  the  peo- 
ple a  strictly  business  administration. 

Three  women  were  executed  in  Mexico,  during  the  last 
week  in  November,  on  the  charge  of  having  conspired  against 
officials  of  the  Carranza  government;  and  thousands  of  other 
women  have  met  death  through  the  regime  inaugurated  by  that 
government  since  it  came  into  power. 

The  tax  amendment  proposed  to  be  made  to  the  Utah 
State  constitution  was  defeated  by  a  decisive  vote  of  the  people, 
who  became  convinced  that  its  promoters  were  making  a  false 
pretense  in  the  argument  that  the  amendment  was  directed  chiefly 
at  the  mining  industry. 


CURRENT  TOPICS.  35 

Arabia  has  broken  away  from  Turkish  rule  and  a  new  king- 
dom has  been  established  there,  under  Hussein  Ben  Ali,  with  the 
national  capital  at  Mecca.  Thus  the  children  of  Ishmael  have 
been  freed  from  the  governmental  domination  of  the  Turkish 
descendants  of  Japheth. 


The  Church  administration  building  in  Salt  Lake  City  will 
be  ready  for  occupancy  early  in  the  year.  For  its  evident  con- 
venience, its  beautiful  appearance,  stability,  and  the  commendable 
use  of  Utah  materials  as  far  as  practicable  in  its  construction,  the 
edifice  is  a  source  of  satisfaction  to  the  thousands  who  visit  it. 


Mrs.  Inez  Mulholland  Boissevain,  who  ranked  as  one  of 
the  great  equal  suffrage  workers,  although  comparatively 
a  young  woman,  died  at  Los  Angeles  just  before  Thanks- 
giving. She  had  become  noted  both  for  her  womanly  graces  and 
her  intelligent  and  forceful  yet  gentle  and  determined  activity 
in  the  cause  of  woman's  political  enfranchisement. 


Vulgar  displays  in  picture  shows  and  illegal  resorts  in 
Salt  Lake  City  have  received  a  setback  through  the  arousing  of 
public  indignation  on  the  part  of  the  moral  portion  of  the  com- 
munity. It  is  greatly  to  the  discredit  of  the  oresent  municipal 
and  other  authorities  that  they  did  not  act  in  proper  enforce- 
ment of  law  until  an  outraged  public  sentiment  compelled  them  to 
do  so.  There  is  in  the  minds  of  most  people  a  feeling  that  even 
now  it  is  spasmodic  and  not  real  nor  lasting. 


Miss  Jeanette  Rankin  has  been  elected  to  Congress  from 
Montana — the  first  woman  member  of  the  national  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives. As  indicated  by  her  name,  the  young  lady  is  of 
Scottish  descent,  and  is  said  to  possess  the  characteristic  per- 
sistence and  logic  in  argument  of  that  race,  with  a  very  pleas- 
ing personality  which  makes  friends  of  many  of  the  intelligent 
among  her  antagonists.  Her  election  is  a  decided  advance  to- 
ward abolishing  unequal  suffrage,  and  if  Miss  Rankin  does  as 
well  as  may  be  reasonably  expected  of  her  from  her  exemplary 
career,  further  forward  steps  in  that  direction  cannot  be  far 
distant. 


Two  "Mormon"  missionaries,  one  in  Germany  and  the 
other  in  New  Zealand,  have  been  released  from  military  service 
in  those  countries,  to  return  to  Utah,  after  nearly  two  years;  the 
one  in  Germany  having  been  in  several  battles  on  the  Verdun 
front.  For  a  long  time  they  were  unable  to  get  a  hearing  on  their 
American  citizenship.         , 


EDITORIAL 


Entered   at  second  class  matter   at  the  Post   Office,   Salt   Lake   City,   Utah. 

Motto — Charity    Never    Faileth. 

THE  GENERAL   BOARD 

Mas.     RuMtLiNt    B.     Wells President 

Mas.    Clarissa    S.    Williams First    Counselor 

Mas.   Julina   L.    Smith Second    Counselor 

Mrs.    Amy    Bbown    Lyman General    Secretary 

Mrs.    Susa   Young   Gates Corresponding    Secretary 

Mrs.    Emma    A.    Empey Treasurer 

Mrs.  Sarah  Jenne  Cannon  Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  Miss  Edna  May  Davis 

Dr.  Romania  B.  Penrose  Mrs.  Priscilla  P.  Jennings  Miss  Sarah  McLelland 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards  Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Crismon 

Mrs.  Julia  M.  P.  Farnsworth  Mrs.  Rebecca  Niebaur  Nibley  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde 

Mrs.  Phebe  Y.  Beatie  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune  Mis9  Sarah  Eddington 
Mrs.  Ida  S.  Dusenberry 

Mrs.  Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,   Music  Director 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Susa    Young    Gates 

Business    Manager Janette    A.    Hyde 

Assistant   Manager    Amy    Brown    Lyman 

Room  29,   Bishop's  Building,   Salt   Lake  City,   Utah. 


Vol.  IV.  JANUARY,  1917.  No.  1. 


A  CALL  TO  THE  WOMEN  OF  THE  CHURCH 

We  call  upon  our  officers  and  members  throughout  the 
Church  to  give  serious  consideration  to  the  following  letter,  re- 
cently addressed  by  the  Presidency  of  the  Church  to  the  General 
Boards  of  Relief  Society,  Young  Ladies'  _ Mutual  Improvement 
Association,  and  Primary  Association. 
Dear  Sisters: 

We  feel  that  there  exists  a  pressing  need  of  improvement 
and  reform  among  our  young  people,  specifically  in  the  matter 
of  dress  and  in  their  social  customs  and  practices.  Our  women 
are  prone  to  follow  the  demoralizing  fashions  of  the  world ;  and 
some  of  the  daughters  of  Zion  appear  to  vie  with  one  another  in 
exhibitions  of  immodesty  and  of  actual  indecency  in  their  attire, 
wholly  forgetful  of  the  precepts  of  the  Lord  and  the  counsels  of 
his  servants,  and  seemingly  oblivious  in  this  respect  to  the  prompt- 
ings and  duties  of  true  womanhood.  Many  of  our  youth  of  both 
sexes  are  fast  approaching  a  state  of  depravity  in  dancing,  and 
in  their  feverish  pursuit  of  frivolous  and  dissipating  pleasures. 

We  are  grateful  in  knowing  that  only  a  fraction  of  our  peo- 
ple are  seriously  affected  by  the  deadly  contagion  of  Babylon ; 
but  those  already  infected  among  the  Latter-day  Saints  are  all 
too  many.    The  conditions  call  for  prompt,  determined,  and  per- 


EDITORIAL.  37 

sistent  action,  lest  the  standard  of  morality  and  spiritual  health 
in  our  community  be  further  impaired. 

We  call  upon  you.  as  the  chief  officers  of  a  great  and  in- 
fluential auxiliary  within  the  Church,  to  give  this  matter  immedi- 
ate consideration,  and  to  make  it  the  subject  of  specific  effort  and 
systematic  missionary  labor  among  the  members  of  your  organ- 
ization and  with  the  people  generally  throughout  the  Church. 
See  that  your  own  officers  first,  and  then  that  your  members  show 
by  their  own  example  the  sincerity  of  their  efforts  toward  the  ac- 
complishment of  the  purposes  of  this  special  mission  to  which  we 
call  you. 

We  advise  that  you  work  in  harmony  with  the  officers  of  our 
other  auxiliary  organizations ;  and  with  this  co-operative  course 
in  mind,  we  are  sending  this  appointment  concurrently  to  the 
General  Boards  of  the  Relief  Society,  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual 
Improvement  Association,  and  the  Primary  Association.  For  the 
information  of  the  General  Boards  of  the  Sunday  School,  the 
Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.,  and  the  Religion  Class,  a  copy  of  this  letter 
will  be  sent  to  each  of  those  Boards  with  the  request  that  they 
do  all  within  their  power  to  assist  in  the  correction  of  the  evils 
herein  referred  to. 

Inasmuch  as  one  of  the  most  important  phases  of  this  re- 
formatory labor  has  to  do  with  our  girls  and  women,  we  advise 
that  for  the  present  the  General  Boards  that  are  composed  of 
women  work  together  as  a  co-operative  unit.  You  are  requested 
therefore  to  appoint  three  of  your  number  as  members  of  a 
committee ;  and  this  committee,  consisting  of  nine  memhers. 
should  straightway  set  about  preparing  a  plan  for  effective  op- 
eration. Let  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society  determine 
upon  and  notify  the  other  organizations  of  the  time  and  place 
of  the  first  meeting  of  the  committee,  at  which  first  meeting  the 
committee  may  organize  itself  by  electing  a  chairman  and  other 
necessary  officers.  We  desire  to  be  kept  informed  of  your  pro- 
gress in  operating  under  this  appointment. 

With  prayerful  wishes  that  the  Lord  will  give  you  in  full 
measure  the  spirit  of  this  ministry,  and  that  joy  through  success 
will  attend  your  efforts,  we  are, 

Your  Brethren, 

Joseph  F.  Smith, 
Anthon  H.  Lund, 
Charles  W.  Penrose. 

In  accordance  with  the  instructions  given  in  this  letter,  a 
committee  was  at  once  appointed,  three  members  from  each 
Board,  who  should,  under  the  direction  of  the  Boards,  put  into 
operation  measures  leading  to  improvement  along  the  lines  men- 


38  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

tioned.  An  organization  was  effected,  a  Chairman,  Vice-chair- 
man, Secretary,  and  Assistant  Secretary  appointed,  and  a  name 
selected — that  of  "Social  Advisory  Committee." 

These  sisters  first  gave  their  attention  to  the  subject  of  dress, 
as  one  in  which  the  women  and  girls  of  our  organizations  are 
vitally  concerned.  Acting  upon  the  suggestion  that  our  "own  of- 
ficers first,  and  then  that  our  members  show  by  their  example  the 
sincerity  of  their  efforts,"  a  resolution  was  prepared  and  unani- 
mously adopted  by  the  three  Women's  Boards.  This  resolu- 
tion was  to  the  effect  that  each  member  should  be  willing  to  live 
in  harmony  with  the  teachings  of  the  Church  in  the  matter  of 
properly  clothing  the  body. 

We  now  earnestly  solicit  the  co-operation  of  all  our  women 
officers  and  members  in  this  important  movement.  The  responsi- 
bility for  conditions  in  our  midst  which  make  necessary  these 
instructions  from  the  First  Presidency  rests  upon  every  women 
in  the  Church.  No  one  can  evade  it.  Officers  first,  and  then 
members  should  show  by  example  and  precept  that  they  gladly 
join  hands  with  the  Authorities  of  the  Church  in  the  endeavor  to 
overcome  the  evils  which  exist. 

The  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ  offers  so  much  to  its  recipients 
that  all  Latter-day  Saints  should  delight  to  conform  their  lives 
to  its  teachings.  Its  requirements  are  not  harsh  and  should  not 
be  irksome.  Our  women  who  have  been  privileged  to  enter  the 
House  of  the  Lord  have  received  incomparable  blessings — bless- 
ings which  are  a  source  of  joy  and  comfort  here  on  the  earth, 
and  which  shall  endure  throughout  eternity.  Does  any  woman 
in  Zion  undervalue  these  rich  privileges?  Will  she  not  gladly 
make  any  sacrifice  to  be  worthy  of  them? 

Our  young  women  and  girls  should  strive  to  understand  the 
teachings  of  the  gospel  with  regard  to  dress  and  conduct,  and  to 
live  in  accordance  therewith.  In  the  guise  of  fashion,  many  false 
ideas  of  beauty  have  come  among  us,  and  the  habit  of  "being  in 
the  style"  has  caught  and  carried  many  of  us  much  farther  than 
we  realized.  Let  us  remember  that  the  body  is  a  gift  from  God 
and  that  it  should  be  kept  sacred.  Our  girls  should  be  instructed 
and  helped  to  recognize  the  value  of,  and  the  protection  that  comes 
with  modesty  in  dress  and  conduct.  Not  one  of  them  can  afford 
to  sacrifice  such  protection  for  the  sake  of  fashion. 

We  recommend  to  stake  and  local  officers  that  this  editorial 
be  read  in  the  meetings  of  our  organizations  throughout  the 
Church. 

Social  Advisory  Committee  of 

Relief  Society, 

Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association, 

Primary  Association. 


EDITORIAL.  39 


HIGH  COST  OF  LIVING. 

This     high-cost-of-living     talk     has    its    limits. 
Hew  Prices  When    you    see    women's    clubs    and    men's 

Are  Boosted.  civic  bodies,  and  even  Congress  making  a 
tremendous  fuss  about  the  price  of  eggs  and 
flour,  while  they  say  nothing  whatever  about  the  shoes  and 
gloves,  you  get  a  bit  angry — if  your  sympathies  run  with  the 
farmers,  and  that  is  where  Utah's  sympathies  should  be.  Here 
starts  a  man  or  a  firm  to  raise  prices- — on  paper  say ;  for  that 
was  one  of  the  first  big  interests  to  deliberately  take  advantage 
of  the  war  to  raise  prices  and  thus  rake  in  a  few  millions  of 
money — and  that  raise  made  printer's  ink  get  a  rise — then  oil, 
gasoline,  lumber,  leather,  rubber,  tin,  coal,  iron,  copper,  and,  in 
fact,  every  conceivable  commodity  was  hoisted  up  in  price 
to  meet  the  original  speculation. 

Miles  behind  the  other  speculators  come  the 
The  Farmer  food  stuff's,  meat  and  farmers'  products,  and 

Trails  Behind,  they  accommodated  themselves  to  the  gen- 
eral rise  in  prices  and  lo,  everybody  gets  mad 
at  once.  To  think  that  milk  and  eggs  and  butter  can  dare  to 
advance  in  price — O  it's  awful.  There's  a  cry  about  high 
prices  that  shakes  the  foundations  of  the  earth. 

Of  course,  we  all  know  that  the  middlemen 
The  get  the  big  benefits  out  of  this  rise  in  eggs 

Middleman.  and  food  stuffs — well  so  they  do  from  coal 

and  leather.  The  way  society  is  now  organ- 
ized, the  middleman  is  a  necessity,  and  he  has  to  live  and  get 
rich  if  he  can.  But  the  farmer  gets  better  and  steadier  prices 
because  of  the  middleman,  and  the  farmer  knows  it.  Of  couis^, 
the  farmer  can  cut  out  the  middleman,  and  live  on  his  own 
produce.  But  he  won't,  the  modern  farmer  is  too  shrewd  for 
that. 

I  don't  notice  the  club  women  crying  out 
What  Do  about  the  rise  in  feathers  and  hats.     Nor  do 

Women  Do  I  see  them  wearing  any  cheaper  hats  because 

About  High  of  the  unprecedented  rise  in  all  fancy  goods. 

Priced  No,  no!     My  lady  goes  more  richly  clad,  and 

Millinery?  gives  more    luxurious    entertainments   than 

ever  before.  Then  she  gets  together  with 
her  kind  and  shouts  and  resolutes  and  gets  raving  mad  in 
the  papers — getting  publicity  at  the  same  time — and  calls  the 
egg  man  names  and  raises  her  hands  in  horror  over  the  price 
of  flour  and  sugar.     O  woman — and  O  man! 


40  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Don't  we  all  know  enough  of  the  primary 
The  Sensible  principles  of  political  economy  to  know  that 
View  of  The  when  prices  are  high,  wages  are  correspond- 
Present  ingly  high   and   money   is  easy  while  pros- 

Situation,  perity  reigns  everywhere.    That's  the  law  of 

supply  and  demand.  It's  only  silly  folks  who 
expect  wages  to  rise  and  prices  to  fall  at  one  and  the  same 
time.  The  sensible  thing  for  you  and  me,  my  dear,  is  just 
to  institute  the  severest  economy  we  are  capable  of,  refuse  to 
go  in  debt,  save  all  we  can,  wear  last  year's  dresses  and  hats, 
use  as  few  eggs  as  may  be.  and  let  the  pseudo-reformers  go 
their  gait.  This  talk  will  all  die. down,  you  know.  Congress 
and  clubs  will  spend  uselessly  a  few  dollars  of  money  in  investi- 
gating, and  things  will  end  up  just  where  they  began. 

It  is.  after  all,  purely  a  personal  matter.  If  we  will  each 
economize  and  be  ready  for  the  crash  that  is  sure  to  follow, 
at  the  close  of  the  war,  we  can  afford  to  forget  all  the  talk 
and  resolutions  while  we  wait  quietly  upon  the  god  of  war 
and  consequent  high  prices. 


CALL  FOR  HISTORY  ITEMS. 

Our  General  Historian  desires  to  secure  the  names,  sketches 
and  pictures  of  all  women  who  were  milliners,  dressmakers,  school 
teachers,  music  teachers  or  midwives  in  Kirtland,  Missouri  or 
Nauvoo.  Decsendants  who  write  such  sketches  will  please  include 
the  genealogy  and  pedigrees  of  the  persons  described.  These 
sketches  will  be  published  in  the  Deseret  News  Genealogical  De- 
partment, while  the  names  will  appear  in  the  list  of  historic 
women  living  in  the  early  days  of  Church  history.  Kindly  ad- 
dress :  General  Historian,  Relief  Society  Headquarters,  Room  29 
Bishop's  Building.  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 


Guide  Lessons. 

LESSON  I. 

Theology  and  Testimony. 

First  Week  in  February. 
THE  ABRAHAMIC  AGE. 

According  to  Taine,  a  noted  French  critic,  there  are  three 
different  things  which  produce  the  "elementary  moral  state"  of  a 
people :  race,  surroundings,  and  epoch. 

By  race  he  means  the  "internal  structure"  of  a  people,  that 
inherent  nature  and  disposition  "which  man  brings  with  him  into 
the  world,"  and  which  makes  the  different  kinds  of  men  we  see 
all  around  us.  "There  is  a  natural  variety  of  men,  as  of  oxen 
and  horses,  some  brave  and  intelligent,  some  timid  and  depend- 
ent, some  capable  of  superior  conceptions  and  creations,  some 
reduced  to  rudimentary  ideas  and  inventions." 

By  surroundings  Taine  means  whatever  goes  to  influence  a 
people  from  without.  "The  profound  differences  which  are 
manifest  between  the  German  races,  on  the  one  side,  and  the 
Latin  and  the  Greek,  on  the  other  side,  arise  for  the  most  part 
from  the  differences  between  the  countries  in  which  they  are  set- 
tled: some  in  cold,  moist  lands,  deep  in  rugged,  marshy  forests 
or  on  the  shores  of  a  wild  ocean,  beset  by  melancholy  or  violent 
sensations,  prone  to  drunkenness  and  gluttony,  bent  on  a  fighting, 
blood-spilling  life ;  others,  again,  within  the  loveliest  landscapes, 
on  a  bright  and  pleasant  sea-coast,  enticed  to  navigation  and  com- 
merce, exempt  from  gross  cravings  of  the  stomach,  inclined  from 
the  beginning  to  social  ways,  to  a  settled  organization  of  the 
state,  to  feelings  and  dispositions  such  as  develop  the  art  of 
oratory,  the  talent  for  enjoyment,  the  inventions,  letters,  arts." 
By  epochs  he  means  whatever  happens  to  a  race  in  its  environ- 
ment. 

Now,  in  Abraham  and  Sarah  the  Lord  chose  a  man  and  a 
woman  through  whom  to  begin  a  new  people  or  nation.  Abra- 
ham, we  are  told,  was  one  of  "the  noble  and  great  ones,"  among 
the  pre-existent  intelligences;  and,  no  doubt.  Sarah  was  a  fii 
helpmate  for  such  a  man.  The  Hebrew  race  had  therefore  the 
"inherent'  structure"  necessary  for  a  great  people. 

But  the  Lord  did  more  than  choose  a  worthy  foundation  for 
a  great  people.     He  took  Abraham  and  Sarah  out  of  their  native 


42  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

home  and  established  them  in  a  new  land,  a  land  favorable  to  the 
development  of  their  descendants  along  the  lines  marked  out  for 
them  by  Jehovah. 

Palestine  is  a  tract  of  extremely  fertile  land,  about  four  hun- 
dred miles  long,  and  from  seventy  to  one  hundred  miles  wide, 
lying  between  the  Arabian  Desert  and  the  eastern  coast  of  the 
Lavant.  "Syria,"  says  Professor  George  Adam  Smith,  (in 
which  is  Palestine),  "lies  between  two  continents — Asia  and 
Africa :  between  two  primeval  homes  of  men — the  valley  of  the 
Euphrates  and  the  Nile ;  between  two  great  centers  of  empire — 
Western  Asia  and  Egypt;  between  all  these,  representing  the 
Eastern  and  ancient  world,  and  the  Mediterranean,  which  is  the 
gateway  to  the  Western  and  modern  world." 

In  this  central  location  Palestine  became  not  only  the  "battle 
ground  of  empires,"  but  also  and  particularly  the  "highway  of 
nations."  In  the  former  respect  it  resembled  the  Belgium  of 
modern  history,  and  in  the  latter  respect  it  was  much  like  our  own 
Salt  Lake  City,  through  which  people  pass  from  the  East  to  the 
Pacific  coast.  By  reason  of  its  peculiar  position,  therefore,  the 
Holy  Land  was  isolated  from  the  other  nations,  enjoying  the 
consequent  opportunity  for  development  along  the  lines  of  its 
own  racial  possibilities.  At  the  same  time  there  was  deposited 
on  its  national  soil  the  sediment  of  civilization  of  the  upper  and 
lower  peoples  of  the  ancient  world. 

Besides  all  this,  Palestine  is  one  of  the  richest  countries  of 
the  world  in  its  natural  resources.  Palestine  "reproduces  climates 
and  zones  which,  in  other  countries,  are  separated  by  many  hun- 
dred miles."  "Within  the  extent  of  a  single  landscape,  there  is 
every  climate,  from  the  cold  of  northern  Europe  to  the  heat  of 
India.  The  oak,  the  pine,  the  walnut,  the  maple,  the  juniper,  the 
alder,  the  poplar,  the  willow,  the  ash,  the  ivy,  and  the  hawthorn, 
grow  luxuriously  on  the  heights  of  Hermon,  Basham,  and  Galilee. 
Hence  the  traveler  from  the  more  northerly  temperate  lands  finds 
himself  in  some  parts,  surrounded  by  the  trees  and  vegetation 
of  his  own  country.  *****  The  traveler  from  the  more 
southern  countries  is  no  less  at  home ;  for  from  whatever  part  he 
come,  be  it  sunny  Spain  or  Western  India,  he  will  recognize  well- 
known  forms  in  one  or  the  other  of  such  a  list  as  the  carob,  the 
oleander  and  willow,  skirting  the  streams  and  water-courses ;  the 
sycamore,  the  fig,  the  olive,  the  date-palm,  the  pride  of  India, 
the  pistachio,  the  tamerick,  the  acacia,  and  the  tall  tropical  grasses 
and  reeds,  or  in  such  fruits  as  the  date,  the  pomegranate,  the 
vine,  the  orange,  the  shaddock,  the  lime,  the  banana,  the  almond, 
and  the  prickly  pear." 

Palestine,  at  the  time  of  Abraham,  was  occupied  by  Caanan- 
itish  tribes,  barbaric  peoples.       Abraham  and  Sarah  had  come 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  43 

thither,  obeying  a  command  of  God,  from  Chaldea.  The  people 
in  their  old  home  were  idolators  and  offered  up  human  beings  as 
sacrifices,  men,  women,  and  children.  In  the  Book  of  Abraham 
v/e  are  told  that  the  priest  was  about  to  offer  up  the  young  man 
Abraham  on  the  altar.  In  their  new  home  the  chosen  pair  dwelt 
from  the  call  to  the  end  of  their  lives,  with  the  exception  of  short 
residences  in  Egypt. 

Whenever  we  think  of  Abraham  and  Sarah  in  Palestine  we 
must  not  think  of  them  as  we  sometimes  do,  in  the  midst  of 
modern  conditions.  They  did  not  live  in  a  vast  and  wealthy 
kingdom.  The  "kings"  mentioned  in  Genesis  were  but  chiefs  of 
tribes.  Abraham  with  his  "trained  men  born  in  his  house,  three 
hundred  and  eighteen,"  is  represented  as  pursuing  a  number  of 
these  rebellious  kings  "as  far  as  Dan,"  smiting  them  and  their 
followers  right  and  left.  "And  he  brought  back  all  the  goods 
(Avhich  they  had  stolen  from  Lot,  his  brother's  son),  and  also 
brought  again  his  brother  Lot,  and  his  goods,  and  the  women 
also,  and  the  people."  In  those  days  a  man's  wealth  was  meas- 
ured by  the  things  which  he  possessed.  Pharaoh  "had  sheep, 
and  oxen,  and  he-asses,  and  menservants,  and  maidservants,  and 
she-asses,  and  camels."  Abraham  too  "was  very  rich  in  cattle, 
in  silver,  and  in  gold."  Lot  "had  flocks,  and  herds,  and  tents." 
Sarah's  household  duties,  if  we  may  use  the  term  "house"  at  Vil, 
were  confined  to  the  tent.  For  when  the  angel  appeared  to 
Abraham  just  before  the  destruction  of  the  wicked  cities,  the 
patriarch  was  sitting  "in  his  tent  door  in  the  heat  of  the  day," 
under  "the  oaks  of  Mamre."  Moreover,  they  did  more  or  less 
wandering  from  place  to  place,  after  the  manner  of  herdsmen  in 
those  remote  days.  Abraham  and  Sarah  lived  a  more  or  less 
nomadic  life. 

In  this  wonderful  land,  under  these  conditions,  the  Hebrew 
race  began  its  long  and  splendid  career.  We  shall  see  in  later 
articles  how  it  was  that  this  environment  was  used  and  modified 
to  suit  their  growing  needs. 

QUESTIONS. 

What  has  environment  to  do  with  the  development  of  a  race? 
Of  an  individual? 

Show  that  Palestine  is  so  situated  and  is  of  such  a  character 
as  to  contribute  to  the  isolation  and  development  of  the  Jews. 

What  may  have  been  the  Lord's  purposes  in  establishing  the 
Israelites  in  Palestine? 

Describe  Palestine. 

Describe  customs  in  the  days  of  Abraham. 

What  differences  do  you  find  in  religion,  in  occupations,  and 
in  general  manners  then  and  now?     Prove  your  statements. 


44  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Either  before  or  after  reading  this  lesson,  study  carefully 
the  account  of  the  destruction  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah  in  Gen- 
esis, chapters  18  and  19. 


HOME  BIBLE  READING  FOR  FEBRUARY. 

"They  received  the  word  with  all  readiness    of    mind  and 
searched  the  Scriptures  daily." 

1.  Pearl  of  Great  Price,  Abraham,  Chapter  1. 

2.  Pearl  of  Great  Price,  Abraham,  Chapter  2. 

3.  Pearl  of  Great  Price,  Abraham,  Chapter  3. 

4.  Pearl  of  Great  Price,  Abraham,  Chapter  4. 

5.  Pearl  of  Great  Price,  Abraham,  Chapter  5. 

6.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  11. 

7.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  12. 

8.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  13. 

9.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  14. 

10.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  15. 

11.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  16. 

12.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  17. 

13.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  18. 

14.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  19. 

15.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  20. 

16.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  21. 

17.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  22. 

18.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  23. 

19.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  24. 

20.  Bible,  Genesis,  Chapter  25. 

21.  Bible,  Hebrews,  Chapter  11. 

22.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  1. 

23.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  2. 

24.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  3. 

25.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  4. 

26.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  5. 

27.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  6. 

28.  Doc.  &  Cov.,  Lecture  on  Faith,  Chapter  7. 

BOOKS  FOR  CHRISTMAS. 
Suggestive  list  to  guide  parents  in  their  buying  of  books 

BOOKS   FOR    CHILDREN    UNDER    SIX. 

"Baby  Days,"  CenUiry ;  "Peter  Rabbit,"  Potter;  "Merry  Ani- 
mal Tales,"  Bingham;  "New  Baby  World,"  Dodge;  "Nursery 
Rhyme  Rook,"  Lang. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  45 

BOOKS    FOR    CHILDREN    SIX   TO    EIGHT. 

"That's  Why  Stories,"  Bryce;  "Rhymes  and  Stories,"  Lan- 
sing; "Classic  Fables"  (Selected),  Chas.  E.  Merrill;  "Each  and 
All,"  Andrews;  "Half  a  Hundred  Stories  for  Little  Folks." 

BOOKS    FOR    CHILDREN    EIGHT    TO    TEN. 

"Fifty  Famous  Stories,"  Baldwin ;  "Fifty  Famous  Peoph," 
Baldwin;  "Story  of  Roland,"  Baldwin;  "Story  of  Siegfried," 
Baldwin;  "Stories  of  Brave  Dogs,"  St.  Nicholas;  "Stories  of 
Cats,"  St.  Nicholas ;  "A  Child's  Garden  of  Verses,"  Stevenson. 

BOOKS   FOR   CHILDREN   TEN    TO   TWELVE. 

"Some  Merry  Adventures  of  Robin  Hood,"  Pyle;  "Lu:le 
Men,"  Alcott;  "Little  Women,"  Alcott;  "Under  the  Lilacs,"  Al- 
cott;  "Wonderful  Adventures 'of  Nils,"  Lagerloef ;  "King  Arthur 
and  His  Knights,"  Radford ;  "Arabian  Nights ;"  "Tom  Sawyer," 
Mark  Twain ;  "Alice's  Adventures  in  Wonderland,"  Carroll. 

BOOKS    FOR    CHILDREN    FROM    TWELVE   TO    FIFTEEN. 

"Robinson  Crusoe,"  De  Foe;  "Swiss  Family  Robinson," 
Wyss  ;"Anne  of  Green  Gagles,"M^ontgomery ;  "Reecbca  of  Sunny- 
brook  Farm,"  Wiggin ;  "Little  Shepherd  of  Kingdom  Come," 
Fox ;  "Last  of  the  Mohicans,"  Cooper ;  "Boy's  Life  of  Lincoln," 
Nicolay;  "Story  of  My  Life,"  Keller;  "Ivanhoe,"  Scott;  "David 
Copperfield,"  Dickens ;  "John  Halifax,  Gentleman,"  Craik ;  "Scot- 
tish Chiefs,"  Porter;  "Life  of  Kit  Carson,"  Abbott;  "Book  of 
Golden  Deeds,"  Yonge ;  "Old  Fashioned  Girl,"  Alcott;  "Man 
Without  a  Country,"  Hale ;  "Plutarch's  Lives." 

We  suggest  the  following  books  from  our  own  writers  as 
Christmas  gifts: 

Book  of  Mormon ;  "Musings  and  Memories,"  Emmeline  B. 
Wells;  "Mr.  Durant  of  Salt  Lake  City,  'That  Mormon',"  Ben 
E.  Rich ;  "Added  Upon,"  Nephi  Anderson ;  "Women  of  the 
Bible,"  Willard  Done ;  "History  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith," 
revised  by  Geo.  A.  Smith  and  Elias  Smith ;  "Joseph  Smith  as 
Scientist,"  Dr.  John  A.  Widtsoe ;  "Mother  Stories  of  the  Book 
of  Mormon,"  Wm.  A.  Morton ;  "John  Stevens'  Courtship ;" 
"Sketches  of  Missionary  Life."  E.  F.  Parry ;  "From  Kirtland  to 
Salt  Lake,"  Jas.  A.  Little;  "Forty  Years  Among  the  Indians," 
Daniel  W.  Jones ;  "Leaves  from  My  Journal,"  President  Wil- 
ford  Woodruff;  "Jacob  Hamblin ;"  "Fragments  of  Experience;" 


4n  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

"President  Heber  C.  Kimball's  Journal;"  "The  Life  of  Nephi," 
Geo.  Q.  Cannon ;  "The  Myth  of  the  Manuscript  Found,  or  The 
Absurdities  of  the  Spaulding  Story,"  Geo.  Reynolds ;  "Helpful 
Visions."  Thos.  A.  Shreeve ;  "Lydia  Knight's  History,"  Susa 
Young  Gates;  "Heroines  of  Mormondom,"  Susa  Young  Gates; 
"Works  of  Josephus ;"  "Devotees  and  their  Shrines,"  Alice  Mer- 
rill Home;  "Book  of  Mormon  Stories"  (illustrated), 

As  a  choice  reminder  of  family  records :  "L.  D.  S.  Family 
and  Individual  Record,"  prepared  by  D.  M.  McAllister;  "Gene- 
alogical Family  and  Individual  Record,"  prepared  by  D.  M.  Mc- 
Allister. 

LESSON  II. 

Work  and  Business. 

Second  Week  in  February. 
LESSON  III. 

Genealogy  and  Literature. 

Third  Week  in  February. 
SURNAMES   FROM  THE  VILLAGE 

When  the  English  people,  as  they  had  begun  to  call  them- 
selves, after  William  the  Conqueror's  day,  really  decided  to  adopt 
surnames,  some  of  them  fell  naturally  into  the  habit  of  calling 
themselves  by  their  trades,  or  professions,  or  offices.  This  would 
come  natural,  as :  William  the  tailor  would  soon  be  William 
Taylor ;  John  the  clerk  would  soon  become  John  Clerk  or  Clark ; 
and  Richard  the  gardner  would  soon  become  Richard  Gardner. 

It  may  clarify  this  lesson  if  we  say  a  little  more  about  the 
Domesday  Book  and  the  census  made  by  William  the  Conqueror, 
in  1086.  William  found  it  impossible  to  decide  just  who  held 
deeds  to  certain  properties,  nor  did  he  know  how  many  men  he 
had  under  him,  nor  how  much  property  was  in  the  kingdom. 
Partly  to  take  a  census,  and  partly  to  find  out  how  much  taxable 
property  there  was,  and  partly  to  fasten  his  yoke  more  securely 
upon  the  necks  of  the  conquered  Angles,  Saxons  and  Danes,  he 
sent  heralds  all  through  the  kingdom,  and  these  heralds  wrote 
the  results  of  their  census,  taken  in  a  very  fine  hand  and,  in  a 
very  crowded  manner,  upon  a  medium-sized  manuscript  book, 
which  was  called  The  Domesday  Book,  and  which  is  now  in  the 
f  fall  of  Records,  under  a  glass  case  in  London. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  47 

Baring-Gould  says :  "Commissioners  were  sent  into  the 
shires,  who  took  evidence  on  oath  from  the  sheriffs,  the  parish 
priests,  the  reeves,  and  the  men  generally,  French  and  English 
alike,  in  every  lordship.  They  were  to  report  who  had  held  the 
land  in  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor,  and  who  held  it  then ; 
also  as  to  how  many  lived  on  it,  what  was  their  quality  and  what 
was  the  value  of  the  soil,  and  whether  there  was  any  prospect 
of  the  value  being  raised. 

"The  Chronicle  says :  'He  sent  over  all  England,  into  every 
shire,  his  men  to  find  out  how  many  hundred  hides  were  in  the 
shire,  and  what  the  King  himself  had  of  land  and  cattle  in  the 
land.  Also  what  rights  he  ought  to  have  in  the  twelve  months 
in  the  shire.  Also  he  let  enquire  how  much  land  his  Archbishops 
had,  and  his  Bishops,  and  his  Abbots,  and  his  Earls,  and  though 
T  tell  it  at  more  length,  what  and  how  much  every  man  had  that 
was  a  land-holder  in  England,  in  land  or  in  cattle,  and  how  much 
fee  it  was  worth.  So  very  narrowly  did  he  let  the  investigation 
be  carried  out,  that  there  was  not  a  single  hide,  nor  a  yard  of 
land,  not  so  much  as — it  is  a  shame  to  tell  it,  and  he  thought  it 
no  shame  to  do  it — not  an  ox  nor  a  cow,  nor  a  swine,  was  left  that 
was  not  set  in  his  writ.     And  all  the  writs  were  brought  to  him.' 

"The  taking  of  this  inquisition  roused  great  dissatisfaction 
that  broke  out  in  tumults,  and  some  blood  was  shed.  Hitherto 
the  landholders,  with  a  little  shuffling  and  some  bribing,  had 
been  able  to  assess  their  lands  lower  than  their  actual  value.  This 
would  now  be  impossible,  and  they  looked  to  the  hard  hand  of 
the  tax-gatherer  coming  down  on  them  and  remorselessly  squeez- 
ing out  the  due  for  every  acre,  whether  in  cultivation  or  fallow. 
From  Domesday  we  learn  what  were  the  several  classes  among 
the  English  who  were  now  under  the  heel  of  the  Norman. 

"The  old  Thegns,  or  land-holders,  were  no  longer  great  men ; 
they  had  to  bow  their  necks  under  the  yoke,  and  see  their  land 
taken  from  them  and  their  influence  and  authority  gone.  Some, 
luckily,  remained  on  as  tenants  on  the  land  where  they  had  been 
freeholders,  and  in  remembrance  of  the  past  still  called  them- 
selves Thegns,  or  Theins,  and  continued  to  be  so  called.  Hence 
it  comes  that  we  have  the  surname  of  Thynne. 

"The  Freemen,  freeholders,  held  their  land  after  the  Con- 
quest no  longer  as  freemen,  but  subject  to  military  service,  and 
were  taxable.  Their  representatives  later  were  the  yeomen.  They 
have  contributed  to  our  nomenclature  the  names  Freeman  and 
Free.  Freebody  signified  a  freeholder  of  a  little  wooden  cot. 
Fry  as  a  surname  comes  thence  as  well. 

"Radmen  were  socmen,  possessed  of  a  greater  amount  of 
freedom  than_others.     Hence  the  surname  Redman. 

"Socmen,  inferior  landowners  who  held  their  lands  in  the 


48  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

soc,  or  franchise,  of  a  great  lord.     Hence  Suckerman,  Suckman. 

"Franklyn  was  much  the  same  as  the  Freeman." 

The  surnames  which  grew  out  of  the  offices  held  by  the 
village  proprietors  were: 

Bonder.  The  old  Norse  bonde  was  the  man  in  highest  posi- 
tion under  the  Earl.  He  was  the  freeholder,  responsible  to  none 
save  the  Earl. 

Burs  or  Geburs  were  workmen  giving  a  certain  number  of 
days'  work  in  the  fieb's,  and  a  small  money  payment  to  the  Lord 
of  the  Manor. 

Bordars,  a  poor  but  numerous  class,  tenants  of  land  which, 
their  lord  kept  expressly  for  the  maintenance  of  his  table,  the 
rental  being  paid  in  kind. 

Cottars  and  Cottrels,  also  Cotmens,  Coscets.  The  cottar 
could  hold  nothing  of  his  own,  nor  acquire  anything  without  the 
consent  of  his  lord.     The  Cottrell  was  in  no  better  position. 

Villeins  were  men  in  the  servitude  of  the  Lord  of  the  Manor, 
who  held  the  folkland,  by  which  they  supported  themselves  and 
their  families.  They  stood  somewhat  higher  than  the  serfs.  They 
were  also  designated  as  knaves.  The  odium  attaching  to  a  class 
so  low  has  stood  in  the  way  of  the  name  passing  into  our  family 
nomenclature,  at  all  events  in  its  Norman-French  form.  But  it 
remains  as  Churl  for  Ceorl.  *•  *  *  *  Carl  signifies  a  man 
generally.  Charles  is  rarely  found  as  a  Christian  name  in  Eng- 
land before  the  time  of  Charles  I.  The  surnames  Charles,  Char- 
It  v.  and  Caroll,  from  the  Latin  form  Carolus,  remain  with  us — 
the  last  in  the  LTnited  States. 

Serf,  the  poor  wretch  who  owned  nothing  of  his  own  but  his 
wife  and  his  children,  is  only  recognizable  in  family  names  as 
Server,  Sewer.  Servant  became  Sergeant,  and  rose  to  be  an 
official. 

Thrall  was  given  the  surname  Thrale. 

Akerman  occurs  repeatedly  in  the  Hundred  Rolls,  and  seems 
to  mean  a  plowman.     (Aker-field,  hence  man  of  the  field.) 

Man,  in  Latin,  homo,  occurs  in  almost  every  page  of  the 
Pomesday  Survey,  and  included  every  kind  of  deutero  tenant. 

Badger,  properly  a  Bagger.  "Up  to  the  seventeenth  century 
an  ordinary  term  for  one  who  had  a  special  license  to  purchase 
com  from  farmers  at  the  provincial  markets  and  fairs,  and  then 
dispose  of  it  again  elsewhere,  without  the  penalties  of  engross- 
ing."—  fBardsley.") 

Barker,  the  man  who  barks  for  the  tanner ;  Barkis  is  "at  the 
Bark-house." 

Bercher  or  Berger,  a  shepherd.  A  Norman-French  name  is 
little  used,  yet  surviving  as  a  surname. 

Bcemaster.     Occurs    in    Domesday  as   Apium   Custos.      An 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  49 

important  man  before  the  introduction  of  sugar,  as  honey  was 
employed  not  only  for  the  making  of  honey-cakes,  but  also  in  the 
brewing  of  matheglin  or  hydromel,  and  the  wax  was  needed  for 
candles.  We  have  the  Beemaster  contributing  to  nomenclature 
in  Beamster  and  Honeyman,  or  simply  as  Honey. 

Beecher,  a  spademan ;  from  the  Norman-French  beche. 

Bolter,  the  bolter  of  flour,  a  servant  of  the  miller.  Surname 
Boult. 

Bullman,  the  bull-herdsman.  Hence  Pullman ;  also  in  some 
cases  Bu'ller. 

Carpenter,  in  country  and  town  alike.  In  Domesday  Car- 
pentarius. 

Carter  comes  to  us  in  many  forms  as  a  surname — e.  g.,  Car- 
ter, Cartman. 

Cartwright,  the  maker  of  carts. 

Cramer  or  Creamer,  a  huckster ;  hence  Crammer. 

Driver,  the  driftman ;  on  moors  the  man  employed  to  sweep 
together  colts  and  horses  and  cattle  and  sheep  sent  out  on  the 
commons,  to  a  centre  where  the  owners  may  claim  them,  and 
such  as  have  no  rights  to  send  their  beasts  on  the  commons  are 
fined. 

Farmer  remains  on  the  land,  and  has  contributed  to  our  no- 
menclature.   Also  Fermor. 

Farrer  and  Farrier,  the  man  who  shoes  horses.  Fearon  is  a 
smith ;  also  Ferrier. 

Fowler  is  a  common  surname,  and  explains  its  origin.  This 
is  sometimes  contracted  to  Fowles  and  Fowle ;  also  Vowler. 

Hayman  or  Hayward  was  the  village  official  whose  duty  it 
was  to  guard  the  cattle  that  grazed  on  the  village  common,  that 
they  did  not  trespass  on  the  ground  where  was  the  grass  grown 
for  hay  during  the  winter.  Until  hedges  became  common,  the 
hayward  had  to  keep  a  sharp  lookout  on  the  cattle  committed  to 
his  charge. 

Husband,  the  man  who  cultivated  the  portion  of  soil  which 
derived  from  him  the  name  of  husband-land,  a  measure  known  in 
the  Merse  and  Lothian.  Hence  the  surname  Younghusband — 
i.  e.,  (John)  Young  the  Husband  (land-holder). 

Sawyer,  also  Sagar  and  Sayer. 

Shepherd,  spelled  as  a  surname  also  Shepherd  and  Sheppard. 

Woodman,  Woodreve,  as  a  surname  Woodrow,  Woodward, 
Woodyer. 

Wright,  either  a  wainwright  or  a  wheelwright — the  former 
synonymous  with  a  Cartwright. 

In  the  castle  there  were  many  officials  and  after  the  Con- 
queror's time  they  were  all  of  foreign  blood.  Below  the  upper  line 
cf  retainers  there  were  villeins,  boors,  cotters,  and  churles.    The 


50  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

official  class  was  very  large,  and  many  surnames  have  come 
down  to  us  from  the  titles  of  these  foreign  Norman  office  hold- 
ers.   These  were : 

Assayer,  a  taster,  to  assure  the  lord  at  table  that  the  food 
and  drink  had  not  been  poisoned.  The  names  Saver,  Savers,  Saer. 
come  hence. 

Bailiff,  the  same  as  reeve  or  steward.  Bower  and  Bqwers, 
an  indoor  servant,  attendant  on  the  ladies.  Also  Bowerman  and 
Burman. 

Chamberlain,  one  of  the  most  intimate  servants  in  a  seig- 
neurial  house.  The  surname  from  the  office  is  sometimes  short- 
ened to  Chambers. 

Cook  or  Le  Coq,  a  very  important  functionary.  Tlis  name  en- 
ters into  numerous  combinations,  as  Babcock  (Bartholomew  le 
coq),  Wilcox  (Will  le  coq),  Hancock  (John  le  coq).  The  entry 
"Robert,  fil,  Coci"  in  the  Hungred  Rolls  shows  them  some  Cooks' 
sons  were  so  designated  whose  fathers  had  no  recognized  sur- 
names.   Also  Kitchen  and  Kitchener. 

Esquire.  The  place  of  shield-bearer  and  attendant  on  a 
noble  or  knight  was  much  sought  after  by  the  sons  of  men  in 
good  position  as  it  was  an  admirable  apprenticeship  for  war. 

Forester,  a  very  important  officer  charged  with  the  super- 
vision of  the  royal  forests.  From  these  officers,  when  the  offices 
became  hereditary,  came  the  surnames  of  Forester,  Forster, 
Foster. 

Gardener.  The  name  is  French.  The  surname  often  spelled 
Gardiner  and  Gardner,  also  Jardine. 

Gaoler,  a  French  name,  showing  that  no  Englishman  could 
be  trusted  by  a  Norman  with  the  keys  of  the  prison.  The  sur- 
names from  the  office  are  Gayler,  Gale,  and  Jelly,  perhaps. 

Granger,  one  who  occupies  the  grange  of  the  lord,  secular  or 
ecclesiastical,  in  which  the  corn  "grain"  was  stored. 

Harper.  Most  large  castles  had  in  them  a  harper.  Hart- 
man,  the  officer  who  looked  after  the  harts  in  the  chase.  The 
surname  from  it  may  be  Hardman,  and  sometimes  only  Hart. 

Hind,  the  man  who  looked  after  his  master's  affairs  in  the 
home-farm.    Hence  the  surnames  Hynde  and  Hyne. 

Huntsman.  As  Hunter,  the  name  of  the  office  remains  a 
surname.     Shortened  also  to  Hunt. 

Knight,  by  no  means  invariably,  means  one  who  has  re- 
ceived knighthood.  A  knight  is  a  knecht,  a  servant.  The  sur- 
name Midnight,  perhaps,  means  the  "mead-knight,  the  man  who 
poured  out  the  mead. 

Jackman,  a  man-at-arms  in  a  coat  of  mail,  or  jacket,  and 
wearing  jack-boots. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  51 

Marshall,  originally  the  horse-groom.  He 'rose  into  consider- 
ation and  became  a  regulator  of  ceremonies. 

Miller.  The  Mill  belonged  to  the  lord  of  the  manor,  and 
the  tenants  were  not  allowed  to  grind  their  corn  at  any  other 
Hence  Milner  and  Milward  (Anglo-Saxon  for  a  miller),  Mill- 
man. 

Page;  of  this  Paget  is  the  diminutive. 

Parker,  the  official  in  charge  of  the  deerpark.  Hence  Park- 
man,   Parkes. 

Porter,  the  gatekeeper.  The  family  of  Porter  of  Saltash  is 
one  of  hereditary  gatekeepers  of  Trematon  Castle.  The  English 
of  Porter  is  Durward. 

Ranger,  a  keeper. 

Reve,  from  Gerefa.  Woodkeepers,  whence  the  surnames 
Woodward,  Woodrow,  and  Woodruff. 

Rider.  The  Barons  maintained  German  mercenaries  as 
horsemen.  These  were  the  Reiter,  or,  as  the  English  called  them. 
Reuters.  They  soon,  however,  changed  Reuter  into  Rider  and 
Ryder. 

Sewer  is  simply  a  server,  a  waiter.  The  "Boke  of  Servynge" 
says :  "The  server  must  serve,  and  from  the  borde  convey  all 
manner  of  pottages,  metes,  and  sauces."  As  a  surname  it  has  be- 
come Sour  and  Shower. 

QUESTIONS. 

Who  were  the  Celts?    (See  history). 

Describe  again  the  Domesday  Book  and  its  purpose.  (See 
any  encyclopaedia). 

What  value  is  this  Book  to  genealogists? 

What  surnames  grew  out  of  professions? 

How  did  officials  in  castles  or  manors  get  surnames  ? 

Give  a  list  of  official  surnames. 

What  surnames  are  there  in  your  class  that  are  of  this  char- 
acter? 

LITERATURE. 

Third  Meeting  in  February. 

THE  AUTHOR  AT   WORK. 

Literature  that  lives  is  born  alive.  The  writer  must  put  his 
heart  into  his  work,  must  feel  what  he  says ;  otherwise,  though 
he  "speak  with  the  tongue  of  men  and  of  angels,"  his  words  will 
be  but  "sounding  brass  and  tinkling  cymbal." 

A  little  story  told  of  Bret  Harte,  the  California  writer,  il- 
lustrates beautifully  this  point.  It  is  said  that  one  of  his  poems 
once  found  its  way  into  a  San  Francisco  paper.     A  certain  lady 


52  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

was  so  charmed  with  it  that  she  went  to  the  writer  and  said  en- 
thusiastically, 

"Why,  Mr.  llarte,  that  is  the  best  thing  you  ever  wrote;  I 
actually  cried  when  I  read  it." 

"That  is  not  at  all  strange,"  replied  he, — "not  at  all  strange. 
I  cried  when  I  wrote  it." 

Sincerity  is  the  soul  of  literature.  The  author,  stirred  by  an 
emotion,  or  burning  with  some  message,  expresses  himself  to 
share  with  others,  his  thoughts  and  feelings,  or  to  relieve  his  own 
soul.  If  his  words  ring  true,  they  thrill  the  hearts  that  hear  or 
read  them. 

This  message  may  be  given  in  the  form  of  a  sermon,  or  a 
song,  or  a  story.  Most  of  our  literature  can.be  grouped  under 
these  three  general  types.  Different  writers  choose  one  or  an- 
other of  these  ways  of  reaching  their  audiences.  A  striking 
illustration  of  this  is  found  in  the  literary  work  of  a  certain 
American    family. 

When  the  question  of  slavery  was  paramount  in  our  nation, 
the  people  were  naturally  very  much  aroused.  Among  those  who 
were  ardent  workers  for  the  freedom  of  the  slaves,  were  mem- 
bers of  the  Beecher  family.  From  his  famous  pulpit  in  Brooklyn, 
Henry  Ward  Beecher  was  thundering  his  sermons  against  the 
evil ;  while  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe,  his  sister,  was  writing  her 
famous  story,  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin ;  and  about  the  same  time  Julia 
Ward  Howe,  their  cousin,  created  that  greatest  of  civil  war  songs, 
"The  Battle  Hymn  of  the  Republic,"  the  last  stanza  of  which 
reads  as  follows : 

"In  the  beauty  of  the  lilies,  Christ  was  born  across  the  sea. 
With  a  glory  in  his  bosom  that  transfigures  you  and  me, — 
As  he  died  to  make  men  holy,  let  us  die  to  make  men  free, 
While  God  is  marching  on." 

The  same  end  was  thus  reached  by  three  different  literary 
paths:  the  sermon,  the  song,  and  the  story.  And  these  famous 
authors  were  splendidly  successful  because  their  words  rang  with 
sincerity.  Indeed,  some  feel  that  in  their  earnestness,  they  were 
carried  a  little  beyond  the  bounds  of  strict  fairness,  as  is  fre- 
quently the  case  when  one  grows  over-zealous  for  any  cause. 
But, '  nevertheless,  literature,  without  fire,  can  hardly  light  the 
minds  of  men  and  stir  them  to  action. 

The  sermon  and  the  story  may  both  be  written,  either  in 
form  of  verse  or  prose.  The  song,  being  more  musical  in  effect, 
is  written  only  in  verse.  This  is  not  to  say,  however,  that  prose 
is  necessarily  unmusical.  Prose  has  its  rhythm  as  well  as  does 
verse.  What  then  is  the  difference?  Mainly  this :  The  rythm. 
or   musical  movement,  of  verse  is  measured.     It   moves   with 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  h$ 

regular  cadence,  having  regularly  accented  syllables  ;  one  can  beat 
trme  to  it ;  as, 

Life  is  real,  life  is  earnest, 

And  the  grave  is  not  its  goal : 
Dust  thou  art,  to  dust  returnest 

Was  not  spoken  of  the  soul." 

— -Longfellow. 

Prose  which  is  literature  or  which  contains  the  elements  of 
beauty  on  the  other  hand,  has  a  freer  rythm.  Its  movement  is  not 
regular ;  but  it  is  musical,  just  the  same.  Listen  to  any  choice 
selection  in  prose ;  listen  to  even  the  freest  conversation,  and  ob- 
serve that  words  fall  naturally  into  a  kind  of  musical  grouping. 
The  rythm  of  prose  is  more  like  the  music  of  the  mountain  stream. 
Now  it  leaps,  now  it  eddies,  now  it  babbles,  now  it  flows  quietly ; 
one  can  hardly  guess  what  next  it  may  do.  The  music  of  verse 
may  be  compared  to  that  of  the  waves  of  lake  or  sea,  breaking 
with  rythmic  cadence  upon  the  shore. 

Prose,  however,  in  its  most  eloquent  forms,  sometimes  moves 
with  almost  the  rythmic  swing  of  verse.    For  illustration : 

"Union  and  liberty,  now  and  forever,  one  and  inseparable." 

— Webster. 

"Peace  on  earth,  good  will  towards  men." 

— St.  Luke. 
"How  firm  a  foundation,  ye  saints  of  the  Lord, 
Is  laid  for  your  faith  in  his  excellent  word." 

— Kirkham. 

Have  some  good  reader  voice  this  touchingly  beautiful  letter 
also,  and  listen  to  the  musical  flow  of  its  lines : 

Dear  Madam:  November  21,  186-1. 

I  have  been  shown,  in  the  files  of  the  War  Department,  a 
statement  from  the  Adjutant  General  of  Massachusetts,  that  you 
are  the  mother  of  five  sons  who  have  died  gloriously  on  the  field 
of  battle.  I  feel  how  weak  and  fruitless  must  be  any  words  of 
mine  which  should  attempt  to  beguile  you  from  a  loss  so  over- 
whelming. But  I  cannot  refrain  from  tendering  to  you  the  con- 
solation that  may  be  found  in  the  thanks  of  a  Republic  they  died 
to  save.  I  pray  that  our  Heavenly  Father  may  assuage  the 
anguish  of  your  bereavement  and  leave  you  only  the  cherished 
memory  of  the  loved  and  lost,  and  the  solemn  pride  that  must  be 
yours  to  have  laid  so  costly  a  sacrifice  upon  the  altar  of  freedom. 
Yours  very  sincerely  and  respectfully, 

Abraham  Lincoln. 
To  Mrs.  Bixby,  Boston,  Mass. 


54  'RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Prose  may  be  very  formal  or  very  free.  Verse  likewise  may 
move  with  stately  step,  as  in  Milton's  Paradise  Lost,  or  it  may 
be  trippingly  light  as  in  a  Mother  Goose  Rhyme.  The  nature  of 
the  verse  or  prose  is  always  dependent  on  the  kind  of  thought  or 
emotion  to  be  expressed.  Writers  try  to  make  the  language  fori 
in  which  their  thought  is  clothed  fitting,  true  to  the  spirit  of  the 
message  or  picture  of  life  they  are  trying  to  give. 

Most  of  the  literature  produced  today  comes  in  prose  form. 
In  earlier  days,  practically  all  of  it  was  in  verse.  Prose,  beh\g 
freer,  expresses  best  the  spirit  of  freedom  of  this  age.  The  song, 
or  lyric,  of  course,  must  always  be  written  in  verge. 

It  is  interesting  to  know  and  well  to  remember  that  there 
are  three  great  types  of  verse :  1.  The  Classic,  or  rhymed  verse, 
created  by  the  Greek  poets ;  2.  The  Biblical,  or  parallel  verse, 
given  to  the  world  by  the  Hebrews ;  3.  The  Blank,  or  unrhymed 
verse,  first  produced  by  the  English  poets  of  the  time  of  Queen 
Elizabeth. 

Each  of  these  types  comes  in  a  variety  of  forms ;  but  one 
can  readily  recognize  to  which  type  a  poem  belongs,  by  remem- 
bering the  chief  characteristic  of  the  type.  For  example:  The 
Classic  type  is  written  in  rhymes ;  as, 

"As  some  tall  cliff  that  lifts  its  awful  form 
Swells  from  the  vale  and  midway  leaves  the  storm. 
Though  round  its  breast  the  rolling  clouds  are  spread 
Eternal  sunshine  settles  on  its  head." 

From  "The  Deserted  Village." — Goldsmith. 

Biblical  verse  does  not  rhyme,  but  the  thought  it  expresses 
is  repeated  in  other  words  in  parallel  lines :  as, 

"Intreat  me  not  to  leave  thee, 

And  to  return  from  following  after  thee ; 

Eor  whither  thou  goest,  I  will  go ; 

And  where  thou  lodgest,  I  will  lodge; 

Thy  people  shall  be  my  people, 

And  thy  God  niy  God ; 

Where  thou  diest,  will  I  die, 

And  there  will  I  be  buried ; 

The  Lord  do  so  to  me, 

And  more  also, 

If  aught  but  death  part  thee  and  me." 

From  "Ruth"  1  :16-17. 

Note  that  every  other  line  might  be  omitted,  ami  still  the  full 
thought  would   be  kept.     This  is  the  simplest  form  of   P.iblical 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  55 

verse.  Many  variations  from  this  simple  form  are  made.  The 
Bible  contains  a  great  many  poems  in  parallel  verse.  We  are  not 
sc  likely  to  recognize  them,  however,  since  in  the  King  James 
translation  these  poems  are  not  given  in  their  literary  form.  But 
read  the  Psalms,  or  many  of  the  Proverbs,  and  note  their  par- 
allel structure.  It  is  comparatively  easy  to  write  them  in  verse 
form,  as  has  been  done  with  the  little  lyric  given  from  Ruth. 

Blank  Verse  does  not  rhyme ;  but  it  is  regularly  rhythmic ; 
as, 

"The  quality  of  mercy  is  not  strained ; 
It  droppeth  as  the  gentle  dew  from  heaven 
Upon  the  place  beneath.     It  is  twice  blessed ; 
It  blesseth  him  that  gives  and  him  that  takes." 

— From  "Merchant  of  Venice"— Shakespeare. 

All  of  Shakespeare's  plays  are  done  in  blank  verse ;  so  is 
"Paradise  Lost"  by  Milton;  and  Tennyson's  "Idyls  of  the  King," 
as  well  as  the  poems  of  many  other  writers.  It  is  a  stately  kind 
of  verse,  well  fitted  to  express  great  thoughts,  as  well  as  stirring 
ones. 

Yet,  as  was  said  in  the  beginning,  it  is  the  life  of  the  selec- 
tion that  counts  most,  not  the  form.  The  soul  is  more  than  the 
body  in  literature  as  in  life. 

In  selecting  books  for  the  home,  mothers  should  try  to 
choose  those  that  are  alive,  that  are  sincere,  that  have  a  pure  soul. 
Only  such  literature  gives  a  spiritual  uplift. 

LESSON   OUTLINE. 

1.  What  do  these  words  from  the  apostle  mean  to  you? — 
"Though  I  speak  with  the  tongue  of  men  and  of  angels,  and  have 
not  charity,  I  am  as  a  sounding  brass  and  tinkling  cymbal."  Apply 
this  saying  to  the  work  of  the  author. 

2.  What  three  different  forms  does  the  literary  production 
generally   take? 

3.  Let  each  be  prepared  to  give  some  quotation  from  the 
sermon  type  of  literature.  Use  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount,  or  other 
sayings  of  the  Savior,  or  give  a  choice  proverb  from  the  Bible, 
or  some  passage  from  the  Book  of  Mormon  or  Doctrine  and 
Covenants,  or  from  the  speeches  from  our  leaders.  The  quota- 
tion should  be  only  a  line  or  two  in  length ;  as,  "Neither  do  I  con- 
demn thee ;  go  and  sin  no  more." 

4.  Name  some  story  in  verse,  in  prose.  ~~ 

5.  What  is  the  essential  difference  between  verse  and  prose?1 

6.  Let  each  class  member  be  prepared  to  give  a  choice  quo- 
tation from  some  poem  in  rhymed  verse ;  as, 


56  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

"Tis  always  morning  somewhere,  and  above 
The  awakening  continents,  from  shore  to  shore 
Somewhere  the  birds  are  singing  ever  moic."-  -Longfellow. 

Students  may  use  the  hymn  book,  or  any  collection  of  poems 
tor  this  purpose. 

"God  moves  in  a  mysterious  way,  his  wonders  to  perform; 
He.  plants  his  footsteps  in  the  sea,  and  rides  upon  the  storm." 

7.  Find,  in  one  of  the  Psalms,  or  elsewhere  in  the  Bible, 
two  or  more  lines  that  illustrate  parallel  verse;  as, 

"It  is  a  good  thing  to  give  thanks  unto  the  Lord, 
And  to  sin-  praises  unto  thv  name,  O  Most  High." 

—Psalm  92. 

8.  From  the  plays  of  Shakespeare  or  from  some  other  Eng- 
lish poet,  give  a  brief  example  of  unrhymed,  or  blank  verse;  as, 

"This  above  all :  to  thine  ownself  be  true, 
\nd  it  must  follow,  as  the  night  the  day. 
Thou  canst  not  then  be  false  to  any  man." 

— -'From  "Hamlet" — Shakespeare. 

9.  What  second  guiding  principle  for  parents  in  selecting 
literature  for  the  home  would  you  give? 


LESSON  IV. 

Home  Economics 

Fourth  Week  in  February. 

II.     CORRECT  NURSING  HABITS 

Perhaps  a  larger  percentage  of  trouble  in  infants  is  due  to 
improper  nursing  habits  than  from  any  other  cause.  It  is  diffi- 
cult to  impress  upon  mothers  the  necessity  of  regularity  in  the 
feeding  of  their  babies.  If  you  will  just  stop  to  consider  the  fact 
that  a  baby's  digestive  apparatus  requires  rest  just  as  much  as 
does  the  adult  it  will  help  you  to  realize  the  necessity  for  correct 
habits  of  nursing.  At  least  one-half  of  the  cases  of  colic  duri'lg 
the  first  three  months  of  life,  with  restlessness  at  night  and  in 
manv  cases  imperfect  development,  are  due  to  a  failure  upon  the 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  57 

part  of  the  mother  to  observe  regular  periods  in  the  nursing  of 
her  baby.  Doctors  vary  as  to  the  proper  interval.'  The  condition 
of  the  child  should  determine  the  interval  that  should  be  adopted. 
A  baby  that  is  undernourished  at  birth,  that  is  deficient  in  its 
physical  development,  should  be  put  upon  the  two  hour  interval. 
Very  frequently,  however,  mothers  through  their  over-anxiety 
for  their  babies  will  attempt  to  do  too  much  for  them  so  that  the. 
mother  is  not  always  the  best  judge  as  to  whether  a  child  is  poorly 
nourished  or  not.  The  normal  child — and  by  normal  I  mean  the 
child  that  everages  seven  and  one-half  pounds  at  birth,  and  makes 
a  steady  gain  of  from  four  to  six  ounces  a  week — should  be  put 
upon  the  three  hour  interval.  If  this  is  adopted  as  a  rule  mothers 
will  save  themselves  lots  of  sleepless  nights  and  save  their  babies 
a  great  deal  of  colic.  The  four  hour  interval  is  of  value  in  case-" 
where  there  is  excessive  vomiting  or  where  colic  and  green  stooi? 
do  not  clear  up  on  the  three  hour  interval.  Very  frequently  moth- 
ers tell  me  that  they  are  regular  in  their  nursing  intervals,  but 
upon  close  inquiry  I  find  that  they  are  guessing  at  the  intervals. 
This  should  not  be  attempted.  Nursing  intervals  should  be  reg- 
ulated by  the  clock.  The  rule  for  the  normal  infant  is  6,  9,  12  a.m., 
3,  6,  and  9  p.  m.  Prior  to  four  months  of  age  only  one  nursing  at 
night.  These  nursing  hours  should  be  the  same  for  every  day  — 
not  6  o'clock  one  morning  and  7  o'clock  the  next.  Tram  the  child 
early  to  form  regular  habits  and  he  will  soon  awaken  regularly 
at  the  nursing  period  and  fall  off  to  sleep  again  immediately  after 
nursing.  I  cannot  be  too  emphatic  in  impressing  this  point  upon 
mothers.  Many  children  are  raised  successfully  on  the  irregular 
nursing  periods,  but  that  does  not  necessarily  mean  that  tl.ey 
would  not  have  done  better  if  they  had  been  on  the  regular 
periods. 

The  question  often  arises  in  the  mind  of  the  mother  as  to 
whether  or  not  her  baby  is  getting  enough  milk.  There  is  only 
one  way  to  determine  this,  and  that  is  by  the  scales.  Frequently 
a  mother  will  call  up  a  doctor  with  the  complaint  that  her  baby 
is  not  getting  enough  to  eat.  It  is  the  doctor's  place  to  insist  on 
a  careful  observation  of  the  baby's  weight,  taken  immediately  be- 
fore and  after  nursing  for  every  nursing  period  through  twenty- 
four  hours.  This  gives  us  in  ounces  the  total  amount  of  milk 
that  the  baby  obtains  in  that  period.  If  the  baby  gets  sufficient 
quantity  the  quality  of  the  milk  can  be  determined  onlv  by  an 
observation  of  the  daily  gain  in  weight  over  a  period  of  from  one 
to  two  weeks.  A  normal  gain  of  from  four  to  six  ounces  per  week 
is  pretty  conclusive  that  the  quality  of  the  milk  is  all  right,  other 
things  being  equal.  The  idea  of  sending  the  milk  to  the  doctor  for 
analysis  is  not  reliable  for  the  reason  that  no  doctor  is  prepared 
to  make  a  complete  analysis  of  the  milk.  Only  an  expert  chemist 
could  accomplish  that  analysis.     The  fat  content  of  the  milk  can 


58  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

be  determined  approximately  by  the  doctor  through  a  simple 
test,  but  to  analyze  the  milk  is  out  of  the  question,  the  scales  being 
the  only  practical  method  of  determining  not  only  the  quantity  of 
milk  the  baby  is  receiving,  but  the  quality  of  the  milk. 

The  mother's  nipples  should  be  cleansed  at  all  times  before 
the  baby  is  allowed  to  nurse.  This  protects  the  child  against  the 
entrance  into  the  mouth  of  any  infection.  The  routine  washing 
of  the  baby's  mouth  with  boric  acid  solution  is  a  practice  that 
should  be  condemned  for  the  reason  that  more  or  less  of  that 
solution  enters  the  child's  stomach  and  without  doubt  in  time  will 
produce  digestive  disturbances.  Plain  warm  water  is  practically 
of  as  much  value  as  the  boric  acid  when  used  over  long  periods 
of  time. 

The  widespread  use  of  the  pacifier  to  quiet  the  baby  should 
be  condemned  because  of  the  danger  of  infection.  It  is  prac- 
tically impossible  to  keep  it  clean.  Germs  accumulate  around  the 
base  of  the  nacifier  that  are  readily  introduced  into  the  mouth  of 
the  child.  Dysentery,  "the  great  captain  of  death"  in  infancy,  is 
frequently  due  to  this.  In  occasional  cases  the  pacifier  does  have 
its  uses,  but  the  habit  of  using  it  with  every  baby  is  to  be  un- 
qualifiedly condemned. 

C.     Weaning  the  Baby. 

The  average  child  should  be  weaned  from  nine  to  twelve 
months  of  age.  Mother's  milk  is  deficient  in  some  of  the  mineral 
salts,  particularly  iron.  During  the  first  year  of  the  child's  life 
there  is  enough  of  this  iron  stored  up  in  the  baby's  tissues  to  sup- 
ply the  demand  of  the  body.  This  supply  becomes  depleted  by  the 
end  of  the  first  year,  and  if  the  baby  is  nursed  beyond  that  time, 
although  he  mav  be  fat :  the  tissues  will  be  flabby,  and  his  devel- 
opment will  be  handicapped.  The  vitality  is  thus  lowered  and 
babv  is  more  susceptible  to  all  of  the  acute  infections.  Frequently 
mothers  assume  the  responsibility  of  weaning  the  child  prior  to 
the  nine  months  because  of  their  fear  that  the  baby  is  not  getting 
enough  from  the  breast.  No  mother  should  assume  this  respon- 
sibility. The  conditions  in  which  mother's  milk  is  deficient  as  a 
food  for  the  infant  are  so  rare  that  they  really  need  not  be  con- 
sidered. The  mother's  milk  is  the  ideal  food.  We  cannot  pos- 
sibly duplicate  it.  and  to  deprive  your  baby  of  that  food  prior  to 
the  nine  months  is  to  interfere  with  his  physical  development. 
Usually  the  mother's  diet  can  be  modified  to  suit  the  needs  of 
the  developing  infant.  This  should  always  be  attempted  under  the 
direction  of  a  competent  physician  before  weaning  is  ever  con- 
sidered. The  baby  should  be  weaned  gradually.  The,  appearance 
of  teeth  is  nature's  signal   for  the  introduction   of  other  foods. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  59 

Normally  the  first  teeth  appear  at  six  months  of  age.  If  the 
mother  begins  to  introduce  a  crust  of  dry  bread  at  this  time, 
with  later  on  small  amounts  of  the  gruels  well  cooked,  by  the 
time  the  baby  is  nine  or  ten  months  of  age  weaning  would  be  a 
very  small  matter.  A  very  good  plan  is  to  accustom  the  child  to 
take  one  bottle  of  modified  milk  daily,  so  that  when  the  breast  is 
withheld  the  child  will  take  to  the  bottle  without  any  trouble. 

What  has  been  your  experience  in  regulating  the  intervals  of 
the  baby's  feedings? 

Discuss  the  advisability  of  eliminating  the  night  feeding  by 
the  time  the  baby  is  three  months  old. 

How  many  mothers  have  made  use  of  the  scales  in  the  raising 
of  their  babies  ? 

What  do  you  think  about  the  pacifier? 

Does  it  influence  in  any  way  the  development  of  the  bones  of 
the  face? 

Have  you  in  your  experience  found  it  difficult  to  keep  the 
pacifier  clean? 

Have  you  noticed  the  pallor  and  flabby  condition  of  the  babies 
that  have  been  nursed  beyond  the  first  year? 

In  a  previous  lesson  we  learned  what  the  diet  of  the  nursing 
mother  should  be.  Bearing  this  in  mind,  how  would  you  proceed 
to  modify  the  breast  milk  through  the  mother's  diet? 


FROM  OUR  FRIEND'S  ALBUM. 

C.  L.  McFaul. 

Have  you  gazed  on  naked  grandeur,  where  there's  nothing  else 
to  gaze  on, 
Set  pieces  and  drop  curtain  scenes  galore, 
Big  mountains,   heaved   to   heaven,   which  the   blinding  sunsets 
blazon, 
Black  canyons  where  the  rapids  rip  and  roar? 

Have  you  seen  God  in  his  splendors,  heard  the  tetx  that  nature 
renders, 
You'll  never  hear  it  from  the  family  pew, 
The  simple  things,  the  true  things,  the  silent  men  who  do  things. 
Then  listen  to  the  Wset,  it's  calling  you. 

— Robert  W.  Service. 


60  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

HOME  ECONOMICS  IN  CLUBS  AND  IN  RELIEF 
SOCIETY. 

We  are  delighted  to  give  place  to  the  following  clear  and 
exact  statement  by  Dr.  E.  G.  Peterson,  President  of  the  Agri- 
cultural College  of  Utah,  as  it  outlines  our  views  and  defines 
our  own  position,  with  clearness  and  precision.  We  heartily 
agree  with  Dr.  Peterson  in  the  following  open  letter  which  he 
has  written : 

"It  is  the  policy  of  the  college  to  avoid  forming  organiza- 
tions of  women  for  the  study  of  home  economics  wherever  exist 
ing  organizations  are  prepared  to  go  ahead  with  the  work.  For 
that  reason  it  is  not  recommended  by  the  college  that  the  women 
form  home  economic  associations  if,  in  the  opinion  of  the  women 
and  their  leaders,  the  Relief  Society  home  economics  section, 
meeting  once  each  month,  will  be  sufficient  to  do  the  work.  It 
is  my  opinion  that  as  far  as  possible  extra  organizations  should 
be  avoided. 

"At  the  same  time  there  are  many  communities  where  home 
economics  associations,  separate  and  distinct,  will  probably  be 
necessary.  This  is  a  question  for  the  women  to  decide  among 
themselves.  It  is  strongly  urged,  however,  that  anything  in  the 
nature  of  competitive  organizations  be  avoided.  Two  organi/a 
tions  with  the  same  purpose  in  view  in  the  same  locality  should 
be  avoided.  It  is  strongly  suggested  that  by  all  means  the  work 
should  be  united. 

"The  college  looks  upon  the  education  of  women  in  home 
economics  as  one  of  the  greatest  educational  opportunities  of  our 
day.  There  is  more  wastage  of  life  and  labor  and  wealth  due  to 
lack  of  understanding  of  the  home  and  of  the  family  than  from 
any  other  cause. 

"I  am  told  that  in  America  every  year  400,000  babies  and 
young  children  die,  and  that  200,000  of  these  deaths  are  prevent 
able.  What  an  opportunity  for  enlightened  motherhood.  What 
a  privilege  it  is  to  teach  these  things  of  modern  science  and  art, 
that  means  so  much  to  the  human  race.  Utah  women,  already 
known  for  their  devotion  and  their  high  idealism,  have  an  op- 
portunity to  develop  this  great  science  and  art  as  it  is  develop*  I 
nowhere  else. 

"All  Relief  Society  workers  will  be  interested  in  the  new 
course  in  'mothercraft'  being  given  at  the  Agricultural  College  jot 
Utah,  for  the  first  time  by  any  educational  institution  in  Amer- 
ica. In  these  courses  the  girls  are  definitely  trained  for  the  re- 
sponsibilities of  motherhood  by  caring  for  children  a-  a  part  of 
their  work.  Many  letters  of  inquiry  and  congratulation  from  all 
parts  of  the  country  indicate  among  other  things,  the  unusual 
interest  in  this  subject.  The  niothercraft'  work  is  part  of  the 
course  in  home  economics,  and  promises  to  become  one  of  the 
most  poptdar  fields  in  our  education." 


PARADISE  LOST. 

Hazel  Washburn. 

What  is  so  sad  as  the  "might  have  been?" 
Fruit  of  our  vanity,  folly,  and  sin, 
Heartache  and  care  we  might  never  have  known 
But  for  the  seed  that  our  hands  have  sown. 
Seeds  we  have  sown  at  such  infinite  cost, 
Now  yearning  and  pining  for  "Paradise  Lost." 

Oft  in  the  stillness  and  quiet  of  night, 
Sweet  angel  faces,  so  happy  and  bright, 
Come  to  my  bedside  and  whisper  to  me, 
"We  are  the  children  who  were  to  be." 
Fame,  wealth,  or  pleasure,  our  once  empty  boast, 
Where  are  your  glories  to  "Paradise  Lost?" 

Ye  who  have  babes  that  have  lived  and  died, 
What  is  your  heartache  and  suff'ring  beside 
The  woe  of  one  who  has  wasted  her  life, 
Holding  alone  to  the  title  of  "wife," 
Refusing  that  gift — -surpassed  by  no  other — 
God's  holiest  gift — the  crown  of  a  mother? 

Your  beautiful  babies  will  greet  you  once  more 
With  pleasure  untold,  at  Eternity's  door, 
But  can  Time  or  Eternity  ever  return 
Opportunities  lost,  hated  and  spurned? 
Shipwrecked  sailor,  windswept  and  tossed, 
Where  is  thy  salvage  for  "Paradise  Lost?" 


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FEBRUARY,    1917 


SPEGIAL  ARTICLES 


Francis  Marion  Lyman 

Heber  J.  Grant 
Alice  Louise  Reynolds 

President  Emmeline  B.  Wells, 
Our  Lovely  Human  Heritage 

Susa  Young  Gates 

The  Relief  Society  in  its  Attitude 
to  Dress  and  Social  Customs 


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of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 

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ed that  the  guests  bring  their 
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While  we  are  feeling  sorry 
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there's  an  abundance  of  pure, 
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The  Relief  Society  Magazine 

Ortned  and  Published  by  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 


CONTENTS. 

FEBRUARY,   1917. 

Things  Worth  While Jessie  Sundwall  61 

Frontispiece 

Francis  Marion  Lyman. President  Heber  J.  Grant  63 

Francis  Marion  Lyman Alice  Louise  Reynolds  65 

Birth  Control 68 

Our  Lovely  Human  Heritage.  .  .President  Emmeline  B.Wells  74 

Mothers  in  Israel Mary  A.  S.  Winters  77 

An  Incident  of  Faith 83 

Washington's  Vision   84 

February  Entertainment Morag  88 

Too  Busy Mrs.  Parley  Nelson  90 

Notes  from  the  Field Amy  Brown  Lyman  91 

Home  Science  Department Janette  A.  Hyde  97 

Memories Marie  Jensen  98 

Current  Topics James  H.  Anderson  99 

Editorial :     The  Relief  Society  in  Its  Attitude  to  Dress  and 

and  Social  Customs   101 

Guide  Lessons 104 


ADVERTISERS'    DIRECTORY. 

Patronize  those  who  advertise  with  us.. 

BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  CO.;  Vermont  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE  MUSIC  CO.,  45  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

DESERET  SUNDAY   SCHOOL  UNION   BOOK   STORE,  44  East  South 

Temple  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
DESERET  NEWS  BOOK  STORE,  Books  and  Stationery,  Salt  Lake  City. 
KEELEY  ICE  CREAM  CO.,  55  Main,  260  State  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
MERCHANTS'  BANK,  Third  South  and  Main  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
McCONAHAY,  THE  JEWELER,  64  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
RELIEF  SOCIETY  BURIAL  CLOTHES,  Beehive  House,  Salt  Lake  City. 
GENEALOGICAL  SOCIETY,  60  East  South  Temple. 
OREGON  SHORT  LINE  RAILWAY,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SALT  LAKE  KNITTING  STORE,  70  S.  Main. 
STAR  PRINTING  CO.,  30  P.  O.  Place,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SANDERS,  MRS.  EMMA  J.,  Florist,  278  So.  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SOUTHERN  PACIFIC  RY.,  Second  Floor,  Walker  Bk.  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City, 
THOMAS  STUDIO,  Photographs,  44  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
TAYLOR,  S.  M.  &  CO.,  Undertakers,  251-257  E.  First  So.  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
UTAH-IDAHO  SUGAR  COMPANY,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 
UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL  BANK,  Salt  Lake  City. 
"WOMEN  OF  THE  BIBLE,"  by  Willard  Done. 
Z.  C.  M.  I.,  Salt  Lake  City. 


f >i 

Save  a 

Little  This  Year 

Every  mother  should  teach 
her  children,  not  merely  by 
precept,  but  by  example,  the 
importance  of  6aving  part  of 
their  income. 

One  dollar  at  the  Merchants 
Bank  is  all  that  is  necessary  to 
open  a  savings  account.  That 
dollar  may  be  saved  in  one  of 
the  dime  banks  we  are  giving 
to  the  children.  The  first  dime 
should  be  brought  to  this  bank 
— we  deposit  its  equivalent  in 
the  bank  we  give  you.  We  add 
4  per  cent  interest  as  earned. 

"The  Bank  with  a  Personality" 

Merchant's  Bank 

Capital     $250,000.      Member    of 

Salt   Lake   Clearing:   House. 

John     Pingree,     Preat.;     O.     P. 

Soule,    V.    P.;    Moroni    Helner, 

V.  P.;   Radcliffe  Q.  Cannon.  L. 

J.    Hays,    Asst.   Cashiers. 

Cor.  Main  and  Third  South, 
Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 


ARE  WE  OF  ISRAEL? 

By  GEO.  REYNOLDS 

A  NEW  EDITION 
NOW  READY 

Paper  Binding         25c  Postpaid 

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278  South  Main  Street 
Schramm  -J  oknton  No.  5 

Phone  Wasatch  2815 
Salt  Lake  City.         -         Utah 


BURIAL  INSURANCE 
IN   THE  BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE   COMPANY 

The  women  of  the  Relief  Society  have  now  the  opportunity  of  securing 
a  sufficient  sum  for  proper  burial  by  the  payment  of  a  small  monthly  amount. 
The  moment  you  sign  you  policy  your  burial  expenses  are  assured  without 
burdening    your    children.        Talk    to    us    about    this.  RELIEF    SOCIETY 

HEADQUARTERS,  or 

Beneficial  Life  Insurance  Company 
Relief  Society  Department 

HOME    OFFICE:      VERMONT    BUILDING,    SALT    LAKE    CITY,    UTAH 


THEL_ 
UTAH  STATE 
NATIONAL 
.    BANK 

SAU  LAKE  CITY 
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IT  IS  THE  PURPOSE 
of  this  Bank  at  all 
times  to  render  help- 
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UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL 
BANK 

Your  Account  is  Cordially  Invited 
Joseph  F.  Smith,  Pres. 


Established  1860        Incorporated  1908 

S.M.TAYLOR  &  Co. 

Undertakers  and  Embalmers 

Successors  to 

Joseph  E.  Taylor 

The  Pioneer  Undertaker  of  the  West 
Fifty-three  years  in  one  location — 

251-257  East  First  South  Street 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Efficient   Service,   Modern   Methods 

Complete  Equipment 


Fuirview,  Utah. 


THINGS  WORTH  WHILE. 

Why  are  you  sad,  my  friend,  today  ? 

Cheer  up,  the  world  is  bright, 
And  life  is  full  of  pleasant  things, 

If  you  look  at  it  right. 
The  Lord  is  watching  over  you, 

His  prophet  points  the  way. 
Get  in  and  nobly  do  your  part, 

Too  soon  will  pass  the  day. 

Reach  out  a  helping  hand  to  one 

Less  fortunate  than  you; 
And  get  the  joy  that  follows, 

If  a  kindly  act  you  do. 
There's  nothing  gained  in  brooding,  dear ; 

Of  self  have  not  a  thought, 
You  may  not  think  you're  gaining  much 

Until  the  battle's  fought. 

But  if  you  make  a  sacrifice 

That  seems  so  hard  to  do, 
Forget  not  that  the  Savior  gave 

His  very  life  for  you. 
And  when  you  see  a  look  of  love 

In  someone's  tear-filled  eyes, 
You'll  then  be  glad,  and  you  will  feel 

The  power  that  in  you  lies. 

And  oh,  be  full  of  sympathy 

For  those  who  are  in  need. 
It  fills  the  heart  brim  full  of  joy 

The  hungry  poor  to  feed. 
And  if  you  never  fail  to  pray, 

Dark  clouds  will  pass  you  by. 
Love  and  cheer  will  fill  your  heart 

And  bright  will  be  the  sky. 

This  life  is  full  of  joy  and  love; 

And  if  you  wish  to  find 
The  way  to  peace  and  happiness, 

Be  generous  and  kind. 
Have  charity  and  sympathy, 

And  always  wear  a  smile, 
And  then  I'm  sure  you'll  say  with  me, 

"These  things  are  all  worth  while." 

Jessie  Sundwall, 


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THE 


Relief  Society  Magazine 


Vol.  IV.  FEBRUARY,  1917.  No.  2. 


Francis  Marion  Lyman. 

A  Tribute  from  President  Heber  J.  Grant. 

Francis  M.  Lyman,  in  my  opinion,  was  the'  greatest  individual 
reformer  of  men  of  any  of  the  leading  officials  of  the  Church 
with  whom  I  have  ever  been  acquainted.  He  was  a  natural-born 
teacher.  There  have  been  and  are  hundreds  of  men  in  the  Church 
who  started  on  the  downward  road,  around  whom,  figura- 
tively speaking,  he  put  his  arm,  and,  lifting  them  out  of  the  broad 
way  into  the  straight  and  narrow  path,  planted  their  feet  firmly 
in  the  way  which  leads  to  life  eternal.  Many  men  who  subse- 
quently became  prominent  among  leading  stake  officials,  were  on 
the  high  road  to  destruction,  and  owe  their  reformation  and  suc- 
cess in  life,  after  all  signs  pointed  to  failure,  to  the  wonderfully 
inspiring  and  reforming  ability  of  Francis  M.  Lyman.  He  had  a 
capacity  to  give  himself  to  those  who  were  in  need,  a  service  which 
far  exceeds  the  giving  of  money. 

I  learned  as  a  young  man  presiding  over  the  Tooele  stake 
that  his  very  presence  was  an  inspiration  and  an  encouragement. 
More  than  once  when  the  labors  of  the  Stake  President  seemed 
difficult  because  of  my  youth  and  lack  of  experience,  and  had 
almost  discouraged  me,  I  would  ask  Brother  Lyman  on  such 
occasions  to  remain  in  Tooele  for  a  week  or  two  at  a  time  and 
visit  the  various  wards  with  me.  I  did  not  tell  him  that  I  was 
somewhat  disheartened,  but  after  two  or  three  weeks'  visit  to  the 
different  wards,  and  riding  day  after  day  with  him,  I  gathered 
new  strength  and  determination  to  press  on  in  my  labors  as  well 
as  gaining  an  added  love  of  my  work.  I  never  knew  a  man  who 
seemed  more  to  love  to  work  without  ceasing  in  the  Church  than 
did  Francis  M.  Lyman. 

I  will  relate  an  incident  told  by  President  Frank  Y.  Taylor: 

"I  had  with  me,  on  one  of  my  missionary  trips,  a  young  man 
who  stated  that  he  owed  his  manhood  and  spiritual  life  to  Presi- 


64 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


dent  Francis  M.  Lyman.  He  said :  'When  a  boy  I  was  rough, 
and  did  nearly  everything  wrong  that  a  boy  could  do,  and  had 
no  desire  to  do  right.  Francis  M.  Lyman  came  to  our  settle- 
ment, hunted  me  up,  put  his  arm  around  me,  and  did  all  he  could 
to  encourage  me  to  lead  a  better  life.  I  refused,  on  his  first  ap- 
peal, and  on  many  subsequent  appeals.  He  visited  our  settlement 
during  his  trips  to  southern  Utah,  and  I  think  every  time  he 
cjme,  he  hunted  me  up  and  poured  into  my  soul  the  oil  of  glad- 
ness. For  twenty  long  years  he  did  this,  and  finally  won  my 
heart.  I  turned  over  a  new  leaf,  resolved  to  do  that  which  was 
right,  was  called  on  a  mission,  and  performed  it  honorably,  all 
due  to  the  kind  and  persistent  efforts  of  President  Lyman.  All 
that  I  am  in  character  and  in  spiritual  life,  I  owe  to  that  man  ; 
and  I  think  so  much  of  him  for  his  faith  and  kindness  and  good- 
ness to  me,  that  I  would  go  through  fire  for  him  or  even  give 
my  life  for  him  if  needed.'  " 

An  influential  citizen  in  one  of  the  stakes  of  Zion,  had  made 
a  wreck  of  his  life  through  drink.  Brother  Lyman  reformed  him. 
and  he  subsequently  became  president  of  the  stake  and  he  fre- 
quently stated  to  me  that  he  would  give  his  life  for  President 
Lyman. 

Such  then  was  and  is  the  character  and  spirit  of  President 
Francis  M.  Lyman ! 


Upper  row:     Levi  Edgar  Young.  Joseph  J.  Cannon. 
Front  row:     John   C.   Lyman,   President   Francis  M.    Lyman,   WillarH 

Cannon. 


Francis  Marion  Lyman. 

An  Appreciation  by  Alice  Louise  Reynolds. 

For  many  years  I  have  lived  in  the  home  of  one  of  Francis 
M.  Lyman's  relatives.  I  have  met  many  members  of  the  family, 
particularly  from  the  south  of  the  state.  As  often  as  I  have  met 
them  I  have  heard  them  say,  "Uncle  Marion  says  this  or  thinks 
that"  about  a  given  matter.  I  often  wondered  how  in  his  busy 
life  he  could  come  to  know  their  affairs  so  intimately;  but  early 
concluded  that  God  had  made  him  a  mighty  counselor  in  Israel. 

I  was  sixteen  years  of  age  when  I  first  met  President  Francis 
M.  Lyman.  He  looked  down  at  me  over  his  glasses  in  his  kindly, 
never-to-be-forgotten  manner  and  said  some  things  both  appre- 
ciative and  directive  to  me,  every  word  of  which  I  remember  even 
to  this  hour.  After  that  first  meeting  no  matter  what  the  circum- 
stances, President  Lyman  always  had  time  to  say  something  to 
me;  and  nearly  always  had  time  to  say  something  genuinely  help- 
ful. I  fancied  that  because  of  very  intimate  association  with 
members  of  his  family  that  I  was  especially  favored.  I  have 
never  relinquished  the  thought  that  I  was  especially  favored,  only 
I  have  grown  to  know  that  I  was  but  one  of  a  very  large  class, 
and  that  there  were  tens  of  thousands  of  other  persons  in  that 
favored  group.  This  certainly  is  a  quality  that  set  him  apart 
from  most  other  men,  for  it  is  nothing  short  of  marvelous  that 
any  one  person  could  come  in  contact  with  such  a  host  of  people 
in  the  kindly  sympathetic  and  intimate  way  that  Francis  M.  Ly- 
man did. 

To  him  surely  will  come  that  reward  promised  to  those  who 
seek  above  all  else  to  save  the  souls  of  men,  for  he  did  strive 
with  all  his  might  early  and  late  for  the  salvation  of  mankind. 
Whatever  the  offense  committed,  whether  of  major  or  minor  char- 
acter, he  would  be  found  nestling  close  to  the  offender  seeking 
to  have  him  see  the  error  of  his  way.  Face  to  face  with  one  who 
was  walking  in  by  ways  and  crooked  paths  he  did  not  palliate  the 
offense  but  sought  to  have  the  offender  realize  the  gravity  of  it ; 
nevertheless  he  did  not  leave  the  offender  dismayed,  but  hopeful 
and  encouraged.  Face  to  face  President  Lyman  made  his  cor- 
rections.    It  was  his  wont  to  correct  in  private,  not  in  public. 

President  Lyman  did  everything  in  his  power  to  encourage 
people  in  well  doing;  everything  to  let  them  know  their  good 
deeds  were  not  unnoted.  He  once  said  to  a  young  man  of  my 
acquaintance,  "I  hear  you  have  a  well  ordered  home  and  I  am 
glad  to  hear  it."     "How  did  you  hear  it?"  asked  the  young  man 


66  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

in  astonishment.  "I  heard  it,"  replied  President  Lyman,  "from  a 
mutual  friend  :  a  nurse  in  my  family  who  has  done  service  in  your 
family." 

Duty  was  once  the  watchword  of  society.  Francis  M.  Lyman 
was  of  that  school.  It  is  part  of  his  life's  history  that  during  the 
thirty-seven  years  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Council  of 
Twelve,  he  never  missed  his  quorum  meeting',  if  he  could  reach 
the  place  of  meeting  in  a  "lay's  travel. 

The  one  exception  to  this  rule,  so  far  as  is  known,  was  the 
Thursday  before  his  death  occurred.  Just  as  he  was  leaving  his 
office  to  go  home  for  the  last  time,  Harold  G.  Reynolds  met  him 
with  the  remark:  "I  am  glad  to  meet  you.  Brother  Lyman,  I 
have  some  missionaries  in  the  Seventies  office  to  be  set  apart." 
He  replied  :  "I  have  never  before  refused  to  set  missionaries 
apart,  but  I  feel  very  ill  and  I  must  go  home  and  go  to  bed." 
This  was  two  days  before  his  demise. 

His  devotion  to  his  family  was  one  of  his  marked  character 
istics.     I  have  often  noted  with  what  tenderness  he  would  em- 
brace and  kiss  his  daughters.     His  genial  nature  is  very  largely 
reflected  in  his  children,  for  as  a  ride  they  are  most  cheerfid  in 
their  natures. 

The  kindliest  humor  possible  pervaded  President  Lyman's 
conversation  in  his  home  and  in  his  general  association  with  peo- 
ple. It  relieved  tension  and  serious  and  embarrassing  situations. 
Tt  was  not  two-edged  but  kindly.  Tt  is  said  that  the  American 
appreciates  the  humor  in  Mark  Twain,  and  that  the  German  ap- 
preciates the  philosophy  lurking  there.  There  was  much  of 
philosophy  in  Brother  Lyman's  humor.  A  story  in  point  was 
*old  me  by  a  member  of  his  family. 

At  one  time  one  of  his  sons  went  to  him  considerably 
wrought  up.  Somewhat  excited  he  said,  "Father,  if  I  had  your 
influence,  if  I  had  your  position  in  the  Church,  I  would  do  so  and 
so,  and  so  and  so,  and  I  would  do  it  quickly  and  with  force,  I  can 
t?l!  you."  Putting  his  hand  quietly  upon  the  young  man's  knee, 
his  father  said,  "My  son,  I  am  very  much  afraid,  indeed,  that  if 
you  had  my  influence  you  would  not  keep  it  long." 

President  Lyman  appreciated  the  good  works  of  all  people 
no  matter  who  they  might  be,  nor  from  whence  they  might  come. 
His  interest  was  in  the  achievement,  in  the  main,  not  in  the  person 
who  had  accomplished  the  task.  As  he  associated  with  people  he 
gained  his  own  impressions  of  the  worth  of  men  and  women, 
and  of  their  lack  of  worth.  After  a  conviction  had  come  home 
to  him  on  a  subject,  or  in  relation  to  people,  other  persons  were 
usually  without  influence  either  to  change  or  modify  that  con- 
viction. 

Especially   impressive  to  me  have  been   President  Lyman's 


FRANCIS  M.  LYMAN.  67 

sermons  on  the  Sacrament  and  at  funeral  services.  It  was  the 
practice  of  his  life  to  partake  of  the  Sacrament  each  Sabbath  day. 
I  doubt  if  many  persons  can  be  found  anywhere  who  have 
preached  as  many  funeral  sermons  as  did  he.  It  was  the  way  in 
which  he  spoke  of  death  that  appealed  to  me.  "Death,"  he  would 
frequently  say,  "is  just  as  natural  as  birth."  We  mourn  at  the 
departure  of  our  loved  ones  and  call  it  death ;  ,but  doubtless  there 
is  rejoicing  behind"  the  veil,  such  rejoicing  as  we  feel  at  a  birth. 

I  began  this  article  by  telling  of  the  host  of  persons  who  have 
felt  President  Lyman's  personal  influence  in  their  lives,  and  of 
his  desire  that  all  men  should  be  righteous  and  do  the  works  of 
lighteousness.  I  shall  conclude  by  calling  to  your  mind  such 
matter  as  combines  both  characteristics.  For  years  I  have  seen 
missionaries  go  to  him  anywhere,  everywhere  and  report  that  they 
were  keeping  the  faith.  One  nearby  might  hear  them  say,  "You 
know,  President  Lyman,  you  told  us,  while  in  the  mission  field,  to 
come  and  report  to  you  whenever  we  see  you."  Then  one  would 
see  him  look  straight  into  their  eyes  and  catechise  them  in  relation 
to  their  lives. 

A  missionary  from  Great  Britain  told  me  this  story  with  the 
utmost  feeling.  A  man  came  into  the  Liverpool  office  who  was 
unknown  to  the  other  elders.  He  sat  there  for  a  number  of  hours 
looking  very  lonely.  Finally  President  Lyman  came  in.  The 
elder  approached  him  saying,  "My  name  is  Anderson.  I  come 
from  Grantsville."  "What,"  said  President  Lyman,  "my  old 
friend  Anderson  of  Grantsville  who  did  so  much  good  work 
among  the  Indians?"  "Yes,'''  said  the  elder.  President  Lyman 
put  his  arms  around  the  man  and  hugged  him  hard,  and  the  man's 
heart  overflowed  and  he  wept.  What  a  father  in  Israel  he  was, 
only  the  intimate  thousands  who  loved  him  for  just  such  help  may 
testify!     He  has  gone  to  his  reward — how  great  it  will  be! 


PRESIDENT  HEBER  J.  GRANT. 

The  passing  of  President  Francis  M.  Lyman  brings  to  the 
Presidency  of  the  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  no  less  an  inspirer  of 
youth,  a  lover  of  men,  and  an  apostle  of  purity  and  probity  of 
character.  President  Heber  J.  Grant  now  enters  upon  a  more 
extended  mission  of  usefulness.  His  ringing  testimonies,  his  de- 
termined conquest  of  self,  his  mastery  of  business  principles,  will 
contribute  to  his  successful  leadership  and  ministry.  This  Church 
has  much  that  commands  the  thoughtful  consideration  of  the 
world ;  in  nothing  is  the  Church  so  rich  as  in  the  pure  and  noble 
character  and  strong  and  practical  abilities  of  its  leading  men. 
We  welcome  the  administration  of  President  Heber  J.  Grant. 


Birth  Control 

The  articles  on  birth  control  printed  in  the  July  and  August 
numbers  of  the  Relief  Society  Magazine  have  attracted  national 
attention  to  our  Society  and  to  the  Magazine.  So  widely 
distributed  has  been  the  interest  and  the  inquiries  concerning  this 
article  that  the  editor  felt  it  imperative  to  inquire  of  the  First 
Presidency  of  the  Church  if  they  approved  in  full  of  the  state- 
ments made  by  the  members  of  the  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  Apos- 
tles, and  especially  Elder  Joseph  F.  Smith,  Jr.,  who  treated  the 
matter  authoritatively,  and  if  all  said  was  in  harmony  with  the 
views  of  the  First  Presidency.  We  are  pleased  to  present  the 
following  answer  from  them  : 

Office  of  the  First  Presidency  of 

The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 
Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  December  13,  1916. 

Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates, 

Editor  Relief  Society  Magazine, 

City. 

Dear  Sister:  The  July  and  August  numbers  of  the  Re- 
lief Society  Magazine  contained  brief  articles  by  some  of  the 
promiment  elders  of  the  Church  on  the  subject  of  birth  control, 
and  in  view  of  the  importance  of  the  subject  and  the  attention  it 
is  receiving  throughout  the  nation,  you  desire  an  expression  from 
us  in  writing  in  regard  to  the  attitude  taken  by  the  writers  thereof, 
together  with  the  soundness  of  the  doctrine  contained  therein, 
with  special  reference  to  the  article  by  Elder  Joseph  F.  Smith,  Jr. 
We  give  our  unqualified  endorsement  to  these  articles,  in- 
cluding that  of  Elder  Joseph  F.  Smith,  Jr..  and  commend  the  senti- 
ments contained  therein  to  members  and  non-members  of  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  everywhere. 

Your  Brethern. 

(Signed)  Joseph  F.  Smith, 
Antiion  H.  Lund, 
Chari.es  W.  Penrose, 

First  Presidency. 

Officers,  members  of  the  Relief  Society,  herein  you  have  the 
word  of  the  Lord,  on  this  subject.  Can  anything  be  clearer  or 
more  emphatic?  Tt  is  a  very  strange  thing  that  people  can  believe 


BIRTH  CONTROL.  69 

that  the  Lord  of  Life  could  countenance  for  one  moment,  the  re- 
fusal of  his  children  to  comply  with  the  first  commandment  given 
to  Adam  and  Eve.  It  is  so  easy  to  avoid  parenthood,  if  people 
wish  to  do  so,  and  that,  too,  innocently,  even  if  selfishly.  Men 
and  women  can  remain  unmarried.  That  is  all  there  is  to  it. 
It  may  be  interesting  to  our  readers  to  peruse  some  of  the 
comments  made  upon  these  articles  by  the  contemporary  press. 
Here  follows  the  article  given  in  the  Journal  of  Heredity: 

RELIGION   AND   BIRTH-CONTROL. 

"Antagonism  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  toward  the  'birth 
control'  movement  is  well  known.  This  antagonism  is  based  on  theo- 
logical grounds,  but  it  has  frequently  been  pointed  out  that  the  result, 
whether  the  church  has  the  fact  in  mind  or  not,  will  be  to  give  the 
church  a  slowly  increasing  preponderance  in  numbers,  in  any  com- 
munity where  the  population  is  made  up  in  part  of  Catholics  and  in 
part  of   Protestants. 

"The  Church  of  Latter-day  Saints  of  Jesus  Christ,  popularly  known 
as  the  'Mormon'  Church,  has  taken  a  similarly  antagonistic  stand  on 
birth  control.  Theological  objections  are  raised  against  it;  but  in 
this  case  what  may  be  called  the  eugenic  aspect,  the  problem  of  alter- 
ing the  relative  proportions  of  different  classes  in  a  population,  is 
clearly  seen  and  acknowledged. 

"In  the  July  issue  of  the  Relief  Society  Magazine,  an  official  publi- 
cation issued  at  Salt  Lake  City,  five  of  the  twelve  elders  who  make 
up  the  supreme  council  of  the  organization  state  their  views  on  birth 
control.  Elder  Rudger  Clawson  says  that  it  is  sinful  to  restrict  the 
number  of  children  in  a  family,  continuing: 

"  'Woman  is  so  constituted  that,  ordinarily,  she  is  capable  of  bear- 
ing, during  the  years  of  her  greatest  strength  and  physical  vigor,  from 
eight  to  ten  children,  and  in  exceptional  cases  a  larger  number  than 
that.  The  law  of  her  nature  so  ordered  it,  and  God's  command,  while 
it  did  not  specify  the  exact  number  of  children  alloted  to  woman, 
simply  implied  that  she  should  exercise  the  sacred  power  of  pro- 
creation to  its  utmost  limit.' 

"Elder  George  F.  Richards  writes:  'My  wife  has  borne  to  me 
fifteen  children.  Anything  short  of  this  would  have  been  less  than 
her  duty  and  privilege.' 

"The  eugenic  view  of  the  subject  is  most  clearly  seen  by  elder 
Joseph  F.  Smith.,  Jr.,  who  points  out: 

"  'The  first  great  commandment  given  both  to  man  and  beast  by 
the  Creator  was  to  be  fruitful  and  multiply  and  replenish  the  earth; 
and  I  have  not  learned  that  this  commandment  was  ever  repealed. 
Those  who  attempt  to  pervert  the  ways  of  the  Lord,  and  to  prevent 
their  offspring  from  coming  into  the  world  in  obedience  to  this  great 
command,  are  guilty  of  one  of  the  most  heinous  crimes  in  the 
category.  There  is  no  promise  of  eternal  salvation  and  exaltation  for 
such  as  they,  for  by  their  acts  they  prove  their  unworthiness  for  exal- 
tation and  unfitness  for  a  kingdom  where  the  crowning  glory  is  the 
continuation  of  the  family  union  and  eternal  increase  which  have  been 
promised  to  all  those  who  obey  the  law  of  the  Lord.  It  is  just  as  much 
n.urder  to  destroy  life  before  as  it  is  after  birth,  although  man-made 


7C  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

laws  may  not  so  consider  it;  but  there  is  One  who  does  take  notice, 
and  His  justice  and  judgment  is  sure. 

"  'I  feel  only  the  greatest  contempt  for  those  who,  because  of  a 
little  worldly  learning  or  a  feeling  of  their  own  superiority  over  others, 
advocate  and  endeavor  to  control  the  so-called  "lower  classes"  from 
what  they  are  pleased  to  call  "indiscriminate  breeding." 

"  'The  old  Colonial  stock  that  one  or  two  centuries  ago  laid 
the  foundation  of  our  great  nation,  is  rapidly  being  replaced  by  an- 
other people,  due  to  the  practice  of  this  erroneous  doctrine  of  'small 
families.'  According  to  statistics  gathered  by  a  leading  magazine 
published  in  New  York,  a  year  or  two  ago,  the  average  number  of 
children  to  a  family  among  the  descendants  of  the  old  American 
•  stock  in  the  New  England  States,  is  only  two  and  a  fraction.' 

"It  is  unquestionable  that  the  number  of  births  has  been  much 
limited  in  the  economically  most  efficient  sections  of  the  population 
of  the  United  States,  and  very  little  limited  in  the  least  efficient  sec- 
tions. 

"It  is  also  unquestionable  that  the  spread  of  the  birth  control 
propoganda  in  the  'lower  classes'  is  at  the  present  time  very,  very 
rapid.  Whether  or  not  one  approve  of  that  spread,  it  is  certain  that 
the  birth-rate  of  those  classes  is  likely  to  fall,  thus  checking  the  very 
serious   differential  nature  of  the   present  birth-rate. 

"If,  at  the  same  time,  eugenics  can  succeed  to  some  extent  in  in- 
creasing the  birth-rate  among  the  socially  most  valuable  sections  of 
the  community,  then  the  present  demonstrable  deterioration  of  the 
American  stock,  as  a  whole,  will  gradually  become  less  menacing." 

The  Literary  Digest  also  commented  at  some  length  on  the 
articles.  Not  long  since  the  editor  of  this  Magazine  received  a 
Letter  from  the  Medical  Journal  of  New  York  asking  for  copies 
of  our  Magazine.  Very  recently  the  following  letter  from  the 
Birth  Control  Review  came  to  this  office : 

THE    BIRTH    CONTROL   REVIEW. 

Margaret   Sanger,   Editor;   Frederick  A.   Blossom,   Managing   Editor; 
Elizabeth  Stuyvesant,  Secretary-Treasurer. 

Dedicated  to  the  principle   of  intelligent  and  voluntary   motherhood. 

December  2,  1916. 
The  Relief  Society  Magazine, 
Salt  Lake  City,  Utah, 
Please  send  me  the  copy  of  your  magazine  for  July,  1916,  which 
opposes    Birth    Control   and   what   other    material   you    have    on    the 
subject. 

We  respect  an  honest  expression  of  conviction  and  want  to  know 
your  attitude.     Any  courtesy  you  may  show  us  will  be  appreciated  . 

Sincerely  yours, 

The  Birth  Control  Review, 
By  Frank  V.  Anderson, 

Assistant    Editor. 

We  add  here  some  passages  taken  from  that  quaint,  old,  re- 
cently discovered  Book  of  lasher,  and  you  will  see  from  this  that 


BIRTH  CONTROL.  71 

the  crime  of  race-suicide,  or,  as  the  milder  term  now  has  it,  birth 
control,  was  one  of  the  contributing  causes  of  the  flood  which 
swept  over  the  earth  in  the  days  of  Noah.  It  is  easy  to  under- 
stand how  people  who  do  not  believe  in  life  before  they  came  to 
this  earth,  and  in  life  after  death — it  is  easy  to  understand  how 
such  people  can  justify  themselves  in  prevention  of  offspring,  but 
it  is  incomprehensible  that  anyone  should  assume  to  be  a  Christian 
and  make  of  marriage  a  mockery  in  this  modern  fashion. 

THE  BOOK  OF  JASHER. 
Chapter  2,  Pages  3,  4  and  5. 

3.  And  it  was  in  the  days  of  Enosh  (or  Enoch)  that  the 
sons  of  men  continued  to  rebel  and  transgress  against  God,  to 
increase  the  anger  of  the  Lord  against  the  sons  of  men. 

4.  And  the  sons  of  men  went  and  they  served  other  gods, 
and  they  forgot  the  Lord  who  had  created  them  in  the  earth :  and 
in  those  days  the  sons  of  men  made  images  of  brass  and  iron, 
wood  and  stone,  and  they  bowed  down  and  served  them. 

9.  And  it  was  when  men  continued  to  rebel  and  transgress 
against  God,  and  to  corrupt  their  ways,  that  the  earth  also  became 
corrupt. 

17.  And  Lamech,  the  son  of  Methusael,  became  related  to 
Cninan  by  marriage,  and  he  took  his  two  daughters  for  his  wives, 
and  Adah  conceived  and  bare  a  son  to  Lamech,  and  she  called 
his  name  Jabel. 

18.  And  she  again  conceived  and  bare  a  son,  and  called  his 
name  Jubal;  and  Zillah,  her  sister,  was  barren  in  those  days  and 
had  no  offspring. 

19.  For  in  those  days  the  sons  of  men  began  to  trespass 
against  God,  and  to  transgress  the  commandments  which  he  had 
commanded  to  Adam,  to  be  fruitful  and  multiply  in  the  earth. 

20.  And  some  of  the  sons  of  men  would  render  them 
barren,  in  order  that  they  might  retain  their  figures  and  whereby 
their  beautiful  appearance  might  not  fade. 

21.  And  when  the  sons  of  men  caused  some  of  their  wives 
to  drink,  Zillah  drank  with  them. 

And    the    child-bearing    women    appeared    abominable    in 

the  sight  of  their  husbands,  as  widows,  whilst  their  husbands 

lived,  for  to  the  barren  ones  only  they  were  attached. 

*  *  *  *'*  *  *  *         * 

And  Noah  found  grace  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord,  and  the 
Lord  chose  him  and  his  children  to  raise  up  seed  from  them 
upon  the  face  of  the  whole  earth. 

Sisters,  readers,  members  of  the  Relief  Society,  every 
where     be  warned,  watch  your  conversation,  guard  your  lips,  and 


72  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

see  that  you  do  not  permit  our  young  people  to  be  infected  with 
this  dreadful  marital  heresy  through  your  careless  words  or 
thoughtless  agreement  with  this  modern  evil. 

We  are  happy  to  close  this  article  with  a  clear  exposition  of 
the  case  by  F.i  i>i:r  George  Albert  Smith,  of  the  Council  of  the 
Twelve : 

"Multiply  and  replenish  the  earth  and  subdue  it"  was  the 
first  great  commandment.  Since  which  time  the  prophets  of  the 
Lord  have  spoken  in  commendation  of  the  large  family.  From 
the  beginning  until  now  the  women  who  willingly  became  the 
mothers  of  legitimate  children  have  been  respected  and  honored 
bv  good  men. 

Children  are  an  heritage  from  the  Lord,  and  those  who  re- 
fuse the  responsibility  of  bringing  them  into  the  world]  and 
caring  for  them  are  usually  prompted  ,by  selfish  motives,  and  the 
result  is  that  they  suffer  the  penalty  of  selfishness  throughout 
erernity.  There  is  no  excuse  for  members  of  our  Church  adopt- 
ing the  custom  of  the  world  to  either  limit  the  size  of  the  family 
<>r  have  none  at  all.  We  have  been  better  taught  than  they.  The 
desire  to  gain  an  exaltation  in  the  Celestial  Kingdom  should 
prompt  us  to  take  advantpge  of  every  o-  <-v,  and  one  op- 

portunity for  happiness,  there,  is  the  as  .ociation  with  the  chil- 
dren the  Lord  offers  us  to  be  our  eternal  companions. 

The  small  families  in  New  England  have  made  it  to  some 
extent  the  home  of  the  alien.  The  devil  deceived  many  excellent 
people,  causing  them  to  believe  they  would  be  happier  without 
children  or  with  only  one  or  two.  This  resulted  in  the  gradual 
dwindling  of  many  families  until  names  that  were  held  in  honor  a 
century  ago  now  have  no  living  representative.  Their  talent  has 
been  buried.  How  will  they  feel  when  they  arise  in  the  morning 
of  the  resurrection  and  learn  that  they  violated  the  law  of  the 
Lord  and  yielded  to  the  temptation  of  the  evil  one  and  closed  the 
door  to  eternal  happiness?  They  may  plead  that  they  knew  no 
better.  But  what  will  be  the  condition  of  the  Latter-day  Saints, 
for  we  have  been  taught  the  truth?  When  we  refuse  to  assume 
the  responsibility  of  parenthood  it  is  with  the  knowledge  that  we 
are  displeasing  our  Creator.  What  is  more  beautiful  in  life  than 
a  home  in  which  father  and  mother  are  surrounded  by  a  large 
family  of  children  and  grandchildren!  Compare  it  with  the  wil- 
fully childless  home.  One  typifies  the  eternal  spring  time  of  life, 
the  other  the  eternal  winter  of  death.  One  of  the  tricks  of  the 
adversary  is  to  suggest  that  the  fewer  children  in  the  home  the 
better  the  chances  for  education,  etc.,  and  the  contribution  to 
society  will  be  more  worthy.  If  the  parents  had  the  choosing 
of  the  intellects  coming  into  their  homes  they  might  successfully 


BIRTH  CONTROL.  73 

discard  the  weaklings,  but  they  haven't.  If  they  reduce  the  num- 
ber born  to  them  by  prevention  of  conception,  etc.,  they  may  de- 
prive themselves  of  the  honor  and  eternal  happiness  of  bringing 
into  the  world  a  genius  that  will  add  lustre  to  their  names 
throughout  eternity.  Many  of  the  world's  greatest  characters 
were  born  in  large  families.  The  small  family  tends  to  selfish- 
ness, the  large  family  to  generosity.  One  child  or  two  are  likely 
to  be  pampered  and  spoiled,  but  where  there  are  a  number  of 
children,  each  learns  to  divide  with  the  others  the  favors  be- 
stowed upon  him,  each  learns  to  serve  part  of  the  time  instead 
of  always  expecting  to  be  waited  upon.  Each  learns  the  rights  of 
the  other  and  that  those  rights  must  be  considered. 

The  gospel  teaches  that  our  happiness  depends  largely  upon 
cur  posterity  which,  being  true,  should  inspire  us  to  desire  a 
large  and  honorable  family  of  children  who  by  reason  of  being 
properly  born  will  be  heirs  of  the  choicest  blessings  of  the  Lord. 

When  we  go  from  this  sphere  of  existence  we  .will  not  take 
any  of  the  wealth  of  this  world  that  we  have  been  stewards  over. 
It  is  only  loaned  to  us  for  our  development.  But  the  children 
born  to  us  under  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  are  ours  for 
eternity,  and  no  one  can  take  them  from  us.  They  are  a  gift  of 
a  loving  heavenly  Father  to  us,  and  our  happiness  here  and  here- 
after will  be  greatly  enhanced  by  their  companionship  and  love. 

Let  the  Latter-day  Saints  understand  this  and  not  exchange 
this  eternal  blessing  for  the  folly  and  fashion  of  the  world. 

(Signed)  George  Albert  Smith. 


THE  CONGRESSLADY. 
By  Christopher  Morley. 

We  have  so  many  Congressmen 
Whose  ways  are  dark  and  shady — 

How  joyfully  we  welcome  then 
The  coming  Congresslady ! 

I  wonder,  is  she  old  and  stout 
Or  is  she  young  and  pretty? 

How  long  the  members  will  stay  out 
Who  are  on  her  committee ! 

We'll  hear  no  more  of  shabbiness 

Among  our  legislators — 
She'll  make  them  formal  in  their  dress; 

They'll  wear  boiled  shirts  and  gaiters. 

1  ler  maiden  speeches  will  be  known 
For  charm  and  grace  of  manner ; 

Buo  who  on  earth  will  chaperon 
The  member  from  Montana? 


F 


^ 


Our  Lovely  Human  Heritage 

President  Emmeline  B.  Wells. 


Out  of  the  storm  and  stress  of  the  pioneer  days 
in  Nauvoo,  and  across  the  trackless  plains — out  of 
the  struggle  and  toil  which  laid  the  foundation  pil- 
lars of  Utah — out  of  the  purging  force  of  woman's 
pioneer  achievements,  looms  the  delicate  tracery 
i»nd  gentle  face  and  form  heaven-preserved  to  the 
present  generation:  Our  beloved  President  Emme- 
line B.  Wells  who  is  among  the  most  precious  hu- 
man possessions  of  the  Relief  Society  today.  Much 
that  moderns  think  about  and  wonder  about  and 
study  about  concerning  the  past,  she  knows — she  is 
ihe  past;  and  her  slender  hands,  fashioning  each 
day's  link  with  patient  solicitude,  have  woven  about 
her  fragile  personality  the  very  essence  and  inspira- 
tion of  the  Relief  Society  and  of  the  women  of  the 
Church. 

Each  morning  when  the  office  force  at  head- 
quarters gather  about  their  duties  and  daily  toils, 
they  watch  with  deep  affection  for  the  Morning  Mir- 
acle. She  comes — our  little,  delicate,  great-minded 
President,  walking  softly,  yet  with  fierce  independ- 
ence into  the  rooms,  and  the  Miracle  is  born  again 
for  the  new  day.  She  hears  our  complaints;  she 
comforts  our  griefs;  she  counsels  our  doubts;  and 
over  them  all  breathes  the  ineffable  spirit  of  her 
own  fixed  integrity  to  the  truth.  Her  gentle  refine- 
ment of  face  and  form  with  its  appealing  charm  is 
like  the  gentle,  tender  innocence  of  childhood, 
but  it  does  not  make  us  forget  the  power  and  ma- 
jesty of  her  spirit  which  shines  from  the  age- 
dimmed  eyes,  or  sometimes  flames  from  her  pas- 
sionate denunciation  of  wrong. 


\ 


s 


F 


"^ 


This  month  is  her  birth  month  and  once  more 
we  joy  in  the  glad  Providence  which  gave  us  a  leap- 
year  day  and  a  baby  born  on  that  day,  eighty-nine 
years  ago.  Her  sensitively  pure  spirit  embodies,  for 
us,  lovely  dignity,  while  that  gracious  concourse  of 
women  of  whom  she  is  the  last  and  lingering  relic 
gather  about  her  in  our  memory.  Her  sorrows  and 
her  joys  have  traced  upon  her  sensitive  features  the 
image  of  resignation  and  trust  in  God. 

Her  memory  is  like  a  carven  casket,  for  which 
she  wisely  keeps  the  key,  unless  you  are  fortunate 
enough  to  win  a  golden  hour  from  her  still  occu- 
pied life,  and  then  she  may  sit  down  with  you,  still 
erect,  and  spurning  soft-cushions  or  easy  chairs. 
She  balances  like  a  bird  upon  the  brink  of  a  foun- 
tain, and  slowly,  carefully  unlocks  the  cover  of  her 
memory-casket.  As  she  withdraws  the  jeweled 
strands  of  fact  or  faith,  you  sit  entranced,  and  listen 
to  the  clear  music  of  her  voice  while  she  visual- 
izes the  truths  which  fall  one  by  one  from  her 
precious  lips. 

Today,  tonight,  and  yet  another  today — for 
this  little  queen  is  like  the  lingering  sunset  on  our 
snow-capped  Ensign  Peak — the  golden  glow  kisses 
the  snowy  crown,  and  we  yearn  and  yearn  to  pro- 
long the  lingering  flame  of  light.  She  has  known  so 
many  of  our  heroes— she  knows  so  much  of  the  for- 
gotten past — she  has  done  so  much  for  women 
everywhere — she  has  suffered  so  keenly — she  has 
stood  like  a  mountain  peak  in  the  midst  of  her  val- 
leys of  affliction,  that  we  cry  out  silently:  "0 
Lord,  do  Thou  let  the  sunset  linger  yet  a  little  while 
around  us.  Take  not  Thou  away  this  light,  this 
tender  faithful  glow,  until  we  drink  our  fill  of  light 
and  of  her  sweet  presence."  This  then  closes  the 
evening  orison.  Susa  Young  Gates. 


\, 


J 


^ 


Mothers  in  Israel. 

THE    NAUVOO   BATTLE. 

By  Mary  Ann  Stearns  Winters. 

Note. — We  give  this  month  a  vivid  picture  of  conditions  in  Nau- 
voo,  at  the  time  of  the  Exodus,  that  in  striking  simplicity  and  pellucid 
description  might  well  be  a  companion  piece  of  Colonel  Thomas  L. 
Kane's  masterpiece  on  the  same  subject. 

The  main  body  of  the  Church  had  left  Nauvoo  in  February, 
1846,  and  for  a  time  peace  and  quiet  reigned  in  the  city,  with  a 
lively  hope  in  the  hearts  of  those  still  remaining  to  soon  follow  the 
advance  company  of  friends  and  relatives.  Our  star  of  hope  was 
westward  bound,  and  all  thoughts  were  turned  in  that  direction. 
The  Lion  of  the  Lord  and  his  strong  ones  were  in  the  lead,  and 
like  the  needle  to  the  pole — every  faithful  heart  was  irresistibly 
drawn  that  way.  We,  individually,  were  waiting  for  our  house  to 
be  sold  that  we  might  have  means  to  pursue  our  journey  and  over- 
take our  friends  who  had  started  earlier  in  the  season.  During 
the  summer  the  mob  element  of  Illinois  became  impatient  at  the 
slowness  of  the  "remnant"  in  vacating  their  homes  in  the  beauti- 
ful and  beloved  city,  and  began  persecuting,  and  driving  those 
on  the  outskirts,  the  story  of  which  has  been  told  often,  and  well, 
in  the  histories  and  magazines  of  the  Church.  Finally  after  many 
threats  and  annoyances  they  gathered  their  forces  to  besiege  the 
city.  They  were  advancing  and  constantly  giving  out  reports  of 
what  they  were  going  to  do,  though  they  seemed  quite  undecided 
as  to  the  point  of  attack. 

The  brethren  had  fortified  the  places  most  liable  for  their 
entrance,  and  the  night  before — on  the  10th  of  September,  1846 — 
they  had  erected  breastworks  at  the  head  of  Mulholland  Street, 
and  about  sunrise  on  the  morning  of  the  fatal  day,  Brother 
Anson  Pratt  came  to  our  part  of  the  town  and  called  for  all  the 
cooked  food  that  the  sisters  were  in  possession  of — saying,  the 
brethren  had  been  working  all  night,  and  were  tired  and  hungry 
and  half  famished,  as  many  of  them  had  not  gone  off  duty  to  get 
their  suppers.  Our  breakfast  was  just  ready  and  after  making 
a  big  pot  of  warm  drink  my  mother  packed  up  every  morsel  she 
had,  and  joyfully  sent  it  to  the  weary  workers.  And  it  was  very 
interesting  to  hear  the  experiences  of  the  sisters  in  the  way  the 
call  found  them — many  were  like  us,  gave  away  all  their  cooked 
food  to  the  guards,  and  then  went  cheerfully  to  work  and  soon 
had  another  breakfast  prepared  and  eaten.     Brother  Pratt  had 


78  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

asked  the  women  to  bake  all  the  bread  they  possibly  could,  to 
last  through  the  crisis,  so  mother  and  sister  Charlotte  Higbee,  our 
nearest  neighbor,  set  salt  rising,  and  baked  two  big  brick  ovens 
full.  Brother  Iligbee  was  Bishop  and  had  a  little  flour  on  hand, 
or  it  could  not  have  been  done,  for  our  bin  contained  only  a  few 
pounds. 

Our  home  was  only  one  block  from  the  Temple  and  we 
could  hear  the  reports  given  out  by  the  sentinel  on  the  tower,  to 
the  guards  on  the  grounds  below.  Day  after  day  we  had  listene  1 
to  the  words  of  weal  or  woe.  as  they  came  from  the  sentinel's 
lips,  and  our  hope  and  courage  rose  and  fell  accordingly,  but  oh. 
foi  words  to  tell  of  the  emotions  of  our  hearts  as  the  sound  came 
forth,  "The  mob  are  advancing  slowly,  they  are  within  one  block 
of  the  breastworks."  This  was  about  one  o'clock.  The  mob 
seemed  undecided — they  halted — their  courage  faltered,  they 
seemed  to  feel  the  power  of  the  determined  force  in  front  of 
them.  Then  came  the  word,  "They  have  retreated  a  little  and  are 
partly  under  cover."  The  brave  Captain  Anderson,  Colonels 
Fulmer  and  Picket  with  their  spartan  band  were  waiting,  if  not 
with  open  arms,  at  least  with  ready  arms,  to  receive  them.  L.  O. 
Littlefield  with  his  company  of  infantry  were  stationed  in  a  corn- 
field, a  little  south  of  the  blacksmith  shop,  where  many  had  pre- 
pared themselves  for  the  encounter.  In  Captain  Littlefield's  com- 
pany was  Oscar  Winters,  then  a  young  man  of  21.  The  last 
few  nights  before  the  battle,  the  sisters  whose  husbands  were  on 
guard  duty,  brought  their  little  children  and  camped  at  our 
house,  for  we  all  seemed  to  feel  that  under  the  shadow  of  the 
Temple  was  the  safest  place.  And  it  was  then  that  my  mother 
said,  "It  was  the  first  time  she  could  look  with  pleasure  on  the 
graves  of  her  little  children  that  were  buried  in  the  lot,  near 
the  house,  for  they  were  safe  from  all  harm — and  she  knew  not 
what  would  be  the  fate  of  the  others."  Our  Prophet  and  Patriarch 
had  been  martyred,  and  what  could  we  expect  from  those  blood- 
thirsty creatures.  At  two  o'clock  the  little  group  of  watchers 
on  the  porch  of  our  house  were  startled  by  the  boom  of  a  cannon, 
and  the  sentry  on  the  Temple  announced  that  the  enemy  had 
opened  fire.  Some  one  remarked,  "That  is  the  first,  but  who 
can  tell  of  the  last,  and  what  will  take  place  between."  We  had 
not  long  to  wait  for  the  second  report,  and  they  came  at  short 
intervals  until  I  had  counted  32,  and  then  the  small  arms  were 
used  and  they  all  came  in  such  rapid  succession  that  I  could 
keep  count  no  longer.  The  conflict  was  fierce,  but  not  of  very 
long  duration,  for  it  seems  that  the  defenders'  weapons  carried 
disaster  as  well  as  the  enemies',  and  the  mob  seemed  willing  to 
cease  their  hostilities  and  wait  for  another  day. 

During  that  time  a  treaty  was  made,  that  if  the  "Mormons" 


MOTHERS  IN  ISRAEL.  79 

would  all  leave  the  city  within  three  days,  they  would  not  molest 
them  farther,  and  they  might  go  in  peace.  It  was  also  agreed  that 
a  committee,  and  their  families,  might  remain  to  take  charge  of 
the  property  belonging  to  the  banished  citizens.  These  were 
Almon  W.  Babbitt,  Joseph  L.  Heywood  and  John  S.  Fullmer. 
Not  long  after  the  firing  commenced,  a  courier  came  to  the 
Temple  and  brought  the  sad  tidings  that  three  of  our  brethren 
had  lost  their  lives  in  the  conflict,  Captain  William  Anderson  and 
his  son  Augustus  and — . 

But  while  this  message  brought  sorrow  to  every  soul,  it  also 
brought  relief  to  the  hearts  of  the  waiting  sisters  whose  hus- 
bands and  sons  were  at  the  front,  to  know  that  they  still  lived. 
But  the  anguish  and  suspense  of  those  dreadful  hours  can  never 
be  told  in  words.  And  I  will  never  forget  the  unflinching  faith 
and  courage  of  that  devoted  band  of  women.  They  never  thought 
of  fleeing  or  turning  away,  but  "stand  still  and  see  the  salvation 
of  the  Lord."  As  the  firing  lulled  and  the  strain  relaxed,  my  chills 
returned,  and  as  the  fever  rose  I  became  somewhat  delirious  and, 
therefore,  oblivious  to  all  except  my  own  misery.  Through  that 
long  night  I  tossed  and  moaned,  and  longed  for  rest.  But  when 
morning  came  my  fever  had  gone,  and  I  was  able  to  get  up,  and 
again  realize  the  situation  we  were  in.  The  word  had  gone 
forth  that  we  were  to  leave  in  three  days.  But  how  were  we  to 
go,  and  where — my  mother  had  three  helpless  children,  for 
Brother  Pratt  was  at  the  front  and  we  were  without  kith  or  kin 
to  look  to  for  help  or  aid  in  any  way.  The  promise  had  gone 
out  that  all  would  be  rescued  from  that  hostile  band,  so  we  waited 
patiently,  though  anxiously  for  our  turn  to  come. 

Hour  after  hour  we  watched  the  teams  carrying  the  families, 
as  they  wended  their  way  to  the  river  to  be  ferried  over  to  Iewa, 
a  place  of  peace  and  safety..  The  end  of  the  second  day  was 
drawing  to  a  close — we  were  nearly  alone,  but  the  guards  sta- 
tioned at  the  Temple  gave  us  a  little  sense  of  security,  though 
we  passed  a  lonely  night  and  were  truly  thankful  as  the  morning 
of  the  third  day  dawned  upon  us. 

About  ten  o'clock  a  message  came  that  we  would  be  taken 
to  the  river  soon  after  dinner.  So,  after  partaking  of  an  early 
lunch  we  prepared  to  leave  our  comfortable  home  with  a  knowl- 
edge in  our  hearts  that  we  were  never  to  return  to  it  again.  The 
stove  on  the  hearth — the  furniture  standing  round — the  pictures 
on  the  wall — all  were  given  a  parting  look,  and  then  my  mother, 
taking  her  little  children  repaired  to  the  graves  of  our  loved  ones 
from  which  we  were  so  soon  to  be  parted  forever,  till  the  Resur- 
rection Morn,  or  till  we  went  to  meet  them  in  their  happy  Home 
above.  I  know  that  the  fervent  prayers  she  uttered  for  the  pres- 
ervation of  those  precious  relics  have  been  heard,  and  answered 


80  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

up  to  the  present  time.  Farewell,  our  loved  home,  farewell,  our 
cherished  dead — farewell,  the  beautiful  Nauvoo.  Ere  long  thy 
waste  places  will  be  built  up,  and  thy  beauty  shine  with  renewed 
thrift  and  splendor. 

After  some  delay  our  conveyance  arrived.  Our  things  that 
we  could  take  with  us  had  been  packed  for  many  days,  and  were 
soon  placed  in  the  wagon,  and  about  four  o'clock  we  were  de- 
posited on  the  bank  of  the  Mississippi  River  opposite  Montrose, 
waiting  to  cross  over.  The  bank  was  lined  with  people,  all  in 
the  same  condition,  driven  from  home,  but  oh,  it  was  joy  to  be  so 
closely  associated  with  those  faithful  ones,  and  many  were  the 
words  of  cheer  and  comfort  that  passed  from  one  to  another  in 
that  trying  hour.  The  sand  in  that  particular  place  was  quite 
deep,  and  would  not  hold  the  tent  pins,  so  we  piled  up  the 
trunks  and  boxes  a  little  way  apart  and  laid  the  tent  poles  across, 
and  by  spreading  the  tent  over  these,  and  mother  making  our  bed 
underneath  we  were  quite  comfortable  for  the  night,  hoping  that 
on  the  morrow  we  would  reach  a  place  of  friends  and  safety. 

About  six  o'clock,  while  we  were  busy  with  our  preparations 
for  the  night  we  heard  a  martial  band  playing,  and  all  stopped  to 
listen.  Some  one  on  higher  ground  reported  it  to  be  "a  company 
of  the  mob  marching  this  way."  This  was  not  expected,  and  as 
we  did  not  know  their  purpose  it  caused  another  wave  of  anxiety 
to  pass  over  the  hearts  of  the  people,  but  it  was  soon  ascertained 
that  the  company  were  about  to  disband  and  go  home,  and  they 
were  just  coming  to  take  a  last  look  at  their  victims  and  see  if 
they  were  making  sufficient  haste  in  leaving  the  state.  They  were 
not  soldiers,  but  dressed,  some  in  citizens'  clothes,  and  some 
in  country  garb,  but  all  were  volunteers  banded  together  to  drive 
out  the  "Mormons." 

Just  as  they  were  opposite  our  camp  they  halted, an  instant, 
and  the  Captain  shouted,  "You're  a  d — d  pretty  looking  set,  ain't 
you?"  This  caused  the  women  to  be  very  indignant.  My  mother 
took  a  step  forward  and  replied,  "Gentlemen,  it  is  your  day  now, 
but  it  will  be  ours  by  and  by."  He  called  back,  "Shut  up  that,  or 
we  will  have  you  under  guard."  She  returned,  "I  do  not  fear  you, 
sir,"  just  as  they  were  passing  on. 

Two  or  three  lingered  behind  to  talk  to  the  people,  seeming 
touched  in  their  hearts  by  what  they  beheld.  One,  a  well  dressed, 
kindly  looking  man,  stopped  near  us,  and  calling  my  five-year  old 
little  sister,  Olivia,  to  him,  patted  her  curly  head  and  asked  her 
many  questions.  I  drew  near  enough  to  hear  what  was  said.  He 
inquired  what  her  name  was,  and  her  father's,  and  in  reply  to 
where  he  was  now,  she  said  he  had  gone  to  California.  When 
asked  where  she  was  going,  she  said,  "We  are  going  to  California, 
too." 


MOTHERS  IN  ISRAEL.  81 

The  man  seemed  much  affected — she  said  he  was  crying  as 
he  took  from  his  pocket,  a  bit — twelve  and  a  half  cents,  and  hand- 
ed it  to  her.  She  drew  back,  unwilling  to  receive  it,  but  he  said, 
"Yes,  take  it,  it  will  pay  your  passage  across  the  river  anyhow." 
He  soon  arose  and  passed  on — brushing  away  the  tears,  and  no 
doubt,  conscience-smitten  at  the  part  he  had  taken. 

We  slept  as  best  we  could  under  the  circumstances,  that  last 
flight  in  our  dear  Nauvoo.  In  the  morning  we  crossed  the  river 
to  Iowa,  and  made  one  camp  about  a  mile  above  Montrose.  Here 
our  tent,  (that  my  mother,  with  her  New  England  forethought, 
had  purchased  early  in  the  summer,  and  had  it- water-proofed 
by  Brother  Arthur  Smith)  was  pitched,  and  made  a  very  com- 
modious shelter  for  us  with  room  for  four  beds,  with  space  for 
a  walk  in  between. 

During  the  day  Brothers  Anson  and  William  Pratt,  with 
grandmother  Pratt  and  their  families,  arrived  and  took  up  quar- 
ters with  us  in  the  tent,  for  the  time  being.  My  chills  had  not 
returned — I  was  feeling  well  again  and  enjoying  the  company  of 
the  girls,  Sariah  and  Jane  Elizabeth  Pratt.  The  men  made  their 
camp  on  the  outside  of  the  tent,  and  the  women  and  children  were 
very  comfortable   on   the  inside. 

Our  supply  of  provisions  was  getting  low,  but  the  quails 
came,  and  Ami  Shumway,  son  of  Sister  William  Pratt,  went  out 
to  help  capture  them,  and  we  girls  took  them  to  the  river,  a  few 
feet  distant,  and  picked  and  dressed  them  ready  for  use.  When 
the  good  people  of  St.  Louis  heard  the  condition  the  Saints 
were  in  they  sent  a  boat-load  of  provisions  to  relieve  their  wants. 
The  people  were  counted,  and  given  so  many  pounds  each,  accord- 
ing to  the  number  of  their  family.  There  was  flour  and  corn 
meal,  from  which  to  take  your  choice,  sugar  and  coffee,  rice,  dried 
apples  and  bacon. 

My  baby  brother,  Moroni,  not  quite  two  years  old,  was  sick 
with  chills,  so  it  fell  to  my  lot  to  go  for  our  share  of  the  supplies. 
The  water  was  low,  and  the  boat  could  not  get  above  Montrose,  so 
all  had  to  go  there  for  their  rations,  i,  in  company  with  others, 
went  down  and  received  ours,  dealt  out  from  the  bow  of  the  boat, 
and  joyfully  took  it — shall  I  say  home  with  me?  Yes,  for  it  is 
always  home  where  mother  is. 

The  sojourn  on  the  bank  of  the  river  was  only  temporary,  and 
all  those  whose  wagons  and  teams  were  nearly  ready,  soon  yoked 
up  their  teams  and  started  westward.  Of  the  others,  some  went 
down  the  river  to  St.  Louis,  others  up  the  river  to  Burlington, 
and  intermediate  points,  and  there  were  some  not  willing  to  turn 
to  the  right  or  the  left,  but  wanted  someone  to  haul  them  a  few 
miles  out  in  the  country  where  they  could  get  work  and  obtain 
means  to  take  them  still  farther  on  their  westward  march. 

Brother  Anson  Pratt  had  helped  with  the  distribution  of  the 


82  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

relief  supply.  an<l  when  the  boat  returned,  he  and  family  took 
passage  for  St.  Louis.  He  hired  two  skiffs  at  Montrose  to  come 
up  for  his  family,  in  which  they  soon  embarked  and  were  floating 
down  the  river  amid  waving  of  handkerchiefs,  and  good-bys  from 
those  on  the  shore.  As  grandmother  Pratt  went  with  them,  that 
took  seven  from  our  company,  and  while  we  were  glad  to  know 
they  were  going  to  a  place  of  plenty,  as  well  as  peace,  their  going 
left  a  lonely  feeling  in  our  hearts.  And  thus  the  end  of  the  first 
week  found  us,  and  the  second  was  a  sorrowful  one  in  our  little 
camp. 

Little  Martha  Pratt,  four  years  old,  had  suffered  with  chills 
for  a  number  of  weeks  and  though  her  condition  did  not  seem 
alarming,  still  she  did  not  get  better,  and  one  morning  her  mother 
noticed  a  change — she  continued  to  grow  worse  all  day.  and  when 
Sister  Pratt  took  her  in  her  arms  to  prepare  her  for  the  night 
she  could  see  that  the  end  was  near,  and  in  a  short  time  she 
passed  peacefully  away.  But  oh,  the  agony  of  that  loving  moth- 
er's heart,  to  lose  her  beautiful,  blue-eyed  darling,  in  such  a  place 
and  at  such  a  time,  and  she  cried  out,  "Oh,  I  can  never  leave  her 
in  this  lonelv  place."  But  mother  tried  to  comfort  her  by  telling 
her  that  perhaps  we  could  take  her  over  to  Nauvoo  and  lay  her  by 
the  side  of  our  lovefl  ones  and  then  it  would  not  seem  so  terrible. 
So  in  the  morning  P>rother  Pratt  went  over  to  see  if  it  could  be 
accomplished,  and  found  there  was  nothing  to  hinder — the  city 
was  as  still  as  death,  and  the  few  persons  seen  on  the  streets 
moved  around  as  if  at  a  funeral.  A  little  red  pine  coffin  was  pro- 
cured at  Montrose  and  about  one  o'clock  we  started  on  our  mourn- 
ful iourney.  Mother  could  not  leave  her  sick  baby,  so  I  was  sent 
to  tell  them  where  the  graves  were,  and  show  them  the  place 
mother  thought  best  for  their  little  one  to  be  buried. 

During  the  summer,  mother  had.  in  anticipation  of  our  leav- 
ing the  home,  obtained  stones  from  the  Temple  yard  and  now  she 
had  the  initials  cut  on  them,  and  then  after  making  a  chart  of  the 
graves  from  the  corner  of  the  house,  Brother  Silcox  dug  down 
at  the  head  of  each  grave  and  placed  the  stones  down  almost  to 
the  coffins,  then  covered  all  over  and  ring  up  the  rose  trees  we  had 
planted  there,  and  smoothed  off  the  ground,  and  no  stranger  could 
tell  where  they  were. 

We  did  not  go  by  the  ferry,  but  had  a  large  skiff  and  landed 
in  a  secluded  place  on  the  other  side  where  a  team  was  waiting 
and  we  were  soon  conveved  to  our  destination.  Three  of  the 
brethren  accompanied  Brother  Pratt  across  the  river,  and  with  the 
driver,  the  little  grave  was  soon  ready,  an''  the  little  pilgrim  was 
laid  to  rest  till  the  Resurrection  Morn.  This  mafTe  six  graves  in 
all.  as  Brother  Orson  Pratt  had  lost  an  infant  daughter,  though 
she  was  buried  on  their  side  of  the-  fence,  but  she  lay  In  a  line  with 
ours.     Requicscat  in  pace! 


An  Incident  of  Faith. 

A  touching  incident  of  the  faith  manifested  by  converts  to 
the  gospel  and  of  the  answer  to  prayer,  is  related  by  Sister  M. 
Eirdie  Langston,  a  widow,  in  a  letter  to  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith. 

This  sister  speaks  of  her  husband  who  recently  died  without 
having  heard  the  gospel.  His  passing  was  peaceful  and  he  bore 
testimony  to  his  family  shortly  before  his  death,  that  all  of  the 
churches  were  man-made,  and  he  preferred  that  none  of  his  sons' 
names  should  be  set  down  in  a  church  book. 

This  sister's  sons,  and  she  has  several,  have  been  trained  in 
the  right  way,  for  they  never  use  whiskey,  tobacco,  tea,  coffee, 
nor  bad  language.  Although  none  of  them  are  at  present  con- 
verted, their  faithful  mother  hopes  that  day  is  not  far  distant. 
The  circumstance  related  by  Sister  Langston  is  as  follows : 

For  some  reason,  one  of  her  sons  hid  her  Book  of  Mormon 
and  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  and  although  she  felt  sure  he  had 
done  it,  he  refused  to  tell  anything  about  it.  Some  weeks  after, 
the  mother,  while  in  fervent  prayer,  was  inspired  to  get  up  from 
her  bed  and  go  at  once  to  the  hiding  place  of  the  books.  She 
hastened  to  her  sons  to  tell  them  she  had  found  the  books,  but 
still  they  denied  having  hid  them.  Weeks  later  the  son  acknowl- 
edged that  he  had  placed  the  books  where  they  were,  and  that  his 
mother  had  passed  them  many  times  without  seeing  them. 

This  sister  bore  her  testimony  to  her  friends  and  a  visiting 
minister,  who  tried  to  persuade  her  that  she  had  been  dreaming, 
but  her  son  himself  bore  testimony  to  the  fact  and  its  miraculous 
accomplishment.  , 

Our  hearts  go  out  in  sympathy  and  love  to  our  struggling 
sisters,  and  in  our  sheltered  life  in  Zion  we  often  wonder  how 
they  bear  their  trials  and  afflictions.  May  God  bless  Sister 
Langston. 


"Life  is  real,  life  is  earnest, 

And  the  grave  is  not  its  goal ; 
Dn<=t  thou  art  to  dust  returnest. 

Was  not  spoken  of  the  soul." 

— Longfellow. 


Washington's  Vision. 

What  the  Father  of  His  Country  Saw  of  its  Weal  and  Woe,  More 

than  a  Century  Ago. 

(Copied  from  an  Old  Newspaper.) 

The  last  time  I  ever  saw  Anthony  Sherman  was  on  the  4th 
of  July,  1849,  in  Independence  Square.  He  was  then  ninety-one 
and  becoming-  very  feeble ;  but  though  so  old,  his  dimming  eyes 
rekindled  as  he  looked  at  Independence  Hall,  which  he  said  he 
had  come  to  gaze  upon  once  more  before  he  was  gathered  home. 

"What  time  is  it?"  said  he,  raising  his  trembling  eyes  to  the 
ciock  in  the  steeple  and  endeavoring  to  shade  the  former  with  a 
trembling  hand. 

"What  time  is  it?     I  can't  see  so  well  as  I  used  to." 

"Half  past  three." 

"Come,  then,"  he  continued,  "let  us  go  into  the  hall ;  I  want 
to  tell  you  an  incident  in  Washington's  life — one  which  no  one 
alive  knows  of  except  myself ;  and  if  you  live  you  will  before  long 
see  it  verified.  Mark  me.  I  am  not  superstitious,  but  you  will 
see  it  verified." 

Reaching  the  visitor's  room,  in  which  the  sacred  relics  of 
our  country  are  preserved,  we  sat  down  upon  one  of  the  old- 
fashioned  wooden  benches,  and  my  venerable  friend  related  to  me 
the  following  narrative,  which  from  the  peculiarity  of  our  national 
;i flairs  at  the  present  time,  I  have  been  induced  to  give  to  the 
world.     I  give  it  as  nearly  as  possible  in  his  own  words  : 

When  the  bold  action  of  our  Congress,  in  asserting  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  colonies,  became  known  in  the  world,  we  were 
lnughed  at  and  scoffed  at  as  silly,  presumptuous  rebels,  whom  the 
British  grenadier  would  tame  into  submission  ;  but,  undauntedly, 
we  prepared  to  make  good  what  we  said.  The  keen  encounter 
came  and  the  world  knows  the  result.  It  is  easy  and  pleasant  for 
those  of  the  present  generation  to  talk  and  write  of  the  days  of 
76,  but  they  little  know,  neither  can  they  imagine,  the  trials  and 
sufferings  of  those  fearful  days. 

And  there  is  one  thing  I  much  fear,  and  that  is,  that  the 
American  people  do  not  properly  appreciate  the  boon  of  freedom. 
Party  spirit  is  becoming  stronger,  and  unless  it  is  checked,  will. 
at  no  distant  day,  undermine  and  tumble  into  ruin  the  noble  spirit 
of  the  Republic.     But  let  me  hasten  to  my  narrative. 

From  the  opening  of  the  revolution  we  experienced  all  phases 
of  fortune — now  good  and  now  ill ;  at  one  time  victorious,  at 
another  conquered. 

The  darkest  period  we  had,  however,  was,  I  think,  when 
Washington,  after  several  reverses,  retreated  to  Valley  Forge. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  VISION.  85 

where  he  resolved  to  pass  the  winter  of  76.  Ah!  I  have  often 
seen  the  tears  coursing  down  our  dear  commander's  care-worn 
cheek,  as  he  would  ,be  conversing  with  a  confidential  officer  about 
the  condition  of  his  poor  soldiers.  You  have  doubtless  heard  the 
story  of  Washington  going  into  the  thicket  to  pray.  Well,  it  is 
not  only  true,  but  he  used  often  to  pray  in  secret  for  aid  and 
comfort  from  God,  the  interposition  of  whose  divine  providence 
brought  us  safely  through  these  dark  days  of  tribulation. 

One  day — I  remember  well — the  chilly  wind  whistled  and 
howled  through  the  leafless  trees,  though  the  sky  was  cloudless 
*nd  the  sun  shining  brightly,  he  remained  in  his  quarters  nearly 
the  whole  of  the  afternoon  alone.  When  he  came  out  I  noticed 
that  his  face  was  a  shade  paler  than  usual,  and  that  there  seemed 
to  be  something  on  his  mind  of  more  than  ordinary  importance. 
Returning  just  before  dark  he  dispatched  an  orderly  to  the  quar- 
teis  of  the  officer  I  mentioned,  who  was  presently  in  attendance. 

After  a  preliminary  conversation  which  lasted  some  half  an 
hour,  Washington,  gazing  upon  his  companion  with  a  strange 
look  of  dignity,  which  he  alone  could  command,  said  to  the  latter : 

"I  do  not  know  whether  it  was  owing  to  the  anxiety  of  my 
mind  or  what,  but  this  afternoon  as  I  was  sitting  at  this  very 
table,  engaged  in  preparing  a  dispatch,  something  in  the  apart- 
ment seemed  to  disturb  me. 

"Looking  up,  I  beheld  standing  exactly  opposite  me,  a  sin- 
gularly beautiful  figure.  So  astonished  was  I — for  I  had  given 
strict  orders  not  to  be  disturbed — that  it  was  some  moments  before 
I  found  language  to  enquire  the  cause  of  her  presence.  A  second, 
third,  and  fourth  time  did  I  repeat  the  question,  but  received  no 
answer  from  my  mysterious  visitor.  I  began  to  feel  as  one 
dying,  or  rather  to  experience  the  sensation  which  I  have  some- 
times imagined  accompanied  dissolution.  I  did  not  think,  reason, 
or  move ;  all  were  alike  impossible.  I  was  only  conscious  of  gaz- 
ing fixedly,  vacantly  at  my  companion. 

"Presently  I- heard  a  voice  saying,  'Son  of  the  Republic,  look 
and  learn !'  while  at  the  same  time  my  visitor  extended  her  arm 
and  forefinger  eastwardly.  I  now  beheld  a  heavy  white  vapor 
at  some  distance  rising  fold  upon  fold.  This  gradually  disap- 
peared, and  I  looked  upon  a  strange  scene.  Before  me  lay 
stretched  out  in  one  vast  plain  all  the  countries  of  the  world — 
Europe,  Asia,  Africa  and  America;  I  saw  rolling  and  tossing 
between  Europe  and  America,  the  billows  of  the  Atlantic,  and  be- 
tween Asia  and  America  lay  the  Pacific. 

"  'Son  of  the  Republic,'  said  the  same  mysterious  voice  as 
before,  'look  and  learn !     A  century  cometh — look  and  learn !' 

At  that  moment  I  beheld  a  dark,  shadowy  being  like  an  angel, 
standing,  or  rather  floating  in  mid  air  between  Europe  and 
America. 


86  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

"Dipping  water  out  of  the  ocean  in  the  hollow  of  his  hana 
he  sprinkled  some  water  on  America  with  his  right  hand,  while  he 
cast  some  upon  England  with  his  left.  Immediately  a  dark  cloud 
arose  from  each  of  these  countries,  and  joined  in  mid-ocean.  For 
a  while  it  remained  stationary,  and  then  moved  to  the  westward, 
until  it  enveloped  America  in  its  murky  folds.  Sharp  flashes  of 
lightning  now  gleamed  through  it  at  intervals,  and  I  heard  the 
smothered  groan  of  the  American  people. 

"A  second  time  the  angel  dipped  from  the  ocean,  and  sprin- 
kled it  out  as  before.  The  dark  cloud  was  then  drawn  to  the 
ocean,  into  whose  heaving  waves  it  sunk  from  view.  A  third 
time  I  heard  the  mysterious  voice  saying,  'Son  of  the  Republic, 
look  and  learn.' 

"I  cast  my  eyes  upon  America,  and  beheld  villages,  towns 
and  cities  springing  up  one  after  another,  until  the  whole  land 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific  was  dotted  with  them. 

"At  this  the  shadowy  angel  turned  his  face  southward,  and 
from  Africa  I  saw  an  ill-omened  spectre  approaching  our  land. 
It  flitted  slowly  and  heavily  over  every  village,  town  and  city  of 
the  latter,  the  inhabitants  of  which  set  themselves  in  battle  array, 
one  against  the  other.  As  I  continued  looking  I  saw  a  bright 
angel  on  whose  brow  rested  a  crown  of  light,  on  which  was  traced 
the  word  Union  bearing  the  American  flag,  which  he  placed  be- 
tween the  divided  nations,  and  said,  'Remember !  ye  are  brethren !' 

"Instantly  the  inhabitants,  casting  forth  their  weapons,  be- 
came friends  once  more  and  united  around  the  national  standard. 
And  again  I  heard  the  mysterious  voice,  'Son  of  the  Republic,  the 
second  part  is  passed — look  and  learn !' 

"And  I  beheld  the  villages  and  cities  of  America  increase  in 
size  and  number,  till  at  last  they  covered  all  the  land  from  the 
Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  and  their  inhabitants  became  as  countless 
as  the  stars  in  heaven,  or  the  sand  upon  the  sea  shore. 

"And  again  I  heard  the  mysterious  voice  saying,  'Son  of  the 
Republic — the  end  of  a  century  cometh — look  and  learn.' 

"At  this  the  dark  and  shadowy  angel  placed  a  trumpet  to  his 
mouth  and  blew  three  distinct  blasts,  and  taking  water  from  the 
ocean,  sprinkled  it  out  upon  Europe,  Asia  and  Africa. 

"Then  my  eyes  looked  upon  a  fearful  scene !  From  each  of 
these  countries  arose  thick  black  clouds,  which  soon  joined  into 
one;  and  through  this  mass  gleamed  a  dark,  red  light,  by  which 
1  saw  hordes  of  armed  men  who,  moving  with  the  cloud,  marched 
by  land  and  sailed  by  the  sea  to  America,  which  country  was  pres- 
ently enveloped  in  the  volume  of  the  cloud.  And  I  dimly  saw 
these  vast  armies  devastate  the  whole  country,  and  pillage  and 
burn  the  villages,  cities  and  towns  which  I  had  beheld  springing 
up.    As  my  ear  listened  to  the  thundering  of  cannon,  clashing  of 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  VISION.  87 

swords,  and  shouts  and  cries  of  the  millions  in  mortal  combat,  I 
again  heard  the  mysterious  voice  saying — 'Son  of  the  Republic, 
look  and  learn.'  When  the  voice  ceased,  the  dark,  shadowy  angel 
placed  his  trumpet  once  more  to  his  mouth,  and  blew  a  long  and 
fearful  blast. 

"Instantly,  light,  as  from  a  thousand  suns,  shone  down  from 
above  me,  and  pierced  and  broke  into  fragments  the  dark  cloud 
which  enveloped  America.  At  the  same  moment  I  saw  the  angel 
upon  whose  forehead  still  shone  the  word  Union,  and  who  bore 
our  national  flag  in  one  hand,  and  a  sword  in  the  other,  descend 
from  heaven,  attended  by  legions  of  bright  spirits.  These  imme- 
diately joined  the  inhabitants  of  America,  who  seemed  to  take 
courage,  again  closed  up  their  ranks  and  renewed  the  battle. 
Again,  amid  the  fearful  noise  of  the  conflict,  I  heard  a  mysterious 
voice  saying, — 'Son  of  the  Republic,  look  and  learn.' 

"As  the  voice  ceased,  the  shadowy  angel,  for  the  last  time, 
(iipped  water  from  the  ocean  and  sprinkled  it  upon  America.  In- 
stantly the  dark  cloud  rolled  back,  together  with  the  armies  it  had 
brought,  leaving  the  inhabitants  of  the  land  victorious. 

"Then  once  more  I  beheld  the  villages,  towns  and  cities 
springing  up  where  they  had  been  before,  while  the  bright  angel, 
planting  the  azure  standard  he  had  brought  in  the  midst  of  them, 
cried  in  a  loud  voice  to_the  inhabitants — 'While  the  stars  remain 
and  the  heavens  send  down  dew  upon  the  earth,  so  long  shall  the 
Republic  last.' 

"And  taking  from  his  brow  the  crown,  on  which  blazed  the 
word  Union,  he  placed  it  upon  the  standard,  while  all  the  people, 
kneeling  down,  said  'Amen!' 

"The  scene  instantly  began  to  fade  and  dissolve ;  and  I  saw 
nothing  but  the  rising,  curling  white  vapor  I  had  first  beheld. 
This  also  disappearing,  I  found  myself  once  more  gazing  upon 
my  mysterious  visitor,  who  in  the  same  mysterious  voice  I  had 
heard  before,  said : 

"  'Son  of  the  Republic,  what  you  have  seen  is  thus  in- 
terpreted :  Three  perils  will  come  upon  the  Republic.  The  most 
fearful  is  the  second,  passing  which  the  whole  world  united  shall 
never  be  able  to  prevail  against  her.  Let  every  child  of  the  Re- 
public learn  to  live  for  his  God,  his  land  and  Union.' 

"With  these  words  the  figure  vanished.  I  started  from  my 
seat,  and  felt  that  I  had  been  shown  the  birth,  progress  and  destiny 
of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States.  Disunion  would  be  her 
destruction." 

Such,  my  friends,  were  the  words  I  heard  from  Washington's 
own  lips,  and  America  will  do  well  to  profit  by  them.  Let  her 
remember  that  in  Union  she  has  strength,  in  disunion  is  her  de- 
struction. 


February  Entertainment. 

By  Morag. 

"We  gladly  indite  you  this  note,  and  invite  you 

On  Washington's  birthday  to  come 
And  join  in  a  hearty,  patriotic  party, 

With  friends  who  will  make  you  at  home." 

Signed,  Lottie  and  Ella  Arbor. 

The  boys  found  this  note  in  their  mail,  on  their  return  from 
school. 

"A  jolly  invitation,"  said  Ernest  Plackett  to  his  chum  and 
room-mate  Fred  Parker.    "Shall  we  go?"  he  continued. 

"Sure  we  will,"  returned  Fred.  "Mrs.  Arbor  is  the  lovliest 
mother  I  know,  and  makes  a  fellow  feel  right  at  home  at  once. 
My  mother  died  years  ago,  and  I  always  think  of  her  whenever 
1  see  Ella's  mother — while  Ella — she  is  such  a  jolly  girl  friend. 
Lottie  suits  me  O.  K.,"  said  Ernest,  "so  it's  settled,  we'll  go." 

The  Arbor  home  was  ablaze  with  light  and  flags,  as  the  boys 
left  the  suburban  car  and  took  the  short-cut  across  the  fiel  Is.  Ar- 
riving, they  were  welcomed  by  the  girls  and  introduced  to  the  as- 
sembled company.  Each  member  of  the  family  had  invited  one 
friend  and  they  were  all  busy.  Old  Major  Pursell,  a  civil  war 
veteran,  was  relating  some  of  his  experiences,  while  in  a  corner  his 
wife,  and  mother  Arbor,  were  reminding  each  other  of  the  happy 
days  when  they  were  girls. 

Mara  and  her  lover  John  Strange  were  sitting  on  the  broad 
\\  indow  seat.  Harold  was  busy  showing  his  collection  of  flags  to 
his  boy  chum,  while  Jim  and  baby  Lilian  romped  in  the  dining 
room  with  two  of  their  cousins.  Only  Charlie  seemed  alone — 
his  thoughts  were  far  away  in  the  Hawaiian  Islands  where  a  fair- 
haired  maiden  was  engaged  in  missionary  work  along  with  her 
parents. 

"Cheer  up,  Chad.,"  said  the  lively  Jim.  "Nora  will  soon  come 
home.  You  know  her  father  expects  his  release  as  soon  as  school 
term  is  over,  and  then — " 

"Ah  then—"  sighed  Charlie. 

"Yes,  then,"  returned  Jim,  "it  will  be  welcome  parties,  an- 
nouncement affairs,  showers  and  a  wedding.  I'm  to  be  her 
bridesmaid,  too,"  Jim  continued,  throwing  back  her  curls,  "am  I 
not?" 

"Now.  children,"  said  father,  "our  entertainment  will  cor* 
mence."    And  in  a  short  fervent  prayer  Henry  Arbor  returned 


FEBRUARY  ENTERTAINMENT.  «n 

thanks  to  the  gracious  Heavenly  Father  for  the  glorious  priv- 
ileges they  enjoyed  in  the  land  of  the  free,  and  for  the  inspired 
constitution  of  the  country,  and  for  the  great  men  who  labored 
and  died  to  bring  freedom  and  liberty  to  the  people. 

The  twins  then  played  some  patriotic  airs,  and  all  present  sang 
the  national  anthem. 

Major  Purcell  then  gave  reminiscences  of  the  war,  and  this 
was  followed  by  a  reading  by  Mara,  of  Lincoln's  favorite  poem, 
"Oh  why  should  the  Spirit  of  Mortal  be  Proud?"  written  by 
Knox. 

"It's  Ernest's  turn  now,"  said  Lottie,  with  a  coaxing  glance 
at  the  broad-shouldered  boy.  "Give  us  a  story,  Era.,  tell  us  that 
one  you  related  at  devotional  last  week  at  school,  'A  Perfect 
Tribute.'  " 

Thus  encouraged  the  boy  told  the  pathetic  story  of  the  great 
Lincoln  and  the  dying  soldier. 

"I  know  that  Gettysburg  speech,  too,"  remarked  Harold 
when  Ernest  concluded. 

"Tell  me  a  'tory,  muvver,"  lisped  baby  Lilian.  "There 
was  a  little  boy,  an'  his  fa'ver  had  a  cherry  tree,  and  he  cut  it  all 
down  wif  his  little  hatchet,"  she  said. 

"Bring  in  the  cherry  tree,"  cried  Jim.  and  a  large,  paper 
cherry  tree  was  brought  in  and  pinned  on  the  wall.  Each  one 
was  given  a  paper  hatchet,  and,  blindfolded,  tried  in  turn  to  chop 
it  down. 

A  number  of  other  games  followed,  interspread  with  patri- 
otic songs,  and  then  at  10:30  refreshments  were  served  consisting 
of  cherry  pie,  cake  and  sherbet. 

Raising  their  water  glasses  high  Mr.  Arbor  proposed  the 
following  toast : 

"Here's  to  the  tree  and  the  cherries  it  bore. 
Here's  to  the  hatchet  that  smote  it  full  sore. 
Here's  to  the  lad  that  was  honest  and  true, 
Here's  to  his  colors,  the  red,  white  and  blue. 
Here's  to  his  sword  with  the  laurel  entwined. 
Here's  to  the  hero  in  all  hearts  enshrined." 
— Washington, 

Arthur  Guiterman. 

Patriotic  Salad,  No.  I. 

Scoop  out  Jonathan  apples,  make  salad  of  chopped  celery, 
nuts  and  apples.  Serve  on  blue  plates  with  small,  white  paper 
doilies  in  the  red  apple  oups. 


90  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Patriotic  Salad  No.  2. 
Ripe  tojnatoes  may  be  used  instead  of  apples. 
Entertainment  Notes. 

Dickens'  birthday  occurs  in  February,  and  a  Dickens'  evening 
could  be  arranged — either  a  costume  character  party,  a  literary 
evening,  or  a  series  of  tableaux. 

February  27  is  Longfellow's  birthday,  and  a  similar  affair 
might  be  arranged  from  his  works,  tableaux,  readings  and  songs. 

Valentine  Dayparties  are  very  popular. 


TOO  BUSY. 

We  are  busy  folks  in  a  busy  world, 

Madly  rushing  to  and   fro, 
There  are  so  many  things  to  be  done, 

So  many  places  to  go. 
That  we  haven't  time  to  really  live, 

So  we  put  things  off,  with  a  sigh, 
And  we  dream  of  the  wonderful  things  we'll  do, 

In  the  beautiful  by  and  by. 

Too  busy  to  take  a  walk  in  the  woods. 

With  the  dear  one  who  longs  to  go. 
Too  busy  to  write  a  letter  of  love 

To  the  mother  aged  and  slow  ; 
Too  busy  to  visit  a  friend  who  is  ill. 

Who  has  almost  forgotten  to  smile ; 
Too  busy  to  do  a  thousand  things 

That  I'm  sure  would  be  really  worth  while. 

Too  busy  to  think  of  a  cheery  word, 

To  pass  to  a  comrade  who's  sad. 
Too  busy  to  kiss  the  face  of  a  child 

That  its  little  heart  might  be  glad. 
Too  busy  to  rest,  too  busy  to  pray, 

Too  busy  to  laugh,  or  to  smile, 
Too  busy  doing  the  lesser  things — 

Too  busy  to  make  life  worth  while. 
Manti,  Utah.  Mrs.  Parley  Nelson. 


Notes  from  the  Field. 

By  the  General  Secretary,  Amy  Brown  Lyman. 


ST.    PAUL,    MINN.,   RELIEF   SOCIETY. 


Northern  States  Mission. 

The  St.  Paul  Relief  Society  is  a  very  flourishing  organization 
composed. of  energetic  and  industrious  women.  There  are  thir- 
teen members  in  the  Society,  every  one  of  whom  has  a  McAllister 
Record  in  her  home.  This  Society  has  sent  one  hundred  and 
forty-six  names  to  the  Temple. 

Sunday,  September  24,  was  set  apart  as  Genealogical  Day  in 
Ihe  Northern  States  Mission.  Meetings  have  been  reported  from 
the  following  branches:  Indianapolis,  Evansville,  and  Bicknell, 
Indiana  ;  Springfield  and  Peoria,  Illinois  ;  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin  ; 
Grand  Rapids,  Michigan;  Minneapolis,  Minnesota.  At  these 
meetings  a  great  deal  of  enthusiasm  was  manifested  and  following 
are  some  of  the  subjects  discussed :  "History  of  Genealogy." 
"Genealogy  Explained,"  "Temple  Building,"  "Temple  Work," 
"Testimonies  of  Ancient  and  Modern  Prophets,"  and  "Ancient 
Prophecies  Concerning  Genealogy." 


92  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Nurse  School. 

The  Relief  Society  School  of  Nursing  and  Obstetrics  began 
the  school  year  on  Monday,  September  19,  with  an  enrollment  of 
twenty-two.  At  the  present  time  we  have  twenty-seven  students, 
fourteen  taking  the  Nurse  course  and  thirteen  taking  both  Ob- 
stetrics and  Nursing.  The  course  in  Invalid  Cooking  was  opened 
on  December  4  with  Mrs.  Anna  Grant  Midgley  as  instructor, 
and  much  interest  is  manifested  in  this  department.  The  school 
recently  purchased  a  maniken  or  hospital  doll,  to  be  used  as  a 
practical  substitute  for  the  human  subject  in  teaching  nursing  and 
care  of  the  body.  The  doll  is  five  feet  in  length,  weighs  twenty 
pounds  and  is  built  according  to  the  measurements  of  an  adult 
body.  It  lends  itself  admirably  to  demonstrations  of  all  sorts 
such  as,  bandaging,  bed-making,  bathing,  etc.,  and  is  thus  a  very 
important  and  valuable  piece  of  apparatus  for  our  school. 

Liberty  Stake. 

In  connection  with  the  Teachers'  Department,  the  Liberty 
siake  has  done  a  great  deal  of  what  they  have  termed  "Home 
Round  Work."  This  work  consists  of  making  special  visits  to 
tiiose  who  are  confined  to  their  homes  on  account  of  sickness  or 
old-age,  and  are  thus  unable  to  attend  their  meetings  or  services 
of  any  sort.  The  object  of  this  work  is  to  take  good  cheer,  hope, 
and  spiritual  uplift  to  those  who  are  lonely  and  weary.  A  special 
committee  consisting  of  twelve  members  has  this  work  in  charge, 
■>:m\  during  the  last  year,  friendly  visits  have  been  made  to  368 
poor  sufferers,  and  in  the  two  months  that  have  just  gone,  eighty- 
two  persons  have  thus  been  cared  for — all  this  in  addi- 
tion to  the  regular  monthly  visits  of  the  teachers.  Dur- 
ing the  year  the  Liberty  stake  has  been  very  active  in 
genealogical  and  temple  work  and  has  proceeded  very  system- 
atically in  all  phases  of  the  same.  On  the  stake  days  1,144  visits 
in  all  have  been  made  to  the  "Temple.  It  is  reported  that  one 
hundred  temple  workers  have  been  made  ready  for  ordinance 
work,  one  hundred  and  thirty-nine  family  records  have  been 
placed,  and  forty  family  organizations  have  been  formed. 

REORGANIZATIONS. 

Curlew  Stake. 

The  Curlew  Stake  Relief  Society  was  reorganized  November 
4th.  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Bennett,  the  President,  resigned  her  position 
on  account  of  a  change  of  residence,  and  Sister  Rebecca  N.  Cutler 
was  appointed  to  take  her  place.  Sister  Bennett  had  held  this 
position  only  two  years,  since  the  new  Curlew  Stake  was  organ- 
ircd.  and  during  this  short  time  has  exerted  herself  early  and  late 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD.  93 

to  lay  the  foundation  in  this  new  Stake  for  a  vigorous  Relief 
Society.    The  new  Stake  officers  are  as  follows : 

Mrs.  Rebecca  M.  Cutler,  President ;  Mrs.  Annie  Daley,  First 
Counselor;  Mrs.  Mabel  Z.  Larkin,  Second  Counselor;  Miss  Ann 
Hurd,  Secretary ;  Miss  Rhoda  B.  Larkin,  Treasurer ;  Mrs.  Ila 
Cottam,  Organist ;  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Arbon,  Chorister. 

Board  Members :  Mrs.  Maggie  Bowen,  Mrs.  Lucy  Roe. 
Mrs.  Christina  Harris,  Mrs.  A.  M.  Seeley,  Mrs.  Ella  Lund,  Mrs. 
Melissa  Smith. 

Wasatch  Stake. 

The  Wasatch  Stake  has  recently  been  reorganized.  Mrs. 
Joannah  E.  Jensen,  one  of  the  most  capable  of  our  Presidents  was 
forced  to  resign  on  account  of  ill-health.  Mrs.  Jensen  has  per- 
formed her  duties  in  connection  with  this  office  faithfully  and  ef- 
ficiently and  has  always  been  alert  and  progressive.  At  the  time 
the  Relief  Society  Magazine  was  first  launched  and  the  stake 
presidents  were  personally  obtaining  subscriptions,  Mrs.  Jensen's 
first  subscription  list  contained  92  names.  This  is  but  one  in- 
stance of  the  energy  and  earnestness  with  which  she  went  about 
her  labors. 

Although  Mrs.  Jensen  has  seen  fit  to  lay  aside  her  work  in 
the  Stake  Presidency,  we  feel  sure  she  will  lend  her  interest  and 
support  to  Relief  Society  work  in  general. 

Fanguitch  Stake. 

Mrs.  Hannah  A.  Crosby  has  resigned -as  President  of  the 
Fanguitch  Stake  Relief  Society  on  account  of  change  of  resi- 
dence to  St.  George  where  she  expects  to  devote  her  time  to 
temple  work. 

Mrs.  Crosby  has  long  been  a  faithful  worker  in  the  Relief 
Society  and  because  of  her  spirituality,  integrity  and  devotion  to 
duty  she  has  made  an  enviable  record.  Mrs.  Crosby's  sweet  per- 
sonality and  unselfishness  have  made  her  exceedingly  popular 
throughout  her  stake  and  wherever  she  is  known.  Following  are 
the  new  officers  in  the  Panguitch  Stake : 

Sarah  E.  Cameron,  President ;  Geske  Henrie,  First  Coun- 
idor;  Matilda  Sargent,  Second  Counselor;  Sarah  D.  Syrett,  Sec- 
retary; Sarah  A.  Houston,  Treasurer;  Minnie  B.  Gardener,  Or- 
ganist; Annie  M.  Houston,  Chorister. 

Board  Members:  Martha  E.  Church,  Sarah  E.  Tpson. 
Thurza  R.  Lister,  Lavinah  E.  Allen. 

Northzvestern  States  Mission. 

During  the  year  of  1916,  the  Northwestern  States  Mission 
ha"  more  than  doubled  its  membership,  as  well  as  its  number  of 


94  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

branches.  The  report  of  December,  1915,  showed  10  branches. 
There  are  now  24  branches,  with  the  prospects  of  5  or  6  new  ones 
being  added  at  the  beginning  of  the  new  year. 

The  Portland  Relief  Society  has  just  closed  one  of  the  most 
successful  bazaars  in  its  history. 

Idaho  Stake. 

A  new  stake  has  been  added  to  our  list,  to  be  known  as  the 
Tdaho  Stake.  This  organization  came  alwnit  as  a  result  of  the  di- 
vision of  Bannock  Stake.  Mrs.  Sarah  M.  McClellan  of  Bancroft, 
[■'alio  has  been  appointed  President  of  this  new  stake. 

St.  Joseph  Stake. 

In  the  early  autumn,  the  Relief  Societies  of  the  St.  Joseph 
Stake  were  called  upon  by  President  Andrew  G.  Kimball  to  fur- 
nish for  the  boys  of  the  Arizona  National  Guard,  who  were  en- 
camped on  the  Mexican  Border,  comfort  bags,  containing  toilet 
articles,  socks,  towels,  pins,  needles,  thread,  and  other  useful  ac- 
cessories. It  is  unnecessary  to  add  that  this  call  was  responded  to 
in  a  whole-souled  fashion. 

".  ire  Teachers  Officers?" 

The  question  often  arises  among  our  workers  as  to  whether 
or  not  teachers  are  officers.  The  question  was  discussed  recently 
in  connection  with  the  plans  for  the  general  teachers'  conven- 
tion, and  it  was  decided  to  continue  to  abide  by  the  established  rule 
— that  teachers  be  not  counted  as  officers.  Teachers  have  a  dis- 
tinct and  unique  work  of  particular  importance  to  perform,  and 
this  work  puts  them  in  a  class  by  themselves. 

Special  Donation  to  Manti  Temple. 

The  Ma"ti  Temple  recentlv  received  a  donation  of  170  yards 
of  carpet.  80  yar's  from  the  North  Sanpete  stake  and  90  yards 
from  the  South  Sanpete  stake 

Slake  Organization. 

The  appeal  often  comes  into  the  office  for  suggestions  on 
Stake  Organization  and  as  the  Utah  stake  is  so  well  organized, 
we.  are  giving  their  plan  and  explanatory  notes  with  the  thought 
that  other  stakes  may  take  suggestions  from  it.  Officers :  Presi- 
dent. First  Counselor,  Second  Counselor,  Secretary,  Assistant  Sec- 
retary, Corresponding  Secretary,  Treasurer. 

Following  are  the  stake  committees,  the  membership  of  which 
is  all  made  up  from  the  stake  board: 

Associate  Committee:  Chairman,  Assistant  Chairman,  two 
other  members. 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD.    .  95 

Teachers'  Committee :  Chairman,  Assistant  Chairman,  six 
other  members. 

Genealogical  Committee:  Chairman,  Assistant  Chairman, 
two  other  members. 

Home  Economics  Committee :  Chairman,  Assistant  Chair- 
man, three  other  members. 

Literary  Committee :  Chairman,  Assistant  Chairman,  three 
other  members. 

"The  office  of  our  associate  committee  is  to  interest  them- 
selves in  the  moral  welfare  of  our  young  people ;  to  co-operate 
with  the  schools,  city  officials,  and  young  peoples'  auxilliaries,  for 
their  good  in  whatever  direction  may  be  necessary. 

"Once  each  month  all  the  committees  meet  as  a  board  to  at- 
tend to  regular  stake  work.  At  this  meeting,  each  committee 
reports  the  progress  of  its  special  work. 

"Immediately  following  this  meeting  all  ward  committees  in 
the  stake  meet  with  their  respective  stake  committee  who  present 
the  lesson  as  outlined  in  the  Magazine,  enlarging  upon  the  same 
and  provoking  discussion  that  will  be  helpful  when  reproduced. 

"On  this  same  day  the  local  officers  and  teachers  meet  with 
the  stake  teachers'  committee,  at  which  meeting  one  of  the  stake 
presidency  of  Relief  Society  presides.  In  this  section  one  of  the 
local  bishops  presents  the  teachers'  topic.  This  same  topic  is 
presented  again  in  the  ward  societies  by  a  society  member.  In  this 
way  the  teachers  may  become  familiar  with  the  topic. 

"In  short  all  of  the  outlined  work  is  familiarized  and  pre- 
sented by  stake  committees  and  reproduced  in  wards  by  ward 
committees. 

"This  meeting  at  which  the  ward  officers,  teachers,  and  com- 
mittees assemble  for  their  instruction  and  outlined  work  occurs 
on  Union  Sunday  when  all  the  quorums  and  auxiliaries  of  the 
stake  assemble  for  their  month's  work.  All  committees  meet 
separately." 

California  Mission. 

The  Relief  Society  in  San  Bernardino,  California,  has  taken 
up  all  the  lessons  outlined  in  the  years'  course,  but  has  been  espe- 
cially interested  in  the  Women  of  the  Bible.  The  members  have 
made  and  distributed  a  great  deal  of  childrens'  clothing  among 
those  in  need. 

The  San  Diego  Relief  Society  has  a  membership  of  26.  an 
average  attendance  of  10,  and  reports  7  subscribers  to  the  Relief 
Society  Magazine. 

The  Binghampton,  Arizona.  Relief  Society  has  a  membership 
of  42,  and  an  average  attendance  of  20.    The  members  are  all 


96  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

devoted  to  the  Society  work,  and  are  ready  to  make  personal  sac- 
rifices to  carry  it  forward.  The  Binghampton  Relief  Society  is 
located  a  few  miles  out  of  Tucson. 

Sevier  Stake. 

In  the  death  of  Mrs.  Mary  Ann  Nickerson,  of  Salina,  Utah, 
the  Relief  Society  loses  another  of  the  few  remaining  women  who 
lived  in  Nauvoo.  Mrs.  Nickerson  was  borne  in  Pennsylvania  in 
1822,  joined  the  Church  in  1837.  and  was  a  resident  of  Nauvoo  at 
the  time  of  the  martyrdom.  With  her  young  husband,  she  left 
with  one  of  the  early  companies  of  pioneers  for  the  west,  driving 
a  team  herself,  the  whole  distance  across  the  plains  to  Salt  Lake 
Valley.  They  arrived  in  Utah  in  1850.  Mrs.  Nickerson  was  the 
mother  of  six  children,  twenty-six  grandchildren,  and  fifty-eight 
great  grandchildren. 

Suggestions  to  Officers. 

At  the  last  General  Officers'  meeting,  it  was  recomdmended 
that  the  stakes  have  official  stationery  printed  for  correspondence, 
and  many  of  the  stakes  have  adopted  the  suggestion,  and  are  using 
neat  letterheads.  This  action  on  the  part  of  the  stakes  is  especially 
appreciated  at  the  General  Office,  where  letters  are  classified  and 
filed  for  reference. 

Another  valuable  suggestion  to  stake  officers  is  that  they  in- 
vest in  a  small  letter  file,  in  which  they  may  file  and  preserve  all 
important  letters  for  future  reference.  Letters  of  instructions 
are  often  sent  out  from  the  General  Office,  and  should  be  kept 
for  reference.  Alphabetically  arranged  letter-files  can  be  had  at 
the  book  stores  for  50  cents  each. 


NOTE. 


The  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society  have  established  a 
Home  Economics  department  for  the  members  of  the  Society, 
associating  their  work  with  the  Utah  Agricultural  College,  and 
thus  securing  skilled  teachers  and  lecturers  from  the  Government 
school.  We  recommend  all  our  .members  to  throw  the  weight 
and  influence  of  their  presence  and  numbers  into  our  own  de- 
partmental work,  as  we  aim  to  provide  them  with  every  up-to- 
date  method  and  instruction  obtainable.  We  suggest  to  officers 
that  they  invite,  not  only  our  own  members  to  join  these  classes, 
but  any  non-members  who  may  desire  to  participate  in  the  benefits 
of  this  department.  They  will  be  welcome.  Let  us  be  loyal  to 
our  own  Society  first,  last  and  all  the  time. 


Home  Science  Department. 

By  Janette  A.  Hyde. 

During  the  early  settlement  of  Utah,  one  of  the  first  prin- 
ciples taught  the  Latter-day  Saint  women,  was  the  conservation 
of  food  by  way  of  drying  fruits  and  vegetables.  Many  of  the  sons 
and  daughters  of  these  days  will  recall,  with  scented  memory,  the 
strings  of  pumpkin  which  hung  in  the  kitchen  to  be  dried  for 
winter  use,  the  sacks  of  dried  fruit  and  corn  that  were  put  away 
to  be  used  very  sparingly  later  in  the  season.  No  such  luxuries 
as  are  found  on  the  tables  today  were  ever  dreamed  of  then. 
Molasses,  peach  preserves,  honey  dew  plums  and  sweet  preserved 
apples,  with  stick  cinnamon  for  flavoring  were  used  only  on  com- 
pany days,  birthday  parties,  or  for  the  family  holidays,  and  other 
social  entertainments.  One  must  be  reminded  of  the  past  of  our 
own  people,  and  their  days  of  hardship,  in  order  to  appreciate  and 
sympathize  with  the  present  situation  of  the  countries  at  war. 

We  note  that  Berlin  has  in  operation  drying  plants  to  enable 
the  people  to  conserve  the  surplus  vegetables  grown  during  the 
productive  seasons,  that  not  one  atom  of  food  shall  be  wasted. 
Such  foods  as  carrots,  cabbages,  potatoes,  and  kale  are  found 
suitable  for  drying. 

These  plants  are  operated  in  connection  with  great  gas  plants 
of  the  City  where  an  abundance  of  cheap  fuel  is  obtained  from  the 
gas  retorts  and  coal  cars.  This  method  has  proved  wonderfully 
successful  inasmuch  as  it  furnishes  cheap  food  for  those  housed 
in  charitable  institutions,  as  well  as  creating  work  for  several 
hundreds  of  women  and  children. 

We  suggest  that  those  of  our  people  who  are  blessed  with 
facilities  to  produce  food  materials,  see  to  it  that  not  one  particle 
of  food  shall  go  to  waste.  We  have  urged,  from  time  to  time. 
that  corn  be  dried,  also  apples,  peaches,  pears,  and  other  fruits, 
as  Salt  Lake  City  affords  a  splendid  market  for  the  disposition  of 
all  such  products,  if  properly  prepared.  Our  stores  are  filled  with 
evaporated  fruits,  shipped  in  for  sale,  while  in  this  inter-mountain 
country,  hundreds  of  bushels  of  fruit  have  at  times  dried  on  the 
trees,  or  have  been  left  to  rot  upon  the  ground.  Let  us  confess 
to  an  indifference  and  departure  from  the  early  teachings  of  our 
pioneer  fathers  and  mothers,  and  set  about  at  once  to  mend  our 
ways,  and  go  back  to  some  of  the  good,  old-fashioned,  sensible 
things,  taught  to  us  by  those  sturdy  men  and  women  of  worth  and 
good  example.  And  while  city  housekeepers  are  pleased  that  we 
are  blessed  and  prospered  in  many  ways  which  makes  life  easier 


98  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE.. 

for  us,  and  the  necessities  of  life  more  easily  obtained,  we  still 
can  put  into  operation,  with  profit  and  pleasure,  many  of  the  ex- 
examples  of  thrift  and  industry  of  the  great  men  and  women  of 
our  Church  and  state. 


We  urge  upon  all  our  sisters  who  have  received  the  appoint- 
ment through  the  Relief  Society  for  the  correspondence  extension 
course,  provided  by  the  Agricultural  College,  to  be  very  prompt 
with  the  written  work  required  of  them,  that  it  shall  be  handed  in 
on  scheduled  time,  so  that  our  Home  Science  Cause  may  not  be 
retarded  in  any  way.  We  also  recommend  that  whenever  there 
is  a  roundup  or  convention  held  in  the  different  counties  in  their 
respective  states,  that  our  teachers  and  all  members  attend  as  far 
as  their  time  will  permit.  We  feel  it  is  a  great  privilege  to  have 
special  instructions  and  specially  outlined  courses  for  all  our 
Relief  Society  women,  with  similar  blessings  to  all  Utah  women 
and  special  privileges  to  none.  So  let  us  make  the  best  of  this 
great  opportunity  by  attending  whenever  possible 


MEMORIES. 


IJasalt,  Idaho. 


O  they  come  to  me  so  tenderly, 

Sweet  thoughts  of  long  ago ; 
When  I  a  maiden  merrily 

Tho't  all  this  world  aglow. 
Sweet  dreams  of  future  happiness 

Were  daily,  hourly,  mine. 
They've  come  in  stern  reality, 

But  thorns  with  them  I  find. 

But  why  should  I  the  roses  pluck 

Without  the  thorn  to  feel ; 
Why  should  I  hope  to  dream  life's  dreams, 

Unless  I  make  them  real. 
In  every  joy  there  is  a  pain, 

A  sigh  will  follow  song; 
God  gives  us  all  a  cherished  life, 

To  earth  we  all  belong. 

Marie  Jensen. 


Current  Topics. 

By  James  H.  Anderson. 

Seven  dollars  a  ton  for  beets  in  1917  is  good  for  the  grow- 
ers, but  affords  no  promise  of  cheaper  sugar  to  the  consumer. 


Wheat  acreage  in  the  United  States  is  considerably  greater 
for  1917  than  it  was  for  1916 — a  much  needed  condition. 


Radium  as  a  cancer  cure  has  been  found  to  be  ineffective, 
thus  shattering  the  hopes  of  many  sufferers  from  the  terrible 
malady.  

Americans  in  Turkey  are  to  be  permitted  to  leave,  at  Ger- 
many's request,  after  a  request  therefor  by  the  United  States  had 
been  denied. 


The  Utah  State  Fair  will  be  held  in  September  this  year, 
thus  giving  good  prospect  for  fair  weather  which  heretofore 
usually  has  been  denied  at  the  later  season. 

Irish  prisoners  to  the  number  of  nearly  600,  who  took  part  in 
the  recent  Sein  Fein  uprising  in  Ireland,  have  been  released  from 
prison  in  Great  Britain. 


Mexico  has  ad"1ed  two  revolutions  the  past  month,  one  in 
the  state  of  Jalisco  and  the  other  in  Oaxaca.  Surely  peace  is  yet 
far  off  in  our  southern  neighbor's  domain. 


Utah  Battery  A  has  returned  from  the  Mexican  border. 
A  cordial  reception  was  given  the  returned  batterymen  on  their 
arrival  in  Salt  Lake  City. 


Military  authorities  in  the  United  States  now  declare  in 
favor  of  universal  military  training.  They  have  learned  that  the 
United  States  is  utterly  unprepared  for  even  a  defensive  war. 


Retiring  State  officers  who  have  had  to  do  with  finances 
in  Utah  uniformly  recommended  ways  of  increasing  the  State's 
income  by  various  methods  of  further  heavy  taxation,  but  none 
suggested  the  needed  economy  in  every  branch  of  the  State's 
affairs. 


The  Ford  Motor  Co.,  to  relieve  the  railway  car  shortage 


100  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

complained  of,  closed  down  for  a  week  in  December,  at  the  same 
time  relieving  its  workmen  of  $1,400,000  in  wages  through  the 
enforced  idleness. 


Absolute  prohibition  of  alcoholic  liquors  in  the  District  of 
Columbia  was  defeated  in  the  United  States  Senate  by  a  vote  of 
61  to  8.  The  provision  in  its  favor  was  introduced  by  Senator 
Smoot,  of  Utah. 


The  Union  Pacific  Railway,  at  the  close  of  1916,  paid  to 
22,000  employees  whose  salary  is  under  $4,000  each  per  year,  a 
bonus  amounting-  to  $1,500,000 — something  surely  substantial  in 
that  Christmas  gift. 


Five  nations  engaged  in  war  changed  all  or  part  of  their 
cabinet  officers  the  past  month — Austria,  Russia,  Japan,  France 
and  Great  Britain ;  each  of  them  with  a  view  to  more  intense 
warfare. 


Jewish  magnanimity  toward  the  Hebrew  race  received  an 
illustration  at  a  meeting  held  in  New  York  the  week  before  Christ- 
mas, when  nearly  $2,500,000  was  raised  by  those  present  to  aid 
Jewish  sufferers  from  the  European  war. 


The  new  640  acre  homestead  law  requires  seven  months' 
residence  on  the  land.  Under  this  provision,  there  yet  remains 
millions  of  acres  of  the  public  domain  in  the  west  that  must  con- 
tinue in  government  ownership. 


Germany  has  announced  a  willingness  to  make  peace,  but 
no  terms  are  given.  Great  Britain  also  expresses  a  similar  wish, 
but  states  no  terms.  It  is  understood,  however,  that  each  side  is 
so  far  from  the  other's  view  of  what  should  be  that  peace  is  im- 
possible for  many  months  to  come. 


Roumania  has  been  practically  overrun  by  the  Teutonic 
armies.  The  fighting  ability  of  the  Roumanians  was  greatly  over- 
rated, the  result  being  a  decided  disadvantage  to  the  Entente  al- 
lies, both  from  a  moral  and  a  military  standpoint. 


Utah  school  teachers  assembled  in  convention  in  Salt 
Lake  City  passed  a  resolution  to  take  the  office  of  State  Superin- 
tendent of  public  instruction  out  of  politics  by  making  that  of- 
ficial appointive.  As  there  is  proportionately  more  political  jug- 
glery connected  with  appointive  than  with  elective  officers,  the 
teachers  have  something  to  learn. 


EDITORIAL 


Entered  as  second-class  matter  at  the  Post  Office,   Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

Motto — Charity   Never  Faileth. 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

Mbs.     Eumeline    B.    Wells President 

Mm.   Clarissa   S.   Willi  ami First   Counselor 

Mrs.  Julina   L.    Smith Second   Counselor 

Mrs.    Amy    Brown    Lyman Genera)    Secretary 

Mrs.    Susa   Young   Gates Corresponding    Secretary 

Mrs.   Emma  A.   Empey Treasurer 

Mrs.  Sarah  Jenne  Cannon         Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  Miss  Edna  May  Davis 

Dr.  Romania  B.  Penrose  Mrs.  Priscilla  P.  Jennings  Miss  Sarah  McLelland 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards  Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Crismon 

Mrs.  Julia  M.  P.  Farnsworth   Mrs.  Rebecca  Niebaur  Nibley  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde 

Mrs.  Phebe  Y.  Beatie  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune  Miss  Sarah  Erldinirton 

Mrs.  Ida  S.  Dusenberry  Miss  Lillian  Cameron 
Mrs.  Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,  Music  Director 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Susa    Young    Gates 

Business    Manager Janette    A.    Hyde 

Assistant  Manager    Amy   Brown   Lyman 

Room  29,  Bishop's  Building,   Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

Vol.  IV.  FEBRUARY*,  1917.  No.  2. 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  IN  ITS  ATTITUDE  TO  DRESS 
AND  SOCIAL  CUSTOMS. 

The  First  Presidency  of  the  Church  have  paid 
The  the  high  compliment  of  asking  this  Society  to 

Presidency  lead  out  in  a  general  movement  looking  to  a 
Issues  a  Call,     change  in    some   of    the    prevalent    modes    of 

dress,  dancing,  and  of  general  behavior  among 
the  young  and  old  people.  Old — for  the  young  will  never  in- 
dulge in  unseemly  conduct  unless  their  elders  wink  at  it  in 
the  initial  stages  of  its  development. 

We  are  not  disposed  to  begin  this  movement 
We  Will. Go  too  hastily,  nor  with  overmuch  zeal.  When  in- 
Carefully.  dividuals  or  the  public  are  sick,  your  curative 

doses  must  not  be  too  heavy,  at  first,  lest  pros- 
tration result.  But  sickness — which  is  a  physical  body  out  of 
harmony  with  the  laws  of  nature — needs  curative  remedies. 
And  the  public  generally,  which  includes  the  majority  of  per- 
sons, is  certainly  sick.  When  our  girls  and  women  go  into 
public  places  with  their  dresses  three  inches  shorter  than  their 
shoe-tops,  with  nothing  to  cover  their  bodies  from  arm-pits 
and  corset  rim,  to  chin,  except  transparent  muslin — when  they 
go  in  bathing  clothed  in  tiny  trunks    and  shoes    only — with 


102  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

mothers  complacently  looking  on,  and  fathers  and  brothers  al- 
lowing such  exposures,  and  with  moral  standards  gradually 
lowering  to  accommodate  these  lapses — there  is  something 
certainly  "rotten  in  Utah."  Mothers  who  have  persistently 
violated  modesty  and  their  own  covenants  by  wearing  short 
sieeves  and  half-low  necks,  who  have  been  card-players,  break- 
ers of  the  Word  of  Wisdom,  and  of  the  Sabbath  Day — these 
mothers  would  naturally  view  with  entire  complacency  the 
half  naked  condition  of  their  daughters  in  public  places.  But 
when  these  examples  spread,  and  we  hear  good  Latter-day 
Saint  mothers  defending  such  looseness  on  the  ground  of  ex- 
pediency, or  common  custom,  it  is  time  for  public  teachers  and 
watchers  upon  the  towers  of  Zion  to  arise  and  cry  out  a  warn- 
ing note. 

What  can  we  do,  then,  women  and  sisters. 
Our  members  and   officers   in   this   Relief   Society? 

Great  We    can    guard  our  own    conduct.     Any    little 

Opportunity,     lapse  from  the  strict  rules  of  modesty  in  dress, 

speech,  or  behavior,  of  which  we  may  have 
been  guilty  must  be  reformed  before  we  can  expect  a  change 
in  greater  lapses  on  the  part  of  our  daughters  or  grand- 
daughters. 

We  can  refuse  to  countenance  by  word  or 
Watch  thought  the  immodesty  shown  by  our  children 

Ourselves.  or  grand-children.  If  they  are  grown  or  mar- 
ried, and  they  will  indulge  in  these  things,  at 
least  we  may  not  smile  at  it  nor  treat  it  as  a  light  matter. 
Don't  be  deceived — Satan  fools  a  good  many  people  with  that 
phrase,  "be  easy  on  the  young  people."  Be  as  easy  as  you 
will  on  the  young  person,  but  never,  under  any  circumstances, 
be  easy  on  her  folly  or  violation  of  moral  decencies. 

We  can  refuse  to. read  or  buy  books  and  mag- 
Let  Us  azines  that  exploit  adultery  and  loose  moral 
Reform  standards.  We  can  remain  away  from  theaters 
Ourselves.  and  picture  shows  that  portray  vice  and  sin  in 
glittering  colors  and  suggestive  references.  A 
p'av  recently  produced  in  this  city  was  so  vile  in  action,  word, 
and  reference,  that  good  people  who  inadvertently  attended  it, 
suffered  for  davs  from  a  sense  of  personal  humiliation;  yet  the 
play  was  beautifully  staged,  and  presented  by  a  first-class  com- 
pany. Such  evident  decadence  of  public,  moral  standards  fills 
the  mind  with  disgust,  and  a  horror  of  the  future  for  this  na- 
t:on  and  other  nations  Tike  this  one.  Mothers  and  fathers  can't 
afford  to  be  seen  at  such  places.  When  absent  they  can  con- 
sistently advise  their  children  not  to  attend. 


EDITORIAL.  103 

We  can  refuse  to  buy  or  to  make  clothing  for 
More  ourselves  and  our  daughters  which  exposes  the 

Chances  body  and  is  indecently  immodest.    If  girls  earn 

To  Help.  their  own  money,  at  least  a  mother  may  advise 

and  assist  her  daughter  to  choose  wisely.  If 
mother's  word  is  insufficient,  let  father  be  called  into  the 
council.  Don't  worry  over  that  old  gag  about  the  stern  parent 
driving  away  the  wild  son  or  daughter  by  harshness.  Ninety 
children  go  wrong  from  over-indulgence  and  weakness  where 
ten  go  wrong  from  harshness  and  severity.  This  is  the  age 
of  obedient  parents,  you  know. 

Finally,  which  is  the  wisest  preventive  of  all, 
The  Safe  we    can    devote  our  days    and    nights  to  con^ 

Preventive.        triving  ways  and  means  to  keep  our  young  peo- 
ple constantly  engaged  and  employed  in  inter- 
esting work  and  clean  amusements  of  all  kinds,  so  that  their 
minds  and  hands  are  not  left  idle.    Drive  out  evil  with  good. 
Here  endeth  the  first  lesson! 


OUR  GENERAL  PRESIDENT. 

The  General  Board,  the  Stake  and  Ward  officers,  and  every 
member  of  the  Relief  Society  join  in  loving  congratulations  to 
our  honored  President,  Emmeline  B.  Wells,  on  her  birthday.  She 
will  be  eighty-nine  years  young  on  the  last  day  of  February.  Woe 
to  the  wight  who  calls  her  old,  feeble,  or  grandmother.  She  is 
our  lovable  and  honored  President,  Emmeline  B.  Wells. 


Guide  Lessons. 

Second  Week  in  March. 

BIBLE  LESSON. 
SEEKING  A  WIFE— REBECCA. 
(Reading:     Genesis  Twenty-Fourth.) 

Seeking  a  wife  in  marriage,  from  the  very  beginning,  has 
been  one  of  man's  chief  and  most  delightful  interests:  But  there 
are  ways  and  ways  of  doing  this  necessary  thing.  One  of  these 
ways  we  shall  discover  in  the  case  of  Rebecca's  winning  by  Isaac. 

This  is  quite  a  suggestive  romance,  when  you  stop  to  think 
of  it — that  affair  of  this  interesting  couple.  Getting  down  under 
the  surface  of  the  details  presented  to  us  in  Genesis  and  in  Jo- 
sephus,  we  disclose  some  foundational  ideas  in  the  affairs  of 
marriage,  and  also  some  customs  in  vogue  during  those  ancient 
times  which  it  would  be  by  no  means  to  our  discredit  to  imitate. 

But  let  us  get  some  other,  and  less  important,  matters  off  our 
hands  first. 

In  those  days,  as  in  these,  people  lived  in  what  we  call  the 
country  and  the  city.  Isaac's  home  was  in  the  country ;  Rebecca's 
in  the  city.  It  must  ,be  remembered,  however,  that  the  city  of 
those  ancient  times  was  very  different  from  ours.  What  Nahor, 
the  town  where  Rebecca  lived,  was  like  can  be  surmised  from 
the  following  description : 

This  pastoral  region  was  to  become  so  distinctively  the  home  of 
that  portion  of  the  race  which  remained  on  the  far  side  of  the  Eu- 
phrates, that  it  became  known  as  the  "town  of  Nahor." 

A  vast  limestone  plateau,  seamed  by  deep  ravines,  extends  east 
and  northeast  of  Corfu,  but  sinks  into  an  alluvial  plain  to  the  south. 
On  the  slope  of  a  low  hill  in  the  midst  of  this  lies  Haran,  looking 
out  over  a  wide  and  richly  fertile  level,  of  more  than  twenty  square 
miles  in  extent.  A  circle  of  low  volanic  hills  shuts  in  the  view 
and  marks  the  character  of  the  landscape  towards  the  Euphrates. 
Small  brooks  appear  after  rains,  but  they  soon  disappear,  and  leave 
the  open  expanse  to  the  fierce  heat  of  the  sun.  In  winter  the  temper- 
ature is  low,  but  in  summer  the  heat  is  intolerable,  especially  when 
the  wind  blows  from  the  Southern  Arabian  desert.  October  and 
November  see  all  traces  of  vegetation  burnt  up,  except  on  the  edge 
of  any  trickle  of  water;  but,  as  soon  as  rain  falls,  all  nature  revives, 
though  only  to  be  speedily  withered  by  the  winter  winds.  Spring 
alone  covers  the  soil  with  a  comparatively  more  abiding  carpet  of 
grass,  varied  by  countless  flowers  of  every  color,  and  offering  every 
attraction  of  form  and  height.  It  is,  however,  as  a  whole,  far  from 
being  what  we  should  think  a  desirable  climate.  The  change  to  sum- 
mer is  as  rapid  as  that  which  ushers  in  the  spring.     The  verdure  of 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  105 

the  plains  perishes  in  a  day.  Hot  winds  from  the  desert  burn  up  and 
carry  away  the  shrubs;  nights  of  locusts,  darkening  the  air,  destroy 
the  few  patches  of  cultivation,  and  complete  the  havoc  begun  by  the 
heat  of  the  sun,  which  soon  grows  over  the  face  of  the  country,  and 
can  be  seen  advancing  from  the  desert,  carrying  with  them  clouds  of 
sand  and  dust.  Almost  utter  darkness  prevails  during  their  passage, 
which  lasts,  generally,  about  an  hour,  and  nothing  can  resist  their 
fury.  The  Arabs  strike  their  black  tents  and  live  during  these  hot 
months  in  sheds  of  reeds  and  grass,  on  the  banks  of  the  river:  if  they 
can  find  a  spot  furnishing  the  materials  for  such  shelters.  The  ther- 
mometer ranges  from  112  to  115,  or  even  117  degrees;  and  hot  winds 
sweep,  like  blasts  from  a  furnace,  over  the  desert  during  the  day, 
while  they  drive  away  sleep  by  night.  Compared  with  such  a  home 
Canaan   was   a   paradise. 

In  the  town  itself,  the  ruins  of  an  ancient  stronghold,  built  of 
large  blocks  of  basalt,  still  attest  the  military  importance  of  the  posi- 
tion. Nor  was  it  less  favorably  placed  for  commerce.  Four  roads 
passed  through  it  from  the  earliest  times:  to  Assyria,  on  the  east; 
to  Babylon  and  the  Persian  Gulf  on  the  southeast;  towards  Asia  Minor 
on  the  north,  and  to  Syria  on  the  southwest. 

At  the  foot  of  the  slope  which  is  crowned  by  the  ruins  of  tht 
fortress,  are  nestled  the  beehive-shaped  huts  of  the  Bedouin  popu- 
lation, who  thus,  like  the  inhabitants  of  the  many  villages  of  the 
open  plain,  still  use  dwellings  exactly  similar  to  those  seen  on  ancient 
Assyrian  slabs;  scarcity,  or  rather  warit,  of  timber,  forcing  them  to 
adopt  this  singular  style  of  building.  Bare  stone  walls  raised  without 
cement  into  the  shape  of  a  sugar  loaf,  with  a  hole  at  the  top  for  light, 
have  in  all  ages  been  characteristic  of  the  neighborhood.  Every- 
where in  the  plain  one  meets  traces  of  ancient  canals  of  irrigation, 
by  which  the  waters  of  the  Belik  were  utilised  to  spread  fertility 
throughout  the  year  on  all  sides.  But  the  traveler  is  especially  at- 
tracted by  the  "Wells  of  Rebecca,"  where  Eliezer  met  the  future  wife 
of  Isaac,  and  where  Sarah  had  certainly  often  been,  long  before  her. 
Even  now,  the  flocks  of  Haran  gather  round  them  each  morning, 
and  the  women  still  come  to  them  to  dra*w  water  for  the  day's  use. 

The  fullest  description  of  this  temporary  home  of  Abraham,  which 
became  the  permanent  center  of  the  eastern  branch  of  his  race,  is 
given  by  Dr.  Malan.  He  approached  it  from  the  north,  where  "the 
green  slopes  of  the  lower  hills  of  Armenia"  have  sunk  into  a  rolling 
level  as  the  traveler  advances  from  Edessa,  or  Corfa,  the  hills  on 
the  right  hand  and  on  the  left  of  the  plain  recede  farther  and  farther, 
until  you  find  yourself  fairly  launched  on  the  desert  ocean;  a  bound- 
less plain,  strewed  at  times  with  patches  of  the  brightest  flowers,  at 
other  times  with  rich  and  green  pastures,  covered  with  flocks  of 
sheep  and  goats  feeding  together;  here  and  there  a  few  camels,  and 
the  son  or  daughter  of  their  owner  tending  them.  One  can  quite 
understand  that  the  sons  of  this  open  country,  the  Bedouin,  love  it, 
and  cannot  leave  it;  no  other  soil  would  suit  them.  The  air  is  so 
fresh,  the  horizon  is  so  far,  and  man  feels  so  free,  that  it  seems  made 
for  those  whose  life  is  to  roam  at  pleasure  and  who  owe  allegiance 
to  none  but  themselves.  The  ruins  of  the  castle  surmounting  a 
mound  makes  Haran  a  landmark  plainly  visible  from  every  part  of 
the  plain.  That  same  day  I  walked  at  even  to  the  well  I  had  passed 
in  the  afternoon,  coming  from  Corfu;  the  well  of  this,  the  city  of 
Nahor,  "at  the  time  of  the  evening — the  time  when  women  go  out 
to  draw  water."  There  was  a  group  of  them  filling,  no  longer  their 
pitchers,  since  the  steps  down  which  Rebecca  went  to  fetch  the  water 


106  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

are  now  blocked  up — but  rilling  their  waterskins,  by  drawing  water 
at  the  well's  mouth.  Everything  around  that  well  bears  signs  of 
age  and  of  the  wear  of  time;  for,  as  it  is  the  only  well  of  drinkable 
water  there,  it  is  much  resorted  to.  Other  wells  are  only  for  watering 
tlie  Flocks.  There  we  find  the  troughs  of  various  height,  for  camels, 
lor  sheep,  and  for  goats,  for  kids  and  for  lambs;  there  the  women 
wear  nose-rings,  and  bracelets  on  their  arms,  some  of  gold  or  of 
silver,  and  others  of  brass,  or  even  of  glass.  One  of  these  was  seen 
in  the  distance,  bringing  to  water  her  flock  of  fine  patriarchal  sheep: 
ere  she  reached  the  well,  shepherds,  more  civil  than  their  brethren 
of  Horeb,  had  filled  the  troughs  with  water  for  her  sheep.  She  was 
the  sheik's  daughter,  the  "beautiful  and  well-favored  Sadheefeh."  As 
the  shadows  of  the  grass  and  of  the  low  shrubs  around  the  well  length- 
ened and  grew  dim,  and  the  sun  sank  below  the  horizon,  the  women 
left  in  small  groups;  the  shepherds  followed  them,  and  I  was  left  alone 
in  this  vast  solitude." — Geikie,  "Hours  with  the  Bible,"  Vol.  I,  Chap.  14. 

Rebecca  was  like  the  Sheik's  daughter.  When  Abraham's 
seivant  came  to  the  well  at  Nahor,  he  asked  more  than  Laban's 
sister  for  a  drink,  though  they  all  refused,  and  only  Rebecca  took 
clown  her  jug  and  quenched  his  thirst  and  that  of  his  camels. 
This  custom  of  women  doing  heavy  work  is  characteristic  of  all 
primitive  peoples.  Indeed,  some  of  the  more  civilized  peoples 
of  Europe  today  have  not  entirely  gotten  over  this  habit.  As  a  rule, 
Americans  treat  their  women  better  than  most  other  peoples. 

Oriental  travel  in  those  far-away  days  was  accomplished  al- 
most altogether  by  means  of  the  camel.  This  animal  was  the  most 
serviceable  for  the  purpose,  largely  because  he  could  go  a  long 
time  without  water.  Those  were  not  the  days  of  the  automobile, 
the  steam  railway,  the  electric  line,  or  even  the  horse-carriage. 

It  is  in  the  matter  of  marriage,  however,  that  we  see  the 
greatest  contrast  with  our  own  times. 

Marriage  with  Abraham  was  a  very  solemn  affair.  So  it 
was  with  his  people  after  him.  He  and  they,  as  do  the  Latter- 
day  Saints  today,  enshrined  it  in  the  sanctities  of  religion.  Listen 
to  that  well-known  conversation  between  the  Patriarch  and  his 
servant : 

"And  Abraham  said  unto  the  eldest  servant  of  his  house, 
that  ruled  over  all  that  he  had,  'Put,  I  pray  theee,  thy  hand  under 
mv  thigh ;  and  I  will  make  thee  swear  by  the  Lord,  the  God  of 
heaven,  and  the  God  of  the  earth,  that  thou  shalt  not  take  a  wife 
unto  my  son  of  the  daughters  of  the  Canaanites,  among  whom 
I  I'well.  But  thou  shalt  go  unto  my  country,  and  to  my  kindred, 
and  take  a  wife  unto  my  son  Isaac' 

"And  the  servant  said  unto  him,  'Perad  venture  the  woman 
will  not  be  willing  to  follow  me  into  this  land,  must  I  needs 
bring  thy  son  again  unto  the  land  from  whence,  thou  earnest?' 

"And  Abraham  said  unto  him,  'Beware  thou  that  thou  bring 
not  my  son  thither  again.    The  Lord  God  of  heaven,  which  took 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  107 

me  from  my  father's  house,  and  from  the  land  of  my  kindred, 
and  which  spake  unto  me,  and  that  sware  unto  me,  saying,  "Unto 
thy  seed  will  I  give  this  land" — he  shall  send  his  angel  before  thee, 
and  thou  shalt  take  a  wife  unto  my  son  from  thence.  And  if  the 
woman  will  not  be  willing  to  follow  thee,  then  thou  shalt  be 
clear  from  this  my  oath.    Only,  bring  not  my  son  thither  again.' 

"And  the  servant  put  his  hand  under  the  thigh  of  Abraham 
his  master,  and  sware  to  him  concerning  that  matter." 

From  this  passage  it  is  clear  that  Abraham  hell  a  marriage 
between  his  son  and  a  Canaanitish  woman  in  utter  abhorrence. 
There  was  only  one  thing  he  would  not  rather  see  happen — the 
return  of  the  family  to  the  land  from  which  he  had  been  called  by 
the  voice  6i  Jehovah.  So  he  made  his  most  trustworthy  servant 
swear  in  the  most  solemn  manner  and  in  the  name  of  God  that  he 
would  do  his  best  to  turn  aside  such  an  evil  chance.  Why? 
Because  Abraham  had  been  given  a  sacred  promise  by  the  Lord 
concerning  "the  seed."  It  thus  became  his  duty — there  is  no 
higher  word — to  preserve  the  purity  of  this  seed.  In  the  marriage 
of  Isaac,  therefore,  the  Patriarch  appears  to  have  been  thinking 
of  his  remote  posterity  rather  than  of  the  personal  happiness  of 
his  son.  In  terms  of  our  own  day,  race  was  with  him  the  prime 
consideration  in  marriage. 

Coupled  very  closely  with  this  idea  is  the  Abrahamic  con- 
ception of  the  purpose  of  marriage.  And  this  conception,  as  we 
shall  see  over  and  over  again,  was  held  to  with  great  tenacity  by 
his  descendants.  It  was,  that  marriage  is  chiefly  racial,  rather 
than  individual,  in  its  aims  and  purposes.  That  Sarah  was  barren 
appears  to  have  given  Abraham  more  or  less  concern.  Today  alas 
barrenness  is  often  assiduously  cultivated  in  certain  quarters  of 
worldly  society. 

It  followed  naturally  from  this  ideal  of  marriage  that  the 
contracting  parties,  being  young  and  inexperienced,  should  not 
have  the  final  say  in  the  matter  of  the  mating.  Indeed,  they  ap- 
pear to  have  had  no  say  in  the  matter  at  all.  And  this  was  true  at 
the  time  of  which  we  are  speaking,  not  only  in  the  case  of  Isaac, 
but  of  others  as  well.  Abraham  seems  to  have  taken  the  initi- 
ative ;  the  servant  chose  the  young  lady ;  and  Isaac  did  not  see 
her  till  she  was  brought  home  to  him  "engaged."  Nor  does  it 
appear  that  she  was  consulted  in  the  matter.  For,  according  to 
Josephus,  she  told  the  servant  at  the  well  that  her  brother  Laban 
was  "the  guardian  of  her  virginity."  Moreover,  the  question 
which  the  Bible  account  says  was  put  to  her  in  the  words,  "Wilt 
thou  go  with  this  man?"  was  really  intended  to  ascertain  whether 
she  would  go  before  ten  days  or  abide  with  her  family  for  a  time. 
How  different,  this,  from  the  independent  attitude  of  young  peo- 
ple today,  with  their  ideas  of  individual  happiness,  who  look  upon 


108  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

the  slightest  hint  from  their  parents  that  so-and-so  will  not  do 
for  them,  as  an  unwarrantable  interference  with  their  personal 
rights  and  liberty !  And  yet  how  reasonable  is  the  thought  that 
God  could  as  easily  inspire  the  wise  parents  to  choose  rightly, 
as  He  could  the  immature  young  people,  often  guided  only  by 
sex-impulses. 

There  is  present  in  this  incident  the  thought  that  God  di- 
rects all  matters.  ''Behold,"  says  the  servant,  "I  stand  here  by 
the  well  of  water,  and  the  daughters  of  the  men  of  the  city  come 
out  to  draw  water.  And  let  it  come  to  pass  that  the  damsel  to 
whom  I  shall  say.  'Let  down  thy  pitcher,  I  pray  thee,  that  I  may 
drink;'  and  she  shall  say.  'Drink,  and  I  will  give  thy  camels  drink- 
also' — let  the  same  be  she  that  thou  hast  appointed  for  thy  servant 
Isaac."  And  when  this  very  thing  happened,  he  took  it  for  a  sign 
that  the  hand  of  the  Lord  was  guiding  him.  Abraham  himself 
had  already  promised  the  servant  that  the  Lord  would  "send  his 
angel  before  thee." 

Marriage,  therefore,  among  this  rising  people,  whatever  it 
may  have  been  among  other  peoples  of  the  age,  was  an  institution 
established  for  purposes  of  race  perpetuation,  which  ought  to  be 
guided,  not  by  the  personal  whims,  caprices,  and  fancies  of  young, 
inexperienced  persons,  but  rather  by  the  matured  wisdom  of  such 
elders  as  have  posterity  in  mind  and  know  what  is  good  for  pos- 
terity. 

There  seems  to  be  even  in  the  outside  world  a  veering  of 
sentiments  respecting  marriage,  back,  in  some  respects,  to  this 
ancient  conception  we  have  been  speaking  of.  It  is  coming  to 
be  more  and  more  believed  among  wise  men  of  the  world  that 
marriage  is  after  all  a  social  or  communal  institution  and  that 
therefore  society  should  have  the  direction  of  it  in  its  own  hands. 
Of  this  fact  recent  marriage  laws  in  various  states  are  an  attesta- 
tion. Collective  man  is  endeavoring  more  than  ever  to  say  who 
shall  and  who  shall  not  marry  and  to  prescribe  the  conditions  that 
shall  obtain  in  the  rearing  of  children.  The  Latter-day  Saints 
teach,  and  have  always  taught,  that  those  entering  the  marriage 
relation  should  seek  divine  guidance  in  the  selection  of  a  compan- 
ion "for  time  and   for  eternity." 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  Give  some  of  the  conditions  under  which  people  lived  at 
the  time  of  Rebecca.  2.  How  was  long-distance  travel  accom- 
plished in  those  days?  3.  State  the  substance  of  the  conversa- 
tion between  Abraham  and  his  servant  concerning  Isaac.  4.  Why 
die  Abraham  hold  in  such  abhorrence  a  marriage  between  his 
son  and  a  Canaanitish  woman?    5.     Is  there  any  matrimonial  al- 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  109 

liance  which  he'  would  avoid  for  his  son  today,  if  he  were  living 
here?  6.  What  do  you  think  of  the  practice  of  those  times  of 
not  consulting  the  contracting  parties  in  their  marriage?  Would 
such  an  idea  work  today?  Why?  7.  Why  should  the  state  have 
something  to  say  in  the  matter  of  who  should  marry  and  the 
conditions  of  child-rearing?  How  much  should  the  state  have? 
8.  What,  in  your  opinion,  are  some  things  that  should  prevent 
the  marriage  of  certain  persons,  or  classes  of  persons? 

BIBLE  LESSON  FOR  MARCH. 

"Oh  how  I  love  thy  law !    It  is  my  meditation  all  the  day." 

Bible,  Genesis.  Chapters  26;  27;  28. 

Psalms,  Chapters  12 ;  13  ;  14;  15 ;  16;  17;  18;  19;  20;  21;  22; 
23;  24;  25;  26;  27;  28;  29;  30. 

Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sections  1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9; 
10; 11;  12;  13; 14;  15;  16; 17; 18. 


LESSON  II. 

Work  and  Business. 

Second  Week  in  March. 
LESSON  III. 

Genealogy  and  Literature. 

Third  Week  in  March. 

TRADE  NAMES. 

In  the  middle  ages  all  over  Europe  people  who  engaged  in 
trades  occupied  a  very  respectable  and  responsible  position  in 
society.  Especially  was  this  true  in  Great  Britain  and  among  the 
Germanic  people.  The  trades  united  together  in  guilds  much  in 
1  he  same  way  as  we  have  trades  unions  amongst  us  todav.  There 
was  a  guild  of  tailors,  of  haberdashers,  of  shoemakers,  of  cord- 
wainers,  of  carpenters,  of  cartwrights  and  cobblers.  The  clerks 
and  the  coopers,  the  turners  and  the  sextons  all  were  bound  up 
into  separate  guilds.  So  powerful  did  these  guilds  become  that 
the  professionals  like  the  musicians  or  minstrels,  the  painters  and 
architects,  finally  joined  to  each  other  in  separate  guilds  and  be- 
came so  aggressive  that  they  dictated  the  policy  of  the  reigning 
families  through  their  representatives.     The  Guild  Hall  in  Lon- 


110  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

don  today  is  one  of  the  most  ancient  and  elaborate  public  build- 
ings in  that  great  city. 

These  guilds  took  great  pride  in  the  products  of  the  guild. 
The  council  examined  specimens  of  workmanship,  passed  upon 
the  qualifications  necessary  for  apprentices  who  aspired  to  be- 
come masters,  and  in  short  formulated  rules  of  conduct  and  by- 
laws to  govern  the  body. 

They  held  great  feasts  and  had  public  days  when  their  pa- 
geants passed  through  the  streets  of  the  town  or  city  in  brilliant 
array.  The  survival  of  these  ancient  customs  is  found  today  in 
the  Fourth  of  July  and  other  public  holiday  festivals,  such  as  the 
Wizard  of  the  Wasatch  festival  during  the  past  summer  in  Salt 
Lake  City. 

The  guilds  frequently  sent  an  apprentice  who  had  completed 
hi.,  course,  out  upon  his  travels,  both  in  his  own  country  and  in 
foreign  lands.  Letters  of  introduction  would  be  given  him  to 
fellow  guilds  in  other  countries,  thus  opening  the  door  for  him 
into  his  own  class  of  society  where  he  traveled. 

A  singular  feature  of  these  guilds  was  their  choice  of  totems 
or  emblems  which  represented  the  guild.  The  symbol  of  the  trade 
would  be  surrounded  by  a  wreath  and  placed  upon  a  banner.  If 
they  had  a  crown  above  the  emblem  it  signified  that  Royalty  had 
acknowledged  the  guild.  Moreover,  the  crown  expressed  the 
high  esteem  in  which  the  workers  held  their  own  trade.  The 
members  considered  themselves  ennobled  by  their  toil  and  that 
they  merited  a  coronet  as  truly  as  does  any  baron  or  earl.  In 
their  annual  festivities  each  trade  marched  its  own  particular 
guild,  bearing  its  banner  aloft  on  a  wonderfully  carved  gilt  pole, 
surmounted  by  a  figure  of  the  patron  saint  of  the  trade — Crispin 
for  the  shoemaker,  Blaize  for  the  woolcombers,  Barbara  for  the 
armourers,  and  so  on — between  two  flickering  tapers. 

Almost  every  guild  had  its  own  band,  each  its  chapel  in  the 
great  church,  its  guildhall,  its  special  coffer,  and  its  particular 
symbol  of  the  trade. 

To  the  present  day,  in  many  English  villages,  a  man  is  spoken 
of  by  his  trade,  as  Millard,  Carpenter,  Mason,  Cobbler,  with  the 
Christian  name  attached  and  the  surname  ignored,  as  John  Mil- 
lard, Joe  Carpenter.  Mason  Bill,  and  Cobbler  Dick. 

LIST  OF  TRADES   FURNISHING   NAMES. 

Adam,  a  gaoler  ("Comedy  of  Errors,"  IV:iii). 

Archer,  a  bowman.  Every  town,  every  village,  had  its  archer. 
And  the  Butts  were  outside  the  town  for  common  practice.  The 
Butts  as  well  as  the  Archer  have  provided  family  names.  Baker. 
The  feminine  form  of  Bagster  or  Baxter.     The  French  Boulanger 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  Ill 

furnished  the  surnames  Bullinger  and  Pullinger.-  The  French 
word  Fournier  has  also  furnished  the  surname  Furner.  Banister, 
the  keeper  of  the  bath;  from  the  French  bain.  Barber.  Till  the 
jear  1745  every  surgeon  was  a  member  of  the  Barbers'  Company. 
The  surname  Surgeon  is  not  often  met  with,  but  that  of  Barber 
is  very  common.  Blacksmith.  This  trade  has  constituted  the 
surname  Black  and  Smith,  Smyth,  Smeyt,  Smijth,  as  well  as 
Faber,  Fabricius,  Ferrier,  Ferrers,  Fervour,  Fearon. 

Caird,  a  tinker.  Carpenter  needs  no  explanation.  Cart- 
wright,  maker  of  carts.  Chandler,  candle-maker.  Chapman,  a 
traveling  merchant.  Cheap-Jack  takes  his  name  from  the  word, 
so  does  Cheapside.  Chaucer,  from  Chausseur,  a  shoemaker. 
Clerk,  one  who  could  read,  and  plead  the  benefit  of  the  clergy. 
Hence  Clark  and  Clarke.  Cobbler,  a  mender  of  boots  and  shoes. 
Collier,  although  originally  a  charcoal-burner,  the  name  came  to 
be  used  for  the  dealer  in  the  town  in  charcoal  and  in  sea-coal. 
Cook  enters  into  many  combinations,  as  in  Norman-French  LeCoc, 
Badcock  (Bartholomew  the  Cook),  Hancock  (John  the  Cook), 
Wilcox  (William  le  Coq),  etc.  Cooper,  a  maker  of  vats  and  bar- 
rels. Cpwper  or  Couper,  a  maker  of  cups.  Cryer,  a  town  bell- 
man. Currier,  the  curer  of  skins ;  hence  Curry.  Cutter,  a  cutter 
of  cloth  for  the  tailor.  Cutler,  properly  Scutler,  a  shield-maker, 
from  the  Latin  Scutum. 

Dyer  or  Dister,  also  Dexter,  Dwyer. 

Flaxman,  dealer  in  flax.  Fletcher,  an  arrowsmith ;  French 
fleche.     Fuller,  already  described. 

Girdler,  a  maker  of  girdles. 

Holder,  an  upholsterer,  or  stuffer  of  mattresses,  bed,  and 
cushions.  Hooker,  a  maker  of  crooks.  Hooper,  a  maker  of 
hoops  for  casks. 

Launder  or  Lavender,  a  washerman.  Layman,  lagman  or 
lawyer.     Lorimer,  maker  of  straps,  bits,  and  girths. 

Malster,  for  Malster.  Merchant,  also  Marchant,  from  the 
French,  in  place  of  English  "monger." 

Ostler,  hence  Oastler  and  Hostler ;  but  Oseler,  as  already 
said,  is  a  birdcatcher. 

Packer,  a  woolpacker;  also  Pack  as  a  surname.  Painter, 
often  as  a  surname  Paynter.  Platner,  a  maker  of  dishes  and 
plates.  Surname  Piatt.  Plumber  remains  in  surname  as  Plumer 
and  Plummer.  Potter,  maker  of  common  pots.  The  name  re- 
mains both  as  Potter  and  Potts. 

Quiller,  also  Keeler,  the  dresser  of  quilled  ruffs  and  collars, 
such  as  were  worn  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth. 

'  Salter,  also  Saltman,  as  salt-boiler.     Sawyer,  self-explana- 
tory    Sexton,  also  as  Saxton,  for  Sacristan.     Skinner,  one  who 


112  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

prepared  skins  for  the  tanyard.  As  a  surname.  Skiner.  Smith, 
a  general  term.  There  were  Whitesmiths,  i.  e..  Tinmen,  Gold- 
smiths, Brownsmiths,  Blacksmiths.  Arrowsmiths,  Spearsmjths, 
Nailsmiths,  etc.  Spooner.  maker  of  spoons  in  wood  and  horn# 
Sreyner,  the  maker  of  steenes,  or  stone  jars,  out  of  white  clay. 
The  surname  remains  as  Steyner  or  Stayner. 

Tailor,  variously  spelled  as  a  surname,  in  the  vain  hope  to 
disguise  its  humble  and  somewhat  despised  origin.  Tanner 
needs  no  explanation.  Tapiser.  a  tapistry  worker,  contracted  to 
Tapster.  Turner,  spelled  as  a  surname  also  Tumour.  Tyler, 
tilemaker ;  sometimes  Tittler. 

Walker.  Cloth  before  the  introduction  of  the  roller  had  to 
be  trodden  underfoot.  In  Wyckliffe's  version  of  the  transfigura- 
tion he  describes  Christs'  raiment  as  shining  so  as  no  "fullers  or 
walkers  of  cloth"  could  whiten.  Wayte,  a  watchman  (Old 
French,  guet),  hence  the  surnames  Wade,  Gates,  Yates,  and 
Wakeman.  Weaver,  came  as  Webber,  and  Webster.  Whittier. 
a  white  Tawier ;  one  who  prepares  the  finer  skins  for  gloves. 


LITERATURE.      . 
Third  Week  in  March. 

the  song  or  lyric. 

A  song  or  lyric  is  an  expression  of  emotion  in  musical  words. 
It  usually  bursts  forth  when  "the  heart  is  so  full  that  a  drop 
overfills  it."  At  such  times,  one  is  most  likely  to  pour  out  one's 
feelmgs  in  a  song  of  joy  or  sorrow,  according  to  the  emotion 
that  fills  the  heart. 

Most  of  us  depend  on  others  to  create  for  us  the  songs  we 
sing,  but  few  persons  like  Bobbie  Burns  and  Stephen  Foster,  or 
our  own  Eliza  R.  Snow,  Chas.  W.  Penrose,  Emily  Hill  Wood- 
mansee,  Emmeline  B.  Wells,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Orson  F.  Whitney, 
Henry  W.  Naisbitt,  John  Jacques,  and  Evan  Stephens,  have  the 
gift  to  sing  like  the  meadowlark,  their  own  feelings  in  their  own 
way.  Such  gifted  persons  become  a  voice  for  all,  expressing 
the  emotions  of  others,  stirring  their  souls,  and  shaping  their 
sentiments.  It  is  truly  a  wonderful  gift — this  art  of  song  writ- 
ing, and  it  is  one  that  may  be  used  for  good  or  for  ill. 

Three  things  characterize  the  best  songs :  music,  feeling, 
and  word  beauty.  In  our  choicest  lyrics,  the  words  seem  to  flow 
like  liquid  silver. 

Read  aloud  these  lines  and  listen : 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  113 

"Soft    o'er    the    fountains, 

Lingering  falls  the  southern  moon, 

While    o'er    the    mountains 
Breaks   the    day   too   soon." 

— From  Juanita. 

And  to  these : 

"O  my  Father,  thou  that  dwellest 
In   that  high   and   glorious   place, 

When  shall  I  regain  thy  presence 
And  again   behold  thy  face?" 

Voice  these  songs  in  full,  or  take  other  sweet  songs,  such  as 
"Annie  Laurie,"  "O  awake,  my  slumbering  minstrel,"  "O  ye 
mountains  high,"  "Down  on  the  Suwanee  River,"  "Love  at 
Home,"  and  observe  how  the  words  melt  into  one  another,  as  the 
beautiful  sentiments  and  pictures  of  life  are  expressed. 

The  true  song  does  not  tell  a  story.  It  simply  sings.  Never- 
theless, a  story  is  usually  suggested  by  the  song.  For  example, 
in  "My  Old  Kentucky  Home"  are  these  lines : 

"Bimeby  hard  times  comes  a  knockin'  at  de  door, 
Den  my  old  Kentucky  Home,  goodnight. 

Weep  no  more,  my  lady, 
Oh   weep   no   more   today, 

We  will  sing  one  song  for  my  old  Kentucky  Home, 
For  my  old  Kentucky  Home  far  away." 

No  story  is  told  here,  yet  between  the  lines  one  can  read  the 
tale  common  to  the  times  of  slavery,  when  the  negroes  were  sold 
from  a  happy  home  and  sent  far  away  down  the  river.  In  their 
song,  they  are  trying  to  console  their  mistress. 

BALLADS. 

In  some  songs  the  story  is  even  plainer  than  this.  It  is 
sketched  for  us.  Such  songs  are  called  ballads.  The  ballad  is 
a  song  story,  or  a  story  told  in  song.  In  earlier  times,  the  ballad 
was  very  popular.  Many  of  our  old  legends  like  those  about 
Robin  Hood  have  been  brought  down  to  us  in  the  form  of  ballads. 
A  fairly  good  illustration  of  the  ballad  is  the  old  song,  "Mistletoe 
Bough"  or  "Nellie  Gray,"  beginning,  "Oh  my  darling  Nellie 
Gray,  they  have  taken  her  away,"  etc.  But  whether  the  story  is 
sketched,  as  in  the  ballad,  or  merely  suggested  as  in  other  songs, 
this  seems  true :  Back  of  every  song  there  lies  a  story.  It  may 
be  so  hidden  that  one  cannot  easily  find  it,  nevertheless,  it  is  there. 
Some  incident  of  life,  some  train  of  events,  generally  leads  up  to 
the  writing  of  a  song.  Instances  to  illustrate  this  point  are 
numerous. 


114  REElEl    SOCIETY   MAGAZINE. 

We  feel  the  pathos  and  the  pain  of  renunciation  as  well  as 
the  calm  of  death  expressed  in  the  exquisite  hymn  of  Henry  W. 
Xaisbitt — written  on  the  death  of  his  close  friend,  President 
Joseph  Young : 

Rest   for   the   weary   soul, 

Rest  for  the  aching  head. 
Rest,  on   the   hillside,   rest, 

With   the  great  uncounted  dead. 

When  Cardinal  Newman  was  once  returning  from  a  visit  to 
the  Holy  Land,  he  lay  on  his  cot  one  night  on  the  deck  of  the 
steamer  as  it  was  plowing  its  way  through  the  Mediterranean  sea. 
The  good  man  had  been  distressed  with  religious  doubt  and  un- 
certainty;  he  was  now  ill  of  body.  As  he  lay  there  tossing  in 
discomfort,  he  saw  off  through  the  gloom  a  little  star  towards 
which  the  vessel  seemed  to  be  going.  As  he  watched  it,  a  feeling 
of  sweet  calm  came  over  his  soul,  and  out  of  it  came  this  beau- 
tiful expression : 

"Lead,  kindly  light,  lead  thou  me  on, 
The  night  is  dark,  and  I  am  far  from  home, 
Lead  thou  me  on." 

Find  the  remainder  of  these  two  great  songs  and  enjoy  them 
with  the  story  just  told  to  help  enrich  the  meaning  of  its  musical 
lines. 

One  gets  an  added  beauty  with  any  song  when  one  knows 
something  of  the  story  that  lies  back  of  it.  Our  appreciation  of 
"Home,  Sweet  Home"  is  enhanced  when  we  know  that  John 
Howard  Payne  wrote  the  song  while  he  was  wandering  alone  in 
a  foreign  land.  We  get  a  keener  thrill  from  the  stirring  lines  of 
the  "Star  Spangled  Banner,"  when  we  realize  that  the  author, 
Francis  Scott  Key,  wrote  them  while  he  was  a  prisoner  on  the 
deck  of  a  British  warship.  He  had  watched  all  night  with 
anxious  heart  the  fate  of  the  battle  that  was  raging  around  him. 
When  the  morning  broke  to  show  the  old  "red,  white  and  blue" 
still  waving  above  the  ramparts,  he  drew  from  his  pocket  a  let- 
ter, and  on  this  he  penned  the  words  that  have  thrilled  the  hearts 
of  true  Americans  ever  since.  The  beautiful  stories  that  lie  back 
of  many  of  our  own  hymns  give  them  new  light  and  meaning 
"Come,  Come,  ye  Saints"  was  written  by  William  Clayton,  at  the 
request  of  the  great  Prophet-leader,  President  Young,  as  a  song 
of  cheer  to  shorten  the  weary  stretches  of  the  plains,  and  to  give 
added  courage  to  those  hearts  to  dare  the  hardships  of  that  desert 
march.  The  soul-stirring  history  of  the  Latter-day  Saints  is 
easily  read  in  their  hymn  book,  when  one  learns  how  to  read  the 
story  that  is  between  the  lines  of  their  songs. 

So,  too,  may  we  hear  the  heart  beats  of  the  Hebrews  of  old 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  115 

in  the  songs  that  enspirit  the  Bible.  When  Moses,  for  example, 
had  delivered  Israel  from  bondage,  when  Pharaoh  and  his  host 
had  been  destroyed,  the  people,  under  the  leadership  of  Moses, 
broke  into  an  anthem  of  praise  and  repoicing  beginning  thus : 

"I  will, sing  unto  the  Lord,  for  he  hath  triumphed  gloriously, 
The  horse  and  the  rider  hath  he  thrown  into  the  sea." 

— Exodus. 

When  Hannah  is  given  a  son,  in  answer  to  her  pleadings 
with  the  Lord,  she  breaks  forth  into  a  song  of  rejoicing  and 
praise.  David,  too,  when  Saul  and  Jonathan  are  slain,  expresses 
rus  grief  in  a  great  song  of  sorrow.  And  Deborah  sings  her 
martial  strain  of  victory  while  Mary  voices  motherhood  for  all 
time  in  her  Magnificat.  All  through  the  Holy  Book  are  found 
other  songs  that  reveal  the  feelings  of  the  people. 

"Our  sweetest  songs,"  says  Shelley,  "are  those  that  tell  of 
saddest  thought."  There  is  much  of  truth  in  what  the  poet  says. 
Songs  like  "Old  Black  Joe,"  "Way  Down  Upon  the  Suwanee 
River,"  and  many  others  of  our  most  beautiful  songs  are  sugges- 
tive of  sorrow.  We  love  to  sing  these  sadly  sweet  songs ;  but 
there  are  many  other  songs  we  should  also  sing  that  are  not  at  all 
sorrowful — songs  like  "The  Lord  is  my  Shepherd"  and  "O  my 
Father"  are  sublimely  beautiful  and  full  of  comfort. 

We  need  more  pure  songs  of  good  cheer.  A  rollicking  song 
of  innocent  fun  is  a  tonic  to  the  weary  heart.  The  trouble  with 
our  so-called  funny  songs  too  often  is  this :  they  are  suggestive 
of  evil  and  are  sometimes  vulgar.  Such  songs  are  out  of  place 
anywhere;  yet,  they  frequently  find  their  way  into  our  homes, 
where  they  sow  their  poisoned  thoughts  and  false  sentiments. 
There  is  no  more  important  work  before  the  parents  than  that  of 
selecting  the  music  that  goes  into  their  homes.  In  these  days 
when  the  choicest  songs  are  available,  there  is  no  excuse  for 
feeding  our  hearts  on  any  but  the  purest  and  the  best. 

In  choosing  the  songs  for  our  homes,  we  should  always  put 
them  to  this  test:  What  pictures  of  life,  what  sentiments,  do  they 
bring  to  our  minds  and  hearts?  Music  may  lead  us  to  heaven  or 
to  evil  places ;  it  depends  upon  the  music.  "Give  me  the  privilege 
of  writing  the  songs  of  a  people,  and  I  care  not  who  makes  their 
laws" — a  saying  of  one  great  philosopher.  Let  this  be  our  third 
guiding  principle :  The  songs  that  find  their  way  into  our  homes 
mast  suggest  pure  stories  and  uplifting  sentiments. 

LESSON  OUTLINE. 

1.  What  is  a  song? 

2.  Why  may  the  song-writer  be  called  "a  voice  for  all  ?" 

3.  Who  among  our  own  people  have  earned  this  title  by 


116  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

creating  beautiful  songs?     Name  some  of  these  poets  and  tell 
what  are  their  most  popular  songs. 

4.  What  characterizes  the  words  of  a  beautiful  song?  Illus- 
trate by  quoting  a  line  or  two  from  some  song  you  love. 

5.  What  is  meant  by  this  remark?  "Back  of  the  song 
there  lies  a  story."  Illustrate  by  telling  the  story  that  some  song 
suggests  to  you,  or  by  telling  how  some  author  came  to  write  a 
certain  song.  For  example,  what  story  is  suggested  by  "School 
thy  Feelings,"  and  "Oh,  say  what  is  Truth,"  and  "Hail  to  the 
Prophet." 

6.  How  does  it  help  a  song  to  know  the  story  that  is  con- 
nected with  it? 

7.  Show  how  the  history  of  the  Latter-day  Saints  is  re- 
flected in  some  of  their  hymns. 

8.  Show  how  the  song  is  used  in  the  Bible  to  express  the 
feelings  of  the  people  of  Israel  at  certain  times. 

9.  What  is  the  danger  in  many  of  the  songs  that  are  being 
sung  today?     Where  do  they  come  from? 

10.  What  practical  steps  can  be  taken  to  get  purer,  more 
uplifting  songs  in  our  homes? 


LESSON   IV. 

Home  Economics. 

Fourth  Week  in  March. 

A.     Bottle-fed  Babies. 

In  the  preceding  lesson  I  emphasized  the  necessity  of 
maintaining  the  baby  on  the  breast  during  the  first  year  of  life. 
In  the  Great  Ormond  Street  Hospital  of  London,  England,  sta- 
tistics taken  over  a  long  period  of  time  show  the  death  rate  from 
dysentery  during  the  hot  summer  months  to  be  ninety-six  per 
cent  in  bottle-fed  babies.  These  same  statistics  will  be  borne  out  in 
all  congested  districts.  The  treatment  of  dysentery  in  breast-fed 
babies  is  a  comparatively  simple  proposition,  but  with  the  bottle- 
fed  babies  the  physician  is  taxed  to  his  utmost  ingenuity.  Moth- 
er's milk  is  the  natural  food.  It  contains  unknown  elements  which 
we  cannot  analyze  and,  therefore,  cannot  duplicate  in  any  of  our 
milk  modifications.  Perhaps  the  principal  source  of  trouble  with 
bottle  babies  comes  from  the  frequent  contamination  of  the  food. 
In  spite  of  the  most  extreme  care  exercised  on  the  part  of  the 
mother  in  the  preparation  of  the  food,  bacteria  will  find  their  way 
into  the  milk  and  produce  subsequent  trouble.  A  bottle  of  milk 
allowed  to  stand  in  the  sun  for  one  hour  will  develop  millions  of 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  117 

organisms  which  will  cause  dysentery  or  other  intestinal  disorders. 
Mothers  frequently  make  complaint  at  the  extreme  caution  en- 
forced by  the  physician  in  the.  preparation  of  food  for  the  babies 
if  they  will  just  keep  in  mind  this  rapid  development  of  bacteria 
they  will  realize  the  necessity  for  the  greatest  of  care. 

In  order  to  avoid  contamination  as  much  as  possible  the 
food  for  the  entire  twenty-four  hours  should  be  prepared  at  one 
time.  Six  or  seven  bottles  should  be  obtained,  preferably  the 
narrow  neck  bottles,  for  reasons  that  will  be  seen  later.  The  food 
should  be  prepared  and  put  in  the  bottles  and  then  placed  on  ice 
and  kept  there  until  feeding-  time.  They  should  then  be  placed 
in  hot  water  to  bring  them  to  the  proper  temperature,  and  fed  im- 
mediately. If  these  directions  are  followed  there  will  only  be 
necessity  for  handling  the  milk  once,  thus  lessening  the  danger  of 
contamination.  A  plug  of  sterile  absorbent  cotton  should  be 
placed  in  the  neck  of  the  bottle  to  serve  as  a  cork.  This  keeps 
out  bacteria  but  allows  the  entrance  of  air.  The  large  neck  bot- 
tles are  easier  to  be  kept  clean  than  the  narrow  neck  but  you 
crnnot  properly  cover  them  with  absorbent  cotton  and  are  com- 
pelled to  pour  your  food  from  a  large  container  into  the  bottle 
at  each  feeding.  The  bottles  should  be  scalded  thoroughly  each 
morning  before  filling  with  the  food  and  rinsed  out  with  a  solu- 
tion of  borax  water.  Nipples  should  be  scalded  every  day  and 
kept  in  boric  acid  solution.  If  these  directions  are  followed  out 
carefully  in  the  preparation  of  the  bottles  and  the  nipples  the 
danger  of  contamination  is  reduced  to  a  minimum  and  the  death 
rate  from  dysentery  would  be  greatly  reduced. 

B.     Modification  of  Covtfs  Milk: 

When  the  baby  has  reached  proper  age  for  weaning,  or  when 
•from  any  cause  your  physician  deems  it  necessary  to  wean  from 
the  breast,  nothing  but  a  modified  cow's  milk  mixture  should 
be  considered.  The  child's  food  should  contain  in  proper  propor- 
tion all  of  the  good  elements — carbo-hydrates,  fats,  salts,  proteins 
and  water.  If  any  one  of  these  food  elements  is  neglected,  al- 
though the  child  may  apparently- be  well,  he  will,  in  time,  show- 
signs  of  trouble  to  the  experienced  eye.  Fixed  formulas  for  the 
modification  of  milk  are  impossible  because  every  child  has 
to  be  fed  according  to  its  weight  and  condition  of  nutrition. 
Guess  work  in  the  feeding  of  babies  is  responsible  for  more  deaths 
than  the  infectious  diseases.  A  careful  estimation  should  be  made 
by  the  physician  as  to  the  exact  number,  of  calories  of  food  the 
child  requires  during  the  twenty-four  hours  and  the  formula 
should  be  worked  out  from  this  basis.  The  condition  of  nutrition 
must  be  considered  carefully,  otherwise,  one  is  very  apt  to  in- 
clude in  the  formula  too  much  or  too  little  of  one"  of  the  food 


118  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

elements — for  example,  a  fat,  flabby  baby,  slow  in  teething,  slow 
in  walking,  yet  of  over-weight  for  its  age,  should  not  receive  as 
much  fat  in  its  food  as  the  child  that  is  thin  and  emaciated  and 
under-weight.  The  reason  why  mothers  so  frequently  have  dif- 
ficulty in  feeding  their  babies  is  because  the  formula  is  not 
worked  out  along  these  lines  and  the  result  is  that  they  try  every 
food  that  is  recommended.  For  a  delicate  babe  they  modify 
cow's  milk ;  they  try  Eskay's,  Mellan's.  Horlicks  and  all  of  the 
rest  of  the  proprietary  infant  foods  until  finally  the  child  reaches 
a  stage  where  the  physician  has  to  take  the  case  in  hand,  and 
there  is  no  more  difficult  case  in  medicine  than  the  feeding  of 
such  a  child.  Rickets  and  scurvy,  the  common  diseases  of  the 
second  year  of  childhood — the  causes  of  lowered  vitality — are 
the  results  of  these  errors  in  feeding. 

A  few  simple  rules  will  help  mothers  with  normal  children. 
The  child  should  be  fed  from  one  to  two  ounces  more  than  its 
age  in  months  at  each  feeding.  With  the  minimum  of  three 
ounces  and  the  maximum  of  eight  to  the  feeding — for  example,  a 
child  three  months  old  should  be  given  from  three  and  one-half 
to  four  ounces  of  food  every  three  hours ;  a  child  six  months  old 
should  be  given  from  six  to  eight  ounces  of  food  every  three 
burs.  The  younger  the  child  the  greater  the  dilution  of  the 
milk  should  be.  With  babies  under  four  months  of  age  I  usually 
begin  with  the  two-thirds  milk  and  one-third  water  mixture.  As 
the  child  increases  in  age  the  strength  of  the  milk  can  be  in- 
creased until  at  the  age  of  one  year  the  child  is  getting  all  milk 
without  any  modification.  The  sugar  to  be  used  should  be  some 
form  of  malt,  since  it  is  much  more  easily  digested  than  any  other 
form  of  sugar.  Milk-sugar  has  been  too  widely  recommended  and 
used.  It  is  very  frequently  the  cause  of  severe  nutritional  dis- 
orders in  childhood.  Dextrimaltose  is  a  very  excellent  form  and 
is  most  easily  assimilated  by  babies.  For  the  average  child  from 
one  to  one  and  one-half  ounces  of  sugar  should  be  given  in 
twenty-four  hours.  Other  than  these  few  points  no  definite  rules 
can  be  given.  A  careful  record  of  the  weekly  gain  in  weight 
should  be  kept  with  all  bottle-fed  babies  since  the  scales  are  the 
most  reliable  guide  as  to  when  the  baby  is  getting  enough  or  when 
we  are  over-feeding. 

C.     Proprietory  Foods: 

There  is  no  doubt  but  that  the  proprietary  foods  play  a  part 
in  infant  feeding.  By  proprietary  food,  I  mean  Mellen's,  Hor- 
lick's  Malted  Milk,  Denno's,  Eskay's,  Nestles,  Eagle  Brand  Con- 
densed Milk  and  the  numerous  other  prepared  foods  on  the 
market.  These  foods  are  all  standardized  to  meet  the  require- 
ments of  babies  in  general.     Since  each  child  must  be  fed  in- 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  119 

dividually  according  to  its  actual  bodily  requirements,  the  impos- 
sibility of  successfully  feeding  all  babies  on  these  foods  can  be 
readily  seen.  Babies' have  a  higher  tolerance  for  carbo-hydrate 
than  for  any  of  the  other  food  elements.  As  a  result,  these  pro- 
prietary foods  contain  in  excessive  amounts  this  ingredient  at 
the  expense  of  the  others.  Occasionally  we  see  a  perfectly  nor- 
mal baby  that  has  been  fed  on  one  of  these  foods,  but  in  that 
case  it  was  just  the  food  that  was  adapted  to  that  individual  con- 
dition. Mothers  must  not  feel  that  because  their  babies  get  fat 
and  look  well  on  these  foods  that  they  are  well.  Invariably  de- 
fects in  development  can  be  found.  I  often  have  a  baby  brought 
to  me  with  the  mother  boasting  that  it  is  a  baby  reared  on  pro- 
prietary food — careful  examination  invariably  reveals  defects  of 
physical  development  which  lower  the  child's  vitality.  And  I 
might  add  here,  that  the  most  obstinate  cases  of  dysentery  that 
a  doctor  is  ever  called  upon  to  handle  are  those  that  have  been 
raised  upon  the  proprietary  foods.  We  get  a  one-sided  develop- 
ment from  a  one-sided  food.  In  feeding  them  we  shape  the  baby 
to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  food  instead  of  shaping  the  food 
to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  baby.  Look  at  the  pictures  of  the 
babies  in  the  literature  that  you  have  received  from  these  proprie- 
tary food  concerns.  They  are  fat  babies  with  large  heads,  large 
abdomens,  large  joints,  and  almost  invariably  they  have  slight 
deformities  of  the  chest,  are  slow  to  walk,  slow  in  teething,  and 
in  the  second  year  of  life  are  the  first  ones  to  contract  the  in- 
fectious diseases  upon  exposure.  For  these  reasons  the  neces- 
sity for  careful  modification  of  cow's  milk  can  be  readily  seen, 
where  it  is  absolutely  impossible  to  secure  mother's  milk.  A 
wet  nurse  will  often  save  a  child's  life. 

questions. 

1.  What  is  the  reason  for  the  higher  death  rate  amongst 
bottle-fed  babes  than  breast-fed  babies? 

2.  How  would  you  proceed  to  prevent  contamination  of  the 
food  prepared  for  your  baby? 

3.  Take  an  imaginery  case  of  a  baby  six  months  old,  weigh- 
ing fourteen  pounds.    Discuss  in  detail  how  you  would  prepare 

his  food. 

4.  What  has  been   your   experience  with   tne   proprietary 

foods?  . 

5.  Have  you  noticed  that  the  teeth  decay  early  in  babies 
that  have  been  fed  on  the  proprietary  foods?  Have  you  noticed 
that  they  are  slow  in  walking ;  that  their  teeth  are  slow  in  appear- 
ing ;  that  they  have  large  abdomens,  with  very  frequently  naval 
ruptures? 


120  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

6.  Do  you  not  think  the  proverbial  difficulty  of  getting  the 
baby  through  the  second  summer  is  often  due  to  these  mistakes 
in  diet? 

7.  Let  some  mother  study  up  the  different  food  ingredients 
—  carbo-hydrates,  fats,  proteins,  salts  and  water  and  conduct  a 
discussion. 

SOME  DAY  YOU'LL  MEET. 
By  Miss  Leah  Brozvn. 

Are  you  lonely  in  your  cottage, 

Little  home  so  dear  to  you? 
Are  you  lonely,  as  you  think  of 

How  in  love  'twas  built  for  two? 
Now,  in  death,  you  two  have  parted 

And  have  left  the  cottage  here, 
For  one  alone  to  love  and  cherish 

Thinking  of  her  mate  elsewhere. 

CHORUS. 

Lonely  heart,  some  day  you'll  meet  him. 

On  a  distant  silver  shore. 
Lonely  heart,  when  you  shall  meet  him. 

He  will  greet  his  love  once  more. 
He  will  take  you  to  a  cottage 

He  is  building  there  for  you  ; 
Built  of  gold  and  precious  jewels, 

Just  a  cottage  built  for  two. 

In  the  solemn  twilight  hours. 

When  the  long  day's  work  is  done, 
Do  you  sit  down  by  the  fireside 

Thinking  of  the  days  now  gone? 
How  you  stood  there,  in  the  doorway, 

Holding  out  your  hand  to  one 
Who  came  home  so  gay  and  joyous 

When  his  own  day's  work  was  done? 

Lonely  heart,  your  days  of  longing 

For  the  tender,  thoughtful  care 
Will  be  met  in  fullest  measure 

When  you  meet  him  over  there. 
He  is  eagerly  awaiting 

For  that  glorious,  happy  time 
When  his  arms  can  close  enfold  you, 

In  that  perfect,  heavenly  clime. 


TO  GENEALOGICAL  STUDENTS. 

Finding  that  the  book  on  Surnames  by  Baring-Gould  is  out 
of  print,  our  Genealogical  Committee  have  decided  to  print  a 
book  on  Surnames,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Genealogical  Society 
of  Utah.  We  are  working  very  hard  to  get  this  out  in  a  month 
or  six  weeks.     We  ask  your  patience  until  then. 

Susa  Young  Gates, 
Amy  Brown  Lyman, 
Lillian  Cameron. 
Committee  on  Surname  Book. 


MAGAZINE  AGENTS. 

Kindly  add  the  name  of  your  stake  to  your  lists.     It  saves 
much  work  in  our  office. 


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"OLDER.  THAN  THE  STATE  OP  UTAH" 


English  and  American 
ARCHITECTURE 

By  GEO.  M.  ALLEN 

Is  in  Mrs.  Home's  Art  Book,  "Dev- 
otees  and  Their  Shrines"  Send  to 
this  office  or  to  Mrs.  Alice  Merrill 
Home,  4  Ostlers  Court,  Salt  Lake  City, 
for  this  book  from  which  the  lessons 
on  Architecture  for  1916  are  assigned. 

Price  $1.25  Postpaid 


"Civilization  begins  and  ends  with  the  plow." — Roberts. 

Utah  Agricultural  College 

LOGAN,  UTAH 

Devoted  to  the  ideal  of  extending  the  blessings  of  edu- 
cation to  every  fireside. 

Firm  in  the  conviction  that  a  favorable  home  life  is  the 
Nations  greatest  asset. 

CONENVIENT    )  (INTELLIGENT 

SANITARY  ^  HOMES  ^  REVERENT 


DRUDGELESS 


I  HAPPY 


The  College  offers  work  in  all  the  branches  of  Home 
Economics. 

Further  information  furnished  on  request. 

Address:    The   President,   Utah   Agricultural    College, 
Logan,  Utah. 

LABOR  IS  LIFE 


Garment  Wearer's  Attention 


A  label  like  the  above  is  found  below  the  Temple  brand  in  the  neck  of 
all  L.  D.  S.  "Temple  Brand"  garments.  Be  sure  it  is  in  those  you  buy.  If  your 
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this  list  and  send  us  the  order.  We  will  pay  postage  to  any  part  of  the  United 
States.     Samples  submitted  on  request. 

Cotton,  bleached,  light  weight   $1.00 

Cotton,  bleached,  gauze  weight  1.35 

Cotton,  bleached,  medium  weight  1.50 

Cotton,  bleached,  medium  heavy  1.75 

Cotton,  unbleached,  heavy  weight  1.75 

Lisle,  bleached,   gauze  weight  2.00 

Lisle,  bleached,  light  weight  1.75 

Fleeced  cotton,  bleached,  heavy  2.00 

Mercerized  cotton,  light  weight  2.00 

Mercerized  cotton,  medium  weight  3.00 

Wash-shrunk  wool,  medium  weight 2.50 

Wash-shrunk  wool,  heavy  weight  3.00 

Silk  and  wool,  medium  weight 3.50 

Australian  wool,  medium  weight  3.50 

Australian  wool,  heavy  weight  „ 6.00 

SALT  LAKE  KNITTING  STORE 

70  MAIN  STREET,  SALT  LAKE  CITY 


Iff 


n 


AMERICAN  RIVER  CANYON 

Crossing 
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OGDEN   U 
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MARCH,    1917 

SPEGIAL  ARTIGLES 


An  Interesting  Outgrowth  of  the 
Relief  Society  in  Nauvoo 

J.  M.  Monroe 

From  Times  and  Seasons. 

Anniversary  Day  Programs 

The  Relief  Society  Ward 
President 

Annie  Wells  Cannon 


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The  Relief  Society  Magazine 

Owned  and  Published  by  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

CONTENTS. 

MARCH,    1917. 

The  Relief  Society  Sisters Maud  Baggarley  121 

Frontispiece  (Nauvoo)    122 

An  Interesting  Outgrowth  of  the  Relief  Society  in  Nauvoo. . 

J.  M.  Monroe  123 

Home  of  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Nauvoo 128 

Mothers  in  Israel Mary  Ann  Stearns  Winters  131 

An  Interesting  Occurrence  in  Canada Edward  J.  Wood  135 

A  Morning  Reverie Annie  D.  S.  Palmer  138 

Anniversary  Day  Programs 140 

Home  Evening  Entertainment  Morag  145 

The  Music  Page 146 

Admiral  George  Dewey  and  Homer  Davenport 

Alice  Louise  Reynolds  147 

The  Relief  Society  Ward  President.  .  .  .Annie  Wells  Cannon  149 

Notes  From  the  Field Amy  Brown  Lyman  151 

Home  Science  Department Janette  A.  Hyde  156 

Current  Topics James  H.  Anderson  158 

Editorial :     Our  Annual  Day 160 

Guide  Lessons 164 


ADVERTISERS'    DIRECTORY. 

Patronize  those  who  advertise  with  us 

BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  CO.,  Vermont  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

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DESERET  NEWS  BOOK  STORE,  Books  and  Stationery,  Salt  Lake  City. 
KEELEY  ICE  CREAM  CO.,  55  Main,  260  State  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
MERCHANTS'  BANK,  Third  South  and  Main  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
McCONAHAY,  THE  JEWELER,  64  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
RELIEF  SOCIETY  BURIAL  CLOTHES,  Beehive  House,  Salt  Lake  City. 
GENEALOGICAL  SOCIETY,  60  East  South  Temple. 
OREGON  SHORT  LINE  RAILWAY,  Salt  Lake  City. 
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TAYLOR,  S.  M.  &  CO.,  Undertakers,  251-257  E.  First  So.  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
UTAH-IDAHO  SUGAR  COMPANY,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 
UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL  BANK,  Salt  Lake  City. 
"WOMEN  OF  THE  BIBLE,"  by  Willard  Done. 
Z.  C.  M.  I.,  Salt  Lake  City. 


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The  women  of  the  Relief  Society  have  now  the  opportunity  of  securing 
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The  moment  you  sign  you  policy  your  burial  expenses  are  assured  without 
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THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  SISTERS. 

By  Maud  Baggarlcy. 

The  Call. 

The  world  is  thine,  O  woman, 

Fare  forth  from  thy  narrow  walls, 
There  are  many  fields  of  labor, 

Come — for  the  Master  calls. 

From  thy  nest  hath  flown  the  fledglings, 

So  strong  and  fleet  of  wing, 
Thou  cherished  and  guarded  and  nourished 

And  sent  them  forth  to  sing. 

And  now  that  thy  home  is  empty, 

Step  without  thy  door, 
See  the  hands  that  trembling  beckon 

Beseeching  thee   evermore, 
To  pity  and  succor,  O  woman  ; 

Hasten,  their  need  is"  sore ! 

The  Answer. 

From  shack,  and  cottage,  and  mansion 

The  willing  workers  came — 
''God  needs  us,"  they  softly  whispered, 

And  in  His  holy  name 
Went  forth  on  errands  of  mercy 

And  asked  neither  gold  nor  fame. 

Now  the  stars  look  down  on  them  toiling 
For  their  work  is  never  done. 

But  the  sick  and  dying  bless  them, 
And  many  a  soul  is  now 

'Gainst  the  Lord's  triumphant  coming. 

•  Silent  and  unassuming. 

Serene  and  calm  of  face, 
Like  the  ocean  tide  in-coming, 

Resistless  their  power  and  grace. 
Tho'  they  seek  no  crown  of  laurel. 

When  the  small  and  great  shall  'rise 
Jehovah  Himself  shall  bless  them 

For  their  work  beneath  the  skies. 


J 


o 
c 
> 

< 

v. 


THE 


Relief  Society  Magazine 


Vol.  IV.  MARCH,  1917.  No.  3 


An  Interesting  Outgrowth  of  the 
Relief  Society  in  Nauvoo. 

It  is  not  generally  known  that  there  was  an  organization 
for  young  people  in  the  early  days  of  Nauvoo,  nor  that  the  or- 
ganization was  an  outgrowth  of  our  Relief  Society.  Our  readers 
will  enjoy  the  following  account  of  that  event,  and  especially  the 
words  spoken  by  our  great  Prophet-leader,  Joseph  Smith: 

A  SHORT   SKETCH   OF  THE   RISE  OF  THE  YOUNG  GENTLEMEN'S   AND 
LADIES'  RELIEF  SOCIETY  OF   NAUVOO.* 

One  evening  in  the  latter  part  of  January  last,  a  few  young 
people  having  assembled  at  the  house  of  Elder  H.  C.  Kimball,  the 
follies  of  youth,  and  the  temptations  to  which  they  are  exposed 
generally,  but  more  especially  in  our  city,  became  the  topic  of 
conversation.  The  company  were  lamenting  the  loose  style  of 
their  morals — the  frivolous  manner  in  which  they  spent  their  time 
— and  their  too  frequent  attendance  at  balls,  parties,  etc.,  etc., 
when  Elder  Kimball  proposed  that  an  appointment  should  be 
given  out  expressly  for  the  young  ladies  and  gentlemen,  and  he 
would  give  them  such  instruction  and  advice  as  the  Spirit  of  the 
lord  might  suggest  to  him;  which,  if  followed,  would  doubtless 
lead  to  a"  reformation  in  the  conduct  of  his  young  friends.  This 
proposition  was  received  with  delight,  and  acted  upon  with 
alacrity. 

An  appointment  having  been  given  out.  a  number  of  the 
voung  people  assembled  at  the  house  of  Elder  Billings,  when 
Elder  Kimball  addressed  them  for  some  time  upon  the  duties  of 


'"■Times  and  Seasons,  Wednesday,  April  1,  1843,  page  154. 


124  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

children  to  their  parents,  to  society,  and  to  their  God;  exhorting 
them  to  lay  aside  their  vanity,  light-mindedness,  pride,  and  frivol- 
ity :  and  endeavor  to  show  themselves  worthy  of  the  religion 
which  they  had  embraced ;  advising  mem  to  shun  evil  company 
(for  by  an  individual's  company  is  his  character  estimated),  and 
to  he  obedient  to  their  parents,  for  this  is  the  first  commandment 
with  promise. 

This  address  was  so  well  received  by  the  assembled  congre- 
gation, that  it  was  voted,  almost  by  acclamation,  that  a  similar 
meeting  should  he  held  on  the  ensuing  week.  An  appointment 
was  accordingly  circulated  for  the  next  Wednesday  evening  at 
Brother  Farr's  schoolroom,  as  Elder  Billings'  house  was  too  small 

t<>  contain  the  assemblage. 

On  the  appointed  evening,  the  room  was  filled  to  overflowing. 
Flder  Kimball  addressed  the  crowded,  hut  silent  and  attentive 
congregation,  for  the  space  of  an  hour,  in  that  plain,  simple,  and 
affectionate  manner,  which  goes  directly  to  the  heart,  and  which 
is  so  natural  to  the  speaker.  He  first  explained  the  duty  which 
the  youth  owed  to  themselves  and  the  manner  in  which  they  might 
obtain  honor  and  respect,  viz.,  by  applying  their  minds  with  de- 
termined perseverance  to  all  the  studies  commonly  deemed  neces- 
sary to  fit  them  for  active  life,  and  polish  them  for  society;  also 
to  the  study  of  the  Scriptures,  the  Rook  of  Mormon,  the  l>ook 
of  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  and  the  theological  work  of  their 
most  talented  elders.  By  pursuing  this  course,  said  he.  "you  will 
be  enabled  to  give  a  reason  for  the  hope  and  the  joy  which  exists 
within  you — you  will  always  he  prepared  to  explain  the  doctrine 
in  which  you  believe — you  will  ever  he  ready  to  prove  and  defend 
your  religion — you  will  he  well  received  in  company,  and  will  he 
esteemed  by  all  wise  and  good  men.  We  who  have  borne  the 
heat  and  burden  of  the  day,  will  soon  go  the  way  of  all  the  earth. 
and  give  place  to  you,  my  young  brethren.  You  will  soon  come 
upon  the  stage  of  action,  and  be  called  upon  to  carry  the  glad 
tidings  of  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant  to  the  remotest  parts 
of  the  earth,  and  proclaim  the  news  of  gospel  grace  to  a  lost  and 
ruined  world.  Strive,  therefore,  to  show  yourselves  worthy  of 
your  calling;  he  dutiful,  be  humble,  be  faithful,  be  obedient,  and 
acquit  yourselves  like  men.  and  women  of  God."  He  concluded  his 
interesting  discourse  with  a  general  exhortation  to  keep  all  of 
the  commandments  of  God,  to  associate  with  none  but  the  wise 
and  virtuous,  and  lastly  to  keep  themselves  pure  and  unspotted 
from  the  world.  This  discourse  like  the  preceding  one.  was  re- 
ceived with  delight  by  all  the  hearers. 

Brother  Farr  then  made  a  few  short  hut  pertinent  remarks. 
when  a  vote  was  taken  whether  the  meetings  should  be  continued, 
which  was  carried  unanimously  in  the  affirmative.       This  room 


OUTGROWTH  OF  R.  S.  IN  NAUVOO.  125 

being'  also  too  small,  the  next  appointment   was  made   for  the 
meeting-  to  be  held  at  the  house  of  President  Smith. 

Notwithstanding  the  inclemency  of  the  weather  the  house 
was  completely  filled  at  an  early  hour,  and  numbers  were  obliged 
to  depart  for  want  of  room.  The  assembly  were  as  usual  ad- 
dressed by  Elder  Kimball  who,  in* -a  solemn  and  impressive  man- 
ner, warned  the  young  people  against  the  evils  to  which  they  were 
exposed,  and  the  temptations  to  which  they  were  peculiarly  sub- 
ject; not  only  from  their  youth  and  inexperience,  but  also  from 
their  sanguine  and  excitable  temperament.  He  exhorted  them 
to  be  guided  by  the  voice  of  reason  and  judgment,  and  pav  strict 
attention  to  the  advice  and  command  of  their  parents  who,  being 
of.  maturer  years,  and  a  longer  experience,  are  much  better  calcu- 
lated to  guide  the  pathway  of  youth,  than  they  themselves.  He 
warned  them  against  giving'  heed  to  their  passions,  which  he  said 
would  lead  them  into  many  snares,  and  difficulties.  He  advised 
them  never  to  be  forward  in  company,  for  "a  wise  head  keeps  a 
silent  tongue  ;"  to  be  condescending  to  their  inferiors,  kind  and 
conciliating  to  their  equals,  and  deferential  but  not  slavish  to  their 
superiors.  He  warned  them  against  frequenting  balls  and  such 
places,  which,  he  said,  would  generally  lead  to  many  evil  prac- 
tices, and  would  draw  away  the  mind  from  more  innocent  amuse- 
ments, and  from  their  duty  to  their  parents.  He  said  he  had  not 
now,  nor  ever  had,  any  objections  to  having  young  people  meet 
together  in  social  parties,  or  indulging  in  any  rational  amuse- 
ment ;  but.  he  strongly  opposed  carrying"  it  to  extremes,  as  it 
generally  was.  He  concluded  this  address  by  exhorting  them  to 
give  heed  to  his  advice,  for  it  was  according  to  the  holy  Scrip- 
tures, and  "to  live  by  every  word  that  proceedeth  out  of  the  mouth 
of  God." 

The  house  being  .still  too  small,  the  next  meeting  was  ap- 
pointed at  the  lodge-room  over  President  Smith's  store. 

At  the  appointed  time  this  large  room  was  filled  to  over- 
flowing, and  the  great  number  which  assembled,  testified  to  the 
increasing  interest,  in  which  these  meetings  were  held  by  the 
youth  of  the  city.  Again  Elder  Kimball  addressed  them  and  gave 
them  such  advice  as  would  be  useful  to  them  at  the  present  time 
and  also  in  their  future  lives. 

At  the  next  meeting  President  Smith  was  present  and  ad- 
dressed the  young  gentlemen  and  ladies  for  some  time.  He  ex- 
pressed his  ^gratitude  to  Elder  Kimball  in  the  strongest  terms,  for 
having  commenced  and  carried  on  in  so  masterly  a  manner  the 
good  and  glorious  work  he  had  undertaken.  He  said  it  would 
be  the  means  of  doing  a  great  deal  of  good,  and  of  benefiting  his 
young  friends  more  than  they  were  aware  of  :  that  the  .gratitude 
of  all  good  men,  and  of  the  young  people  whom  he  had  so  much 


126  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

benefited,  would  follow  him  through  life  and  "when  gray  hairs 
should  his  temples  adorn."  he  could  look  back  with  pleasure  upon 
the  winter  of  1843,  when  he  was  engaged  in  promoting  the  cause 
of  benevolence,  and  preparing  his  young  friends  for  the  glorious 
career  which  awaited  them. 

He  said  that  he  stood  before  them  with  more  embarrassment. 
than  he  would  before  kings,  nobles,  and  great  men  of  the  earth, 
for  he  knew  the  crimes  of  which  the  latter  were  guilty,  and  knew 
precisely  how  to  address  them ;  but  his  young  friends  before 
whom  he  now  stood  were  guilty  of  none  of  these  crimes,  and  he 
hardly  knew  what  to  say.  He  said  he  had  never  in  his  life  seen 
Mich  a  large  company  of  young  people  assembled  together,  pay 
such  strict  attention,  listen  with  such  profound  silence,  and  keep 
such  good  order,  as  the  assembly  now  before  him.  He  praised 
their  good  conduct,  and  taught  them  how  to  behave  in  all  places, 
explained  to  them  their  duty,  and  advised  them  to  organize  them- 
selves into  a  society  for  the  relief  of  the  poor. 

As  a  commencement  to  their  benevolent  efforts,  he  offered  a 
petition  from  an  English  brother  by  the  name  of  Modesley,  who 
was  lame,  and  who  wished  them  to  build  him  a  house,  that  he 
might  have  a  home  among  the  Saints.  This  worthy  brother  had 
lathered  together  a  few  materials  for  this  purpose,  but  was  unable 
to  use  them  ;  and,  now,  relying  upon  the  active  benevolence  of  the 
young  people  of  Nauvoo,  he  sends  this  petition  that  this  gathering 
might  act  upon  it  as  it  deems  proper.  President  Smith  advised 
them  to  choose  a  committee  to  collect  funds  for  diis  purpose,  and 
to  perform  the  charitable  work  as  soon  as  the  weather  became 
suitable.  He  ^ave  them  much  good  advice,  to  guide  their  con- 
duct through  life  and  prepare  them  for  a  glorious  eternity.  He 
said  he  was  very  much  pleased  with  the  course  Elder  Kimball  had 
taken,  and  hoped  he  would  continue  his  meetings  and  that  the 
young  people  would  follow  his  teachings. 

A  meeting  was  appointed  for  the  young  men  to  take  these 
things  into  consideration,  but  owing  to  the  appointment  not  being 
generally  circulated,  many  of  the  young  gentlemen  were  not 
present.  The  meeting  was  however  called  to  oHcr.  William 
Cutler  was  chosen  president,  and  Marcellus  L.  Rates,  clerk.  An- 
drew Cahoon,  C.  V.  Spencer  and  Stephen  Perry  were  appointed 
as  a  committee  to  draft  a  constitution  for  the  government  of  the 
?ociety.  After  hearing  several  speeches  the  meeting  adjourned 
till  the  evening  of  the  23rd  of  March. 

At  the  next  public  meeting  we  were  addressed  by  Elders 
Kimball  and  Roundy,  and  as  usual  received  much  good  instruc- 
tion. Elder  Kimball  advised  us  to  choose  our  wisest  young  men, 
as  officers  of  the  society,  and  appoint  a  committee  to  wait  upon 
the  young  ladies,  as  well  as  gentlemen,  and  obtain  their  subscrip- 


OUTGROWTH  OF  R.  S.  IN  NAUVOO.  127 

tion;  for,  said  he,  "they  are  as  full  of  benevolence,  and  as  ready 
to  assist  in  relieving  the  poor,  as  are  the  young-  gentlemen."  He 
also  advised  that  no  one  be  excluded  from  the  society,  of  what- 
ever sect  or  denomination  he  might  be,  and  that  all  be  given  an 
opportunity  of  doing  all  the  good  in  their  power. 

On  this  evening  the  storm  was  raging  tremendously,  and  the 
cold  north  wind  was  blowing  in  a  most  searching  manner ;  yet, 
contrary  to  the  expectations  of  every  one,  the  house  was  almost 
filled,  not  only  with  young  men  and  boys,  but  with  the  tender, 
lovely  and  beautiful  women  of  our  city.  They  seemed  deter- 
mined to  brave  every  extremity  of  the  weather,  rather  than  be 
absent  from  the  place  where  they  received  such  good  instructions. 
This  showed  the  good  effects  which  had  already  been  produced 
by  these  meetings,  and  cheered  on  the  spirits  of  him  who  had 
first  begun  them,  and  had  since  been  their  chief  promoter.  In- 
stead of  the  young  people  spending  their  evenings  at  parties, 
balls,  etc.,  they  would  now  leave  all,  and  attend  their  meeting. 
Instead  of  hearing  about  this  party  and  that  party,  this  dance  and 
that  dance,  in  different  parts  of  the  city,  the  Young  People's 
Meetings  became  the  chief  topic  of  conversation. 

Pursuant  to  adjournment,  the  young  men  convened  together 
on  the  21st  of  March.  The  minutes  of  the  last  meeting  were  read 
and  approved,  and  the  same  officers  appointed  to  preside  as  on 
the  former  evening.  The  report  of  the  committee  was  then 
called  for,  which  was  as  follows : 

Whereas,  The  young  gentlemen  and  ladies,  citizens  of  the 
city  of  Nauvoo,  are  desirous  of  aiding  and  ameliorating  the  con- 
dition of  the  poor  and  of  carrying  out  the  principles  of  charity 
and  benevolence,  as  taught  in  the  holy  Scriptures,  therefore,  be  it 

Resolved,  That  we  form  ourselves  into  a  society  to  be  styled 
the  "Young  Gentlemen  and  Ladies'  Relief  Society  of  Nauvoo," 
and  that  we  be  governed  by  the  following  articles,  to-wit : 

1st.  There  shall  annually  be  elected  ,by  the  society,  on  J:he 
last  Tuesday  in  March,  a  president,  vice  president,  treasurer  and 
secretary. 

2nd.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  president  to  preside  over  all 
meetings  of  the  society. 

3rd.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  vice  president  to  preside 
over  all  meetings  in  the  absence  of  the  president. 

4th.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  treasurer  to  receive  all  funds 
of  the  society,  and  to  keep  a  correct  record  of  all  the  receipts  and 
disbursements,  also  from  whom  received,  and  to  whose  benefit 
appropriated,  and  make  a  report  of  the  same,  as  often  as  required 
by  the  society. 

It  shall  further  be  the  duty  of  the  said  treasurer,  before  en- 
tering into  office,  to  give  bonds  to  the  amount  of  one  thousand 


128 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


dollars  to  the  society,  for  the  faithful  discharge  of  all  duties  in- 
cumbehl  upon  him,  which  shall  be  lodged  in  the  hands  of  the 
i  rustee-in-Trust 

5th.  It  shall  be  the  duty  <>f  the  secretary  to  keep  a  record 
ct'  all  the  proceedings  of  the  society. 

6th.  There  shall  annually  be  chosen  a  committee  of  vigil- 
ance, consisting  of  five  persons,  whose  duties  it  shall  be  to  search 
out  the  poor  of  our  city,  and  make  known  to  the  society  the  wants 
of  those  whom  they,  in  their  judgment,  shall  consider  most  tie- 
serving"  of  our  a>>i>tance. 

7th.  The  society  shall  meet  on  the  last  Tuesday  in  each 
month,  at  (>  o'clock  p.  m. 

8th.  A  special  meeting  of  the  society  can  he  called  by  a 
petition  of  twelve  of  the  members,  to  the  secretary,  whose  duty  it 
shall  be  to  give  notice  of  the  same,  by  posting  up  a  written  notice 
in  at  least  three  of  the  most  public  places  in  the  city,  at  least 
three  days  previous  to  said  meeting. 

9th.  This  constitution  shall  be  lodged  in  the  hands  of  the 
secretary,  whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  present  it  at  each  meeting  to 
the  society,  and  receive  the  names  of  all  persons  wishing  to  be- 


RESIDENCE  OF    III  UK   C.    KIMBALL,    NAUVOO,    ILLINOIS. 

Where  the  preliminary  meeting  of  the*  Young  Gentlemen's  and 

Ladies'  Relief  Society  was  held. 


OUTGROWTH  OF  R.  S.  IN  NAUVOO.  129 

come  members,  under  thirty  years  of  age,  who  can  sustain  a  good 
moral  character,  and  who  are  willing-  to  support  this  constitution. 

10th.  Any  person  being  a  member  of  this  society,  and  being 
found  guilty  of  any  disorderly  conduct,  or  refusing  to  comply 
with  the  rules  of  the  society,  can  be  expelled  at  any  regular  meet- 
ing of  the  same,  by  a  vote  of  the  majority  of  the  members  present. 

11th.  In  the  event  of  a  removal,  by  death,  or  prolonged 
absence  of  either  of  the  officers,  it  shall  be  the  prerogative  of  the 
society  to  appoint  another  in  his  stead. 

12th.  This  constitution  shall  be  subject  to  an  amendment 
at  any  regular  meeting  of  the  society,  by  the  voice  of  two-thirds 
of  the  members  present. 

This  report  was  unanimously  adopted,  and  the  meeting  then 
proceeded  to  choose  their  officers.  William  Walker  was  chosen 
president ;  William  Cutler,  vice  president ;  Lorin  Walker,  treas- 
urer, and  James  M.  Monroe,  secretary.  Stephen  Perry,  Marcel- 
lus  L.  Bates,  E.  A.  Aired,  Wm.  H.  Kimball,  and  Garrett  Ivans, 
were  appointed  as  a  committee  of  vigilance.  After  some  discus- 
sion the  meeting  adjourned  until  the  next  Tuesday  evening. 

At  the  next  public  meeting,  the  large  and  crowded  assembly 
were  addressed  at  considerable  length,  by  Elders  Jedediah  Grant, 
Brigham  Young,  and  Heber  C.  Kimball.  The  addresses  were 
\ery  interesting  and  highly  instructive,  as  the  breathless  silence 
and  deep  attention  of  the  audience  attested. 

This  is  in  short,  a  history  of  the  rise  of  this  society,  which 
bids  fair  to  be  one  of  the  most  useful  and  benevolent  societies  in 
the  Union.  Throughout  all  the  meetings,  the  most  profound 
silence  and  the  best  of  order  was  kept  continually.  If  the  youth 
throughout  our  land  would  follow  this  good  example  and  form 
themselves  into  such  societies,  there  would  be  much  less  sin, 
iniquity,  misery,  and  degradation  among  the  young  people  than 
there  is  at  the  present  day ;  there  would  not  be  as  many  suffering 
poor,  neither  would  there  be  as  much  immorality  among  the  peo- 
ple. But  on  the  contrary,  peace,  good  order,  happiness,  cheerful- 
ness and  plenty,  would  reign  in  the  land,  the  Lord  would  look 
down  from  His  holy  habitation  and  smile  upon  us,  and  bless  us  all. 

J.  M.  Monroe,  Secretary. 


Mothers  in  Israel. 

Mary  Ann  Stearns  Winters. 

LEAVING  KANESVILLE  AND  THE  JOURNEY  ACROSS  THE  PLAINS. 

With  the  close  of  January,  1852,  all  dances,  festivities  and 
amusements  ceased,  and  our  hearts  and  labors  were  turned  to 
the  preparation  for  our  journey  to  the  valleys  of  the  Great  Salt 
Lake.  We  had  no  idea  how  we  were  going  to  make  the  journey, 
but  all  were  told  to  get  ready,  with  the  promise  that  the  Lord 
would  help,  when  they  had  done  the  best  for  themselves  that  they 
could.  I  think  our  hope  must  have  been  even  greater  than  our 
faith,  for  there  was  not  the  least  chance  in  sight  for  us  to  make 
the  journey.  What  we  needed  was  a  wagon,  team,  provisions  to 
last  three  months  and  a  driver,  and  where  they  were  to  come  from 
was  the  mystery  before  us.  We  had  clothing  to  carry  us  through 
for  a  year  without  suffering,  but  that  was  a  small  part  in  com- 
parison with  what  was  still  needed  for  the  outfit. 

Early  in  the  spring,  as  the  California  emigrants  (gold  seek- 
ers) came  along  we  baked  bread  for  them,  sliced  it,  and  dried  it 
in  the  oven,  so  they  could  have  something  to  eat  when  it  was 
not  convenient  for  them  to  cook.  In  this  way  we  earned  some- 
thing to  keep  up  our  food  supply,  and  also  to  buy  a  few  articles, 
(thread,  pins,  needles,  etc.),  that  would  be  so  much  needed  in  the 
new  land  we  were  to  go  to.  We  also  made  cotton  floursacks  for 
the  emigrants  to  put  their  provisions  in,  at  75c  a  hundred,  but 
,  sewing  by  hand  was  rather  slow  work.  Brother  Joseph  E.  John- 
'  son  was  taking  a  company  of  Indians  to  Washington  to  talk  with 
the  great  White  Father,  and  we  made  shirts  for  them,  out  of 
orange  and  blue  calico,  with  ruffles  at  the  neck  and  wrists.  I  did 
not  see  the  Indians,  but  they  must  have  looked  quite  stylish  when 
dressed  in  their  new  clothes.  One  bright  Monday  morning  in  the 
early  days  of  May,  the  Honorable  A.  W.  Babbitt  called  at  our 
door,  and  said,  "Sister  Pratt,  I  am  just  starting  for  the  Valley,  and 
shall  expect  to  meet  you  on  my  return  journey,  in  some  of  the 
companies  that  are  going  out  this  year."  After  wishing  him  a 
safe  and  prosperous  journey  she  hoped  it  would  be  our  good  for- 
tune to  go  this  season.  He  then  said,  "I  have  put  a  hundred  dol- 
lars in  the  emigration  fund  with  the  express  purpose  that  you 
have  a  good,  substantial,  comfortable  wagon  to  make  the  journey 
in  across  the  plains,  and  I  want  you  to  be  sure  that  you  get  it." 
She  thanked  him  very  sincerely  for  his  kind  thoughtfulness  in  our 
behalf,  and  he  was  off,  on  his  long  journey  to  the  westward. 


132  RELIEF  SOCIETf  MAGAZINE. 

We  looked  at  each  other  in  astonishment,  mother  and  I,  for 
this  promised  help  and  blessing  had  seemed  to  drop  right  down 
from  heaven  in  our  behalf.  There  was  the  wagon  in  our  mental 
view,  hut  it  couldn't  move  without  a  team  and  a  driver — still  the 
thought  of  this  home  on  wheels  raised  our  spirits  and  hopes 
many  degrees,  and  oh,  how  we  did  work  and  plan  and  pray. 

A  steam-boat  had  just  arrived  with  a  large  company  of 
Saints  from  St.  Louis  with  their  goods  and  wagons,  anxious  to 
continue  their  journey  overland  to  the  peaceful  valleys  of 
Ephraim.  AH  was  hustle  and  animation,  with  joys  and  hopes  and 
fears  and  anxieties,  that  none  hut  those  who  participated  in  those 
times  can  fully  understand.  Some  had  sent  money  ahead  of  them 
to  purchase  their  teams,  and  those  who  still  had  to  buy  were  busy 
looking  for  bargains  to  suit  their  needs.  But  through  it  all  was 
a  spirit  of  buoyancy  that  seemed  to  lift  upward,  and  press  on- 
ward all  who  had  put  their  hands  to  the  task  of  preparation  for 
the  journey.  In  this  company  were  many  of  our  dear  friends  of 
England,  Nauvoo  and  St.  Louis,  and  we  all  rejoiced  together  in 
the  fond  hope  of  soon  joining  the  earlier  pioneers,  and  with  them, 
making  happy  and  peaceful  homes  in  the  tops  of  the  mountains 
of  the  fair  valleys  of  Ephraim.  Two  days  after  Brother  bab- 
bitt's departure.  Brother  Joseph  A.  Kelting  called  to  say  good -by. 
as  he  was  going  back  east  to  Philadelphia  to  visit  his  old  home, 
and  to  buy  goods  for  his  store,  and  would  not  cross  the  plains 
for  another  year  or  two.  He  said  to  mother,  "Sister  Pratt,  I  have 
put  one  hundred  dollars  in  the  emigration  fund  with  the  express 
understanding  that  you  have  a  suitable  and  comfortable  outfit  for 
the  long  and  tiresome  journey  that  lies  between  us  and  our  friends 
in  the  Salt  Lake  Valley.  Tt  is  there  for  your  benefit,  and  I  want 
you  to  have  it." 

While  we  only  got  a  small  portion  of  this  hundred  dollars, 
the  way  was  provided  for  us  to  have  plenty  for  the  journey,  and 
a  few  days'  rations  left  when  we  arrived  in  Salt  Lake  City. 
Words  failed  to  express  our  gratitude  to  this  Nauvoo  friend  and 
kind  brother,  in  the  help  offered  in  this  our  time  of  great  need. 
Brother  Kelting  went  on  the  returning  boat  that  had  brought  the 
company  of  Saints  to  Council  Bluffs. 

We  had  been  living  by  faith,  and  now  the  substance  was 
growing  large  in  our  sight,  and  we  marveled  at  the  providences 
of  our  Ileavenly  Father  in  our  favor.  During  the  days  of  this 
same  week  one  of  the  Emigration  Committee  called  to  inquire 
.-•bout  our  prospects  for  the  journey — what  we  had  and  what  we 
were  still  in  need  of,  and  he  told  mother  that  there  was  a  wagon 
at  one  of  the  shops  that  was  intended  for  her  use  that  it  soon 
would  be  finished,  and  brought  to  her  door.  And  he  also  told' 
her  that  if  she  would  go  and  get  it  herself  she  could  have  ten 


MOTHERS  IN  ISRAEL,  133 

dollars'  worth  of  provisions  from  Mr.  Hawks'  store,  (now  this  is 
the  same  Mr.  Hawks  that  gave  my  brother  the  sugar  barrels  to 
scrape  out).  It  was  explained  to  mother  that  when  the  Com- 
mittee had  solicited  subscriptions  from  the  merchants  in  behalf 
of  the  widows  and  destitute.  Mr.  Hawks  had  said.  "No;  I  will  not 
subscribe  anything  to  you,  but  if  widow  Pratt  is  of  a  mind  to 
come  herself,  I  will  give  her  ten  dollars"  worth  o'f  provisions  to 
help  on  your  cause."  Mother  replied  that  she  had  never  been 
in  Mr.  Hawks'  store  as  they  sold  liquor  there  as  well  as  grocer- 
ies, but  the  brother  told  her  she  would  better  go,  for  it  was  a  gift 
not  to  be  slighted,  and  no  one  could  get  it  but  her.  He  directed 
further  that  when  she  had  obtained  these  groceries,  whatever  else 
we  lacked  of  provisions  would  be  made  up  out  of  the  fund. 

Mother  -and  I  thought  as  the  brother  did,  that  it  was  a  gift 
not  to  be  lightly  passed  by — and  we  felt  that  it  was  another  chan- 
nel of  help  that  the  Lord  had  opened  up  for  our  good.  So  the 
next  day,  just  after  dinner,  mother  and  I  went  to  the  store  and 
she  explained  to  Mr.  Hawks  what  she  had  come  for  and  told  him 
that  we  had  been  driven  from  our  home  in  Illinois  or  we  would 
not  be  in  such  destitute  circumstances  and  needing  help  of  this 
kind,  that  she  accepted  the  gift  with  a  grateful  heart,  and  ex- 
pressed the  hope  that  he  would  be  abundantly  rewarded  for  his 
kindness  and  g-ood  gifts.  I  believe  that  down  deep  in  his  heart 
he  was  glad  to  give  something  to  help  the  poor,  persecuted,  driven 
people.  Right  here  I  would  like  to  say  that  /  have  remembered 
this  good  man  in  our  holy  temple,  and  I  trust  that  some  one  has 
preached  to  him  in  the  spirit  world  and  that  he  will  receive  the 
benefit  of  the  ordinances  that  have  been  performed  in  his  be- 
balf.  The  articles  we  got  from  the  store  were  corn-meal,  bacon, 
cod-fish,  rice  and  other  groceries  with  soap  and  some  dried  fruit, 
and  true  they  were  a  great  blessing  and  benefit  to  us. 

We  had  been  buying  our  butter  of  Sister  Ellison,  who  lived 
on  the  other  side  of  town,  and  as  we  were  then  needing  some, 
mother  proposed  that  we  take  our  sewing  and  visit  Sister  Ellison, 
as  she  had  often  asked  us  to  do,  for  an  hour  or  two  and  get  the 
butter  to  bring  home  with  us.  After  the  greetings  were  over 
Sister  Ellison  began  to  inquire  about  our  prospects  for  the  jour- 
ney (for  that  was  the  main  topic  among  the  Saints),  and  mother 
told  her  we -had  the  promise  of  a  wagon  and  thought  we  would 
have  plenty  of  provisions  to  last  us,  but  she  did  not  know  where 
a  learn  and  driver  were  coming  from.  Sister  Ellison  turned  from 
her  work  and  raised  up  her  hands  saying,  "Well,  I  can  tell  you 
about  that  right  now.  There  is  a  brother  boarding  with  me  who 
has  been  working  all  winter  to  get  his  team,  and  he  wants  to  go 
in  some  one's  wagon  and  drive  this  team.  He  will  furnish  his 
own  provisions  and  would  desire  to  have  his  washing  done  in 


134  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

return  for  his  services.  He  has  a  large  yoke  of  oxen  and  two 
yoke  of  cows.  Two  of  the  cows  are  giving  a  good  mess  of  milk 
now.  At  the  end  of  the  journey  he  would  want  each  party  to 
have  his  own  property.  He  has  been  yoking  them  up  and  training 
them  for  a  week  or  two  and  they  are  doing  fine.  He  will  be  up  to 
supper  at  six  o'clock  and  you  must  stay  and  see  him,  for  I  believe 
it  is  just  the  right  chance  for  both  of  you."  Accordingly,  at  sup- 
per partial  arrangements  were  made  to  be  continued  as  prepara- 
tions were  advanced  in  the  matter.  All  these  opportunities  had 
come  to  us  in  the  short  space  of  about  one  week. 

It  was  now  getting  to  be  the  last  days  of  May.  One  morning 
we  heard  a  team  at  the  door,  and  on  looking  out  to  see  who  had 
come,  Brother  Hyrum  Winters  stepped  to  the  door  saying,  "Good 
morning.  Sister  Pratt — I  have  brought  you  a  good  wagon  that  I 
think  will  take  you  safely  to  the  Valleys  of  the  mountains.  It 
is  one  of  the  best  that  has  been  made  in  our  shop.  It  has  a  good 
double  cover  that  will  keep  out  the  storms — there  is  a  full  bucket 
of  tar  under  the  seat ;  it  is  all  ready  to  load  and  hitch  onto  for 
your  company.  May  the  Lord  bless  and  prosper  you  and  take  you 
safely  through."  Tears  of  joy  and  gratitude  filled  our  eyes  as 
she  thanked  him  in  behalf  of  all  who  had  helped  to  do  this  kind 
work. 

In  a  day  or  two  we  commenced  loading  our  wagon  and  in 
one  week  after  it  stopped  at  our  door,  it  started  on  its  long 
journey  westward.  Just  as  the  team  was  being  hitched  to  the 
wagon,  Sister  Julia  Babbitt,  who  lived  on  the  hill  just  beyond  us, 
came  over  to  bid  us  good-by — she  looked  in  the  wagon  and 
thought  we  could  make  out  comfortably  in  that  wagon,  'but," 
said  she,  "I  see  you  haven't  any  tent,  and  you  will  need  one,  I 
have  a  little  one  that  will  be  just  right  for  you — it  is  one  that 
I  took  out  last  year  when  we  went  and  returned,  h  lid  me  good 
service,  and  you  will  find  it  very  useful,  and  you  are  welcome  to 
it,  for  I  shall  not  need  it.  The  hired  man  is  coming  with  it  and 
the  table  board.  If  you  will  send  the  little  boys  for  the  tern  poles 
these  can  go  right  in  the  bows  of  the  wagon  and  will  not  take  up 
any  extra  room,  and  the  table  board  will  slip  right  in  by  the  side 
of  the  wagon  box."  The  dear  soul,  had  them  all  neatly  arranged 
by  the  time  she  was  telling  it.  She  had  crossed  the  plains  twice 
and  she  knew  what  to  do.  As  she  kissed  mother  good-by.  she 
slipped  a  pretty  ring  from  her  hand  and  placed  it  on  mother's 
finger  saying,  "Accept  this  as  a  token  of  my  love  and  friendship 
for  you.  and  I  will  remember  you  and  pray  for  you  on  your  jour- 
ney." That  was  the  last  time  we  ever  saw  the  dear,  loving  wom- 
an. She  was  good  to  everybody — white  people  and  Indians — 
every  want  that  she  saw  had  her  sympathy  and  help.  Her  trials 
have  been  great,  but  her  reward  is  sure. 


An  Interesting  Occurrence  in  Canada. 

The  following  remarkable  story  was  Related  by  Edward  J.  Wood, 

President  of  the  Alberta  Stake,  at  Conference  in 

Salt  Lake,  October  3,  1915. 

The  story  is  of  today,  an  event  which  happened  recently.  A 
tribe  of  Indians  came  to  our  country,  called  the  Kree  Indians. 
They  were  headed  by  a  man  named  "Yellow  Face."  He  said  that 
he  was  a  member  of  a  council  of  five  who  lived  in  the  eastern 
part  of  Saskatchewan,  the  province  to  the  east  of  Alberta.  They 
spend  their  time  in  winter  in  hunting  and  fishing.  They  roam 
around  the  country  for  that  purpose  and  then  go  back  again  in 
the  spring.  They  are  the  wards  of  the  British  Government  and 
are  a  superior  trie.  This  man  and  his  one  hundred  twenty-eight 
families  came  into  our  country,  and  camped  in  the  woo:1s  by  a 
river,  right  where  the  road  led  from  two  of  our  wards.  We  did 
not  know  anything  of  their  business.  They  went  about  hunting 
and  fishing.  One  day  this  man,  "Yellow  Face,"  sent  to  a  ward 
for  the  "high  chief"  of  that  ward,  as  he  called  him  (we  call  them 
bishops),  and  wanted  him  to  come  to  his  tent  and  have  a  visit  with 
him.  Their  people  had  visited  us,  we  had  asked  them  into  our 
meetings.  They  had  come  to  our  entertainments  and  we  had  be- 
come interested  in  them.  They  are  a  very  well  educated  people, 
are  the  Kree  nation, — not  like  the  Indians  here.  They  dress  as 
we  do  and  are  educated.  They  have  a  written  language  of  their 
own,  not  made  by  white  men,  according  to  signs  and  sounds, 
but  composed  of  hieroglyphics,  which  appear  to  be  a  scientific 
alphabet. 

This  man  sent  for  our  bishop  and  when  he  came  he  found  a 
large  tent  with  the  heads  of  these  one  hundred  twenty-eight 
families  there,  sitting  in  a  circle,  and  "Yellow  Face"  was  sitting 
right  in  front  with  one  Indian  woman.  "Yellow  Face"  said  to 
this  bishop,  "We  want  you  to  talk  to  us.  We  have  been  to  your 
meetings.  We  have  been  to  your  parties.  You  have  asked  us  to 
dine  with  you.  Now  we  return  the  compliment.  We  want  you 
to  come  and  visit  us."    He  was  led  to  the  center  of  the  circle. 

Bishop  Parker  did  not  know  what  to  say.  He  had  never  been 
on  a  mission,  wasn't  prepared  to  preach  the  gospel,  but  he  was 
struck  with  the  sincerity  he  saw  in  the  people's  faces  as  they  sat 
in  the  circle.  They  were  pleased  to  see  him,  so  he  told  them 
about  the  restoration  of  the  gospel  and  about  our  work  of  coloniz- 
ing in  that  country.  They  did  not  seem  much  interested  in 
that.    After  he  got  through  they  said,  "Is  that  all  you  know  about 


136  KELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

your  gospel?"  He  thought  and  said,  "Well,  T  believe  T  have  told 
yen  all  T  know."  "Well."  "Yellow  Face"  said,  "don't  you  have 
any  books  that  you  talk  about?"  "O  yes,"  and  Brother  Parker 
then  thought  of  the  Book  of  Mormon.  "Well,  tell  us  about 
that  book."  Brother  Parker  told  all  he  could.  It  did  not  take 
very  long  and  when  he  got  through  the  chief  said,  "That  is  all," 
and  Brother  Parker  went  home. 

About  a  week  later  the  chief  sent  for  the  bishop  again. 
Brother  Parker  did  not  know  this  time  what  would  be  expected 
of  him.  But  be  went  and  found  the  same  crowd  there.  This 
time  "Yellow  Face"  said  to  Brother  Parker.  "When  you  were 
here  before.  I  sat  there  and  you  stood  here.  This  time  I'll  stand 
here  and  you  sit  there,"  and  so  he  related  the  following  story  to 
Brother  Parker : 

'Two  years  ago  the  High  Chief  of  our  c  mncil  bad  a  vision," 
(mind  you,  this  man' never  knew  anything  about  our  gospel,  never 
knew  there  was  such  a  thing  as  visions  or  heavenly  manifesta- 
tions). "Our  High  Chief,  the  great  chief  of  the  Kree  Nation  had 
a  messenger  eoire  to  him  that  be  never  knew,  and  be  told  this  chief, 
\ou  are  going  to  die,  but  you  won't  die  all  over.  When  you  die 
I  do  not  want  you  to  be  buried  until  you  get  cold  all  over.  So  the 
chief  said,  all  right ;  and  later  be  went  with  this  messenger,  so  that 
they  all  thought  be  died.  All  the  other  chiefs  thought  he  was  dead, 
but  he  had  told  his  nearest  associates  previously  to  watch  his 
body  when  he  went  cold,  from  the  extremities  of  his  fingers  to  his 
toes,  and  to  bury  him  if  his  body  was  cold  all  over,  but  if  they 
found  a  warm  spot  over  his  heart  not  to  bury  him.  So  he  was 
watched  for  five  days  and  only  above  his  heart  was  there  a  small 
warm  place.  On  the  end  of  the  fifth  day  he  came  to.  and  he 
called  all  his  council  together  and  told  them  he  had  been  into  a 
country  where  he  saw  his  forefathers,  walked  with  them,  talked 
with  them  ;  and  they  told  him  he  would  not  yet  die,  for  he  would 
come  back  to  the  earth  and  that  he  was  to  send  all  over  the  coun- 
try until  he  found  a  people  who  had  a  book  in  which  was  re- 
corded the  history  of  the  many  people  he  had  been  with  in  the 
spirit  world ;  and  he  said  I  will  give  unto  you  four  signs  by 
which  you  may  know  the  people.  First,  they  will  not  drive  you 
out  of  their  country.  Second,  you  can  turn  your  horses  loose, 
they  won't  steal  them.  Third,  they  will  go  through  your  village 
and  thev  won't  rob  the  virtue  of  your  maiden  women.  Fourth, 
they  will  let  you  bunt  and  fish  on  their  domain."  So  he  said  to 
P»rother  Parker.  "With  my  family  for  two  years  we  have  hunted 
for  such  a  people.  You  invited  us  into  your  meetings.  We  sat 
at  the  table  with  you  in  your  picnic  parties.  You  have  come 
through  our  village ;  you  have  not  molested  our  women.  We 
arc  fishing  and  hunting-  today  on  your  Church  land.     So  I  tried 


AN  OCCURRENCE  IN  CANADA.  137 

you,  I  watched  you ;  we  have  watched  your  old  men,  your  young- 
men  ;  we  have  watched  every  action  of  all  your  people.  When  I 
heard  you  speak  it  sounded  like  good  music  to  me  and  when  you 
said  that  that  was  all,  you  had  to  tell  I  thought  again,  I  am  dis- 
appointed. So  I  asked  you  if  you  had  a  book.  You  told  me  you 
had  and  told  me  of  your  Book  of  Mormon.  That  is  our  book. 
That  is  our  history,  not  yours.    We  want  it." 

So  Brother  Parker  went  and  got  the  Book  of  Mormon  and 
brought  it  back  to  the  Indians.  The  Indians  took  it,  gave  it  to 
the  interpreter  and  had  him  sit  down  and  read  it  by  the  hour,  and 
when  he  got  through  the  Indian  Chief  kept  the  book — to  take 
back  to  the  High  Chief  who  was  waiting  for  them — he  did  not 
think  he  had  to  buy  it.  He  had  said,  "It  is  our  book,  our  his- 
tory," and  drew  out  a  beautifully  embroidered  envelope  of  leather 
and  wrapped  it  up  and  took  it  away.  They  have  visited  us  several 
tunes  since,  telling  us  other  wonderful  things.  They  are  a  very 
fine  people,  and  only  the  Lord  knows  what  this  visit  may  portend. 
Not  all  that  was  related  can  be  related  here  as  it  pertains  to  a 
sacred  prophecy.    It  will  come  true  in  due  time. 


ALICE. 


So  young,  so  gentle,  so  exceeding  fair, 
With  pleasant  ways  almost  beyond  compare, 

No  wonder  you  have  gone  where  angels  dwell. 
But  oh,  your  absence  is  so  hard  to  bear, 

Sweet  girl,  dear  Alice,  you  were  loved  so  well ! 

You  were  so  wanted,  here  and  everywhere ; 
And  Heaven  gained  you  ;  you  are  radiant  there. 

Come  often,  then,  and  cheer  your  friends  below 
With  your  sweet  influence — heed  this  longing  prayer, 

Ask  God  to  send  you — Mother  loves  you  so ! 

L.  Lula  Greene  Richards. 


A  Morning  Reverie. 

By  Annie  D.  S.  Palmer. 

I  awoke  early  this  morning,  but  I  did  not  arise  early.  1 
needs  must  think  this  morning  of  my  friend,  of  my  Relief  So- 
ciety President,  of  Tena  Jensen. 

Thinking  of  Sister  Jensen  took  me  in  spirit  into  the  homes 
where  Relief  Society  work  is  done,  the  homes  where  sickness 
and  pain  are  found,  where  want  and  hunger  dwell,  where  sin  has 
entered,  where  the  hush  of  death  has  fallen.  Into  these  homes  she 
and  her  noble  associates  go  bravely,  seeking  to  know  the  aid  that 
may  be  given,  administering  the  relief  that  human  power  can 
l>estow. 

Thinking  of  Sister  Jensen  led  me  into  the  assemblies  of 
earnest,  busy  women — the  aged,  where  beautiful  song  and  story 
are  appreciated,  where  faith  grows,  where  motherhood  is  hon- 
ored. 

Thinking  of  her  revealed  to  me  the  embodiment  of  devotion, 
of  hope,  of  courage,  of  energy,  of  charity  that  never  faileth. 

Thinking  thus,  I  dreamed,  and  in  my  mind  hurried  ;  and, 
with  almost  the  quickness  of  thought,  I  was  carried  some  seventy- 
five  or  a  hundred  years  into  the  sunlight  of  future  joy.  Seeking, 
T  found  Sister  Jensen,  silent  and  unknown,  and  followed  her  to 
note  what  she  was  doing.  As  she  paused  and  knocked  at  a  door 
that  was  closed,  the  thought  of  sickness  and  sorrow  came  to  me — 
it  was  at  such  places  she  used  most  to  visit.  Not  so  at  this  home. 
The  door  was  opened  by  a  beautiful  woman,  white  appareled, 
who  threw  her  arms  about  Sister  Jensen  with  such  a  cry  of 
gladness  that  the  whole  household  came  to  see  and  extend  their 
welcome. 

"See,"  the  woman  said,  indicating  the  family  group  and 
their  surroundings,  "this  glorious,  heavenly  home  is  ours  because 
of  the  help  you  gave  to  us  while  we  were  upon  the  earth.  You 
encouraged  us  in  the  hour  of  temptation,  you  succored  us  in  the 
moment  of  despair.  And  now,  ah.  there  is  no  want,  and  sor- 
row is  unknown.  Yes,  all  our  children  are  here,  ten  of  them. 
How  lonely  we  should  feel  in  this  great  home  with  only  two  or 
three!" 

Sister  Jensen  freed  herself  from  the  loving  embrace  and 
went  on.  As  we  drew  near  to  another  mansion,  a  grim,  gaunt 
figure  approached  whom  I  knew  as  Death.  From  the  splendid 
house  came  two  sisters  hurrying  down  the  path  and  laughing  as 
they  ran.     These,  too.  clasped  Sister  Jensen  in  fond  embrace. 


A  MORNING  REVERIE.  139 

"We  feared  yon  apparition  once,"  said  the  younger  woman, 
"and  well  we  might.  Do  you  remember  the  night  he  carried  sister 
away?  I  shudder  even  now  as  I  think  of  the  cruel  poverty,  and 
the  agonizing  pain.  But  you  comforted  sister  for  the  lonely  jour- 
ney and  cared  for  me  when  she  was  gone.  He  has  no  power 
here ;  we  laugh  at  his  weakness.  'Oh  grave,  where  is  thy  vic- 
tory;' oh  death,  where  is  thy  sting?'" 

Sister  Jensen  seemed  to  be  looking  for  something  special  to 
do,  so  she  hurried  on.  In  the  cool  shade  of  a  grove  of  palm 
trees  a  group  of  women  sat  in  council.  These  espied  the  well- 
known  figure  afar  off  and  sent  a  messenger  to  bring  her. 

"Noble  Tena,"  the  messenger  said  approaching,  "we  hold 
converse  concerning  the  greatness  of  God's  love,  and  how  we  may 
best  show  appreciation  and  let  your  voice  be  heard  in  the  council 
of  heaven's  priestesses  and  queens." 

For  a  time  she  whom  I  followed  was  lost  to  me  amid  the 
throng  of  happy,  whiterobed  women  who  surrounded  her ;  but  I 
knew  she  was  worthy  of  the  honor  they  gave  and  that  she  would 
bear  her  part  in  the  discussions  of  heavenly  love  even  as  she  had 
shown  wisdom  in  the  affairs  of  earth. 

I  now  began  to  feel  a  great  desire  to  draw  near  to  her,  to 
speak  to  her,  to  have  her  tell  me  of  her  life  and  of  the  full  meas- 
ure of  her  joy.  With  this  desire  I  waited  a  full  hour  for  her  to 
quit  the  queenly  council. 

She  met  me  with  the  same  glad  smile,  the  same  cheery  wel- 
come that  I  had  always  known.  I  had  opportunity  now  to  note 
the  brightness  of  her  eyes,  the  silky  coils  of  hair,  the  smoothness 
of  her  skin,  and  the  exquisite  texture  of  her  snowy  robe. 

"I  am  so  perfectly  happy,"  she  said.  "There  is  always  some- 
thing to  do,  just  as  there  used  to  be,  but  I  never  get  tired  now, 
and  Father's  work  is  so  grand!  There  is  so  much  joy  in  it!  I 
often  wonder  why  we  ever  thought  it  hard  when  on  the  earth. 
I  am  going  now  to  meet  a  sweet  old  sister  who  is  dreading  to  die. 
The  dear  old  soul  has  suffered  so_  much  and  is  so  weary  of  life 
— oh,  she  will  be  so  glad  when  it  is  over!" 

Then  I  awoke  to  a  realization  of  the  fact  that  Sister  Jensen, 
our  Relief  Society  President,  is  still  with  us,  that  it  was  meeting 
day,  and  that  I,  too,  had  my  part  of  the  work  to  perform. 


Suggestive  Programs  for  Anniversary 

Day. 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  DAY,  MARCH  17.  1917. 

Darkness,    hymn.    "Dark    is    the    Human    Mind    when    Bound," 

Psalmody  No.  2. 
Prayer. 

Restoration,  hymn.  "An  Angel  from  on  High,"  Psalmody  No.  187. 
The  Open  Door,  reading,  "Instructions  of  the  Prophet  Joseph," 

March,  1915.  Relief  Society  Magazine. 
Poem,   "The  Relief   Society,"    March,   1915,     Young    Woman's 

Journal. 
Solo,  "The  Lord  is  My  Light." 
Reading-.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  25. 
Hymn.  "We  Thank  Thee.  O  God.  for  a  Prophet." 

ITymn.  "Ye  Simple  Souls  Who  Stray,"  Psalmody  No.  186. 

Prayer. 

Hymn,  "The  Happy  Day  has  Rolled  On,"  Psalmody  No.  1. 

Bible  Reading,  Isaiah,  chapter  60. 

Recitation.  "The  Genesis  of  the  Relief  Society,"  March.   1915. 

Relief  Society  Magazine. 
Solo.  "The  Seer,"  Psalmody  No.  314. 
Reading,  "Report  of  Nauvoo  Relief  Society,"  March,  1915.  Relief 

Society  Magazine. 
Address,  "The  Objects  of  the  Relief  Society." 
Hymn,  "How  Blest  was  the  Day,"  Psafrnody  No.  429. 

"aunt    em." 

Hymn.  "Our  Mountain  Home  so  Dear." 
Prayer. 

Roll  Call,  Sentiments  from  "Aunt  Em." 

Bible  Reading,  "The  Virtuous  Woman,"  Proverbs,  chapter  31. 
Reading,  "Mothers  in  Israel."  February,  1916.  7?.  S.  Magazine. 
Sing  or  read  "Sing  we  of  a  Home  Immortal."  Hymn  Book,  423. 
Reading.  "Aunt  Em."  March.  1915,  Young  Woman's  Journal. 
Read  Selections  from  Musings  and  Memories. 
Poem,  "At  Evening,"  March,   1915,   Young   Woman's  Journal: 
September,  1916,  R.  S.  Magazine. 

A  TESTIMONY   MEETING. 

Hymn,  "  'Mid  Scenes  of  Confusion,"  Psalmody  286. 

Prayer. 

Hymn,  "Welcome,  Best  of  all  Good  Meetings,"  Psalmody  225. 


ANNIVERSARY  DAY  PROGRAMS.  141 

Reading,  "My  Testimony  Concerning  Temple  Work,"  February, 

1916,  R.  S.  Magazine. 
Solo,  "My  Faith  in  Thee." 

Reading,  "  ATestimony,"  February,  1916,  R.  S.  Magazine. 
Subject  of  Testimonies,  "How  being  a  Relief  Society  worker  has 

made  me  a  better  Latter-day  Saint." 
Hymn,  "O   Jesus,  the  Giver  of  All  We  Enjoy,"  Hymn  Book,  22. 
Reading,  Editorial'  in  March,  1916,  Relief  Society  Magazine. 
"Doxology." 

STAKE    CELEBRATION. 

Singing,  "Oh,  Blessed  was  the  Day,"  Psalmody  429. 

Prayer. 

Story  of  the  First  Organization,  Stake  Officer. 

Tableau,  1.  Charity  in  Act,  Ward  1. 

2.  Charity  in  Word,  Ward  2: 

3.  To  gain  Knowledge  (higher  development),  Ward  3. 
Song,  "Hymn  of  Praise,"   S.   S.   Song  Book,  page   186,   Stake 

Officer. 

Story  of  Wheat  Saving,  March,  1915,  Relief  Society  Magazine, 
Stake  Officer. 

Tableau,  "Harvest  Scene,"  Ward. 

Tableau,  Genealogy,  Ward. 

Song,  "Make  the  World  Brighter,"  S.  S.  Song  Book,  page  197, 
Choir. 

Story,  "Relief  Society  Nurse  Work,"  with  demonstrations. 

Tableau,  "Women  of  the  Bible,"  Ward  presiding;  Madonna, 
Ruth,  Rebecca,  Esther,  Dorcas  and  others. 

Tableau,  "A  Modern  Relief  Society  at  Work,  or  The  Work  Meet- 
ing," Ward. 

Musical  Tableau,  "The  Teachers,"  Slake  Choir. 

Dramatize  the  Song,  "The  Relief  Society,"  October,  1915,  R.  S. 
Magazine. 

Art  Tableau,  "The  Three  Graces." 

Song,  "Scatter  Sunshine." 

Refreshments  to  be  served  by  the  Home  Economics  Section. 

STAKE  BANQUET.  , 

Decorations  to  be  green  and  white,  as  the  17th  of  March  is 
cJso  St.  Patrick's  Day. 

The  menu  may  be  simple  or  elaborate,  but  keep  the  color 
scheme  in  mind.  Meats  may  be  garnished  with  watercress,  celery 
tops,  and  green  peas.  Cakes  may  be  iced  in  white  and  green,  and 
the  ices  and  candy  must  also  bain  keeping. 


142  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Toast  Program. 

Silent  Toast,  "Our  Prophet."     (All  standing.) 

-  "Hail  to  the  Prophet  ascended  to  heaven, 
Traitors  and  tyrants  now  fight  him  in  vain  ;* 
Mingling  with  Gods  he  can  plan  for  his  brethren. 
Death  cannot  conquer  that  hero  again." 

"The  Relief  Society." 
"Here's  to  the  virtue  that  directs  our  action  with  respect 
to  ourselves;  justice  to  those  with   whom  we  deal;  mercy, 
love  and  charity  to  all  mankind." 
Response. 

"Our  Husbands." 
"Creatures  not  too  bright  or  good  x 

For  human  nature's  simple  food, 
For  transient  sorrows,  simple  wiles. 
Praise,  blame,  love,  kisses,  tears  and  smiles.'' 

— Wordsworth. 


Response. 


Response. 


"Wives." 
"As  the  bow  unto  the  cord  is 
So  unto  the  man  is  woman. 
Tho'  she  bends  him,  she  obeys  him  ; 
Tho'  she  draws  him,  yet  she  follows ; 
Useless  each  without  the  other." 

— Longfelloiv. 


"Charity." 
"A  link  from  the  chain  that  angels  wear." 
R<  sponse. 

"Smiles." 
"Smile  awhile  ;  when  you  smile,  another  smiles 
And  soon  there's  miles,  and  miles  of  smiles. 
And  life's  worth  while,  because  you  smile." 
Response. 

"To  All  of  Us." 
"Here's  t < »  all  of  us.   for  there's  so  much  good  in  the 
worst  of  us,  and  so  much  bad  in  the  best  of  us.  that  it  hardlv 
behooves  anv  of  us.  tn  talk  about  the  rest  of  us/' 
Response. 

The  banquet  may  be  followed,  by  dancing. 


ANNIVERSARY  DAY  PROGRAMS.  143 

AN  AFTERNOON  WITH  OUR  WOMEN  HYMN  WRITERS. 

Suggestive  Program  for  Stake  Choir. 

1.  Eliza  R.  Snow,  Brief  Biography. 

Song,  "Tho'  Deepening  Trails,"  "O,  My  Father." 

2.  Emily  Hill  Woodmansee,  Biography. 
Song,  "Providence  is  Over  All." 

3.  Lulu  Greene  Richards,  Read  "Similitude,"  December,  1916, 

R.  S.  Magazine. 
Song,  "My  Friend,"  September,  1916,  R.  S.  Magazine. 
Song,  "Let  Us  Treat  Each  Other  Kindly,"  S.  S.  Song  Book, 

page  146. 

4.  Lillie  T.  Freeze,  Read  from  old  copies  of  Young  Woman's 

Journal. 
Song,  "Hymn  of  Praise,"  S.  S.  Song  Book,  page  186. 

5.  Hannah  Cornaby. 

Song,  "Who's  on  the  Lord's  Side,  Who?" 

6.  Emmeline  B.  Wells. 

Read,  "Sing  We  of  a  Home  Immortal." 
Song,  "Our  Mountain  Home  so  Dear." 
Subject  of  Address,  "Latter-day  Saint  Hymnology." 

A   BIBLE  SUPPER. 

For  the  Home  Evening.     (Use  Bibles  and  Concordances.) 
"Seek  and  ye  shall  find." 
Preparing  the  Supper: 

1.  "And  upon  the  table     *     *     they  shall  spread  a  cloth  of  blue 

and  put  thereon  the  dishes,   and  the  spoons,  and  the 
bowls  and  the  continual  bread  shall  be  thereon." 

2.  "Salt  without  proscribing  how  much." 

3.  "The  bright  shining  of  a  candle  doth  give  thee  light." 
4.'    "Behold  I  have  prepared  my  dinner.     Come." 

The  Blessing: 
Oh  give  thanks  unto  the  Lord,  for  He  is  good,  for  His  mercy 
endureth  forever. 
Soup : 

5.  "Pour  out  the  broth." 

6.  "Eat  what  thou  findest,  eat  this  roll." 

Fish: 

7.  "We  remember  the  fish." 

8.  "And  they  gave  him  a  piece  of  broiled  fish." 

Meats : 

9.  "Two  young  pigeons." 

10.  "Fowls  ye  may  eat." 

11.  "Chickens." 


144  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Vegetables : 
1_\     "Beans  and  Lentils." 
13      "The  cucumbers     *  and  the  leeks  and  the  onions  and 

the  garlic." 
14:     "Olives." 

15.  "The  full  corn  in  the  ear." 

Dessert : 

16.  "Cheese." 

17.  "A  basket  of  summer  fruit." 

IS.     "A  cluster  of  grapes     *     *     pomegranates,  and  of  the  fi^s." 
1').     "And  the  melons." 

20.  "Give  me,  I  pray  thee,  a  little  water  to  drink,  for  I  am  thirsty. 

And  she  opened  a  bottle  of  drink,  and  gave  him  drink." 

21.  "Thou  shalt  drink  also  water     *     *      from  time  to  time  shalt 

thou  drink." 

22.  After  dinner  "Sing  unto  the  Lord,  Oh  ye  Saints  of  His,  and 

gfive  thanks." 


References. 

1. 

Numbers  4  :7. 

12. 

Ezekiel  4  :9. 

2. 

Ezra  7 :22. 

13. 

Numbers  1 1 

5. 

5. 

Luke  1 1 :36. 

14. 

Micah  6:15. 

4. 

Matthew  22 :4. 

15. 

Mark  4:28. 

niessing.  Psalm 

107 

.1.'        16. 

I  Samuel  17 

18. 

3; 

Judges  6:20. 

17. 

Amos  8:1. 

b. 

Ezekiel  3:1. 

18. 

Numbers  13 

25 

/ . 

X  umbers  11  :5. 

19. 

Numbers  11 

5. 

s. 

Luke  24:42. 

20. 

Judges  4:19. 

0 

Leviticus  5  :7. 

21. 

Ezekiel  4:11 

1<!. 

Deuteronomv  14 

:20. 

22. 

Psalms  30 :4 

11. 

Matthew  23:37. 

ORANGE  MARMALADE. 

Select  perfect  fruit.  One  dozen  oranges,  2  large  lemons. 
Wash  in  hot  water,  then  throw  in  cold  water  for  a  few  minutes. 
Do  not  peel,  but  cut  the  fruit  in  very  thin  slices.  Cut  the  slices 
across  two  or  three  times,  discarding  nothing  but  the  seeds  and 
cores.  Measure  fruit,  adding  3  cups  of  water  to  one  cup  of  fruit. 
Stand  over  night  in  an  earthenware  vessel.  Next  morning  boil 
ten  minutes  only.  Stand  over  another  night.  On  the  second 
morning  add  pint  for  pint  of  sugar  and  boil  steadily  till  the  juice 
jells. 

Note:  This  is  the  best  season  of  the  year  for  making  this 
delicious  dainty. 


Home  Evening  Entertainment. 

st.  Patrick's  day  party. 
By  Morag. 

The  March  hostess  often  observes  the  "Seventeenth  of  Ire- 
land," as  it  is  often  called,  by  giving  an  Irish  party.  Here  is  the 
invitation : 

"The  favor  of  yer  prisince  is  riquisted  at  a  party  in  honour 
of  St.  Patrick,  to  be  held  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Blank,  on  the 
seventeenth  of  Ireland.  Please  wear  a  thrifle  o'  grane  to  ixtin- 
guish  yerself  from  the  others." 

This  request  will  be  taken  literally,  of  course,  and  much  mer- 
riment will  result,  for  the  boys  will  wear  green  ties,  bows,  garters, 
sox,  etc.,  and  the  girls  will  wear  green  waists,  caps,  bows,  etc. 

Decorate  the  rooms  with  paper  shamrocks,  harps,  and  em- 
blems of  Ireland. 

Partners  may  be  found  by  matching  halves  of  paper  harps 
which  have  been  cut  into  two  and  drawn  from  a  basket. 

Sing  some  of  the  old  Irish  songs :  "Last  Rose  of  Summer," 
"Bendermeer's  Stream,"  "Believe  Me,"  "Minstrel  Boy,"  "The 
Harp  that  once  through  Tara's  halls." 

A  jolly  game  is  as  follows: 
Prepare  a  sheet  of  paper  for  each  guest  present.     Draw  the 
outline  of  a  large  snake,  and  inside  the  snake  write  words  such  as, 
snakes,  toads,  bogs,  drove,  St.  Patrick,  banished,  varmint,  etc. 

The  guests  will  then  fill  in  a  story  in  a  given  time,  using  the 
words  already  written  as  they  appear  in  the  various  lines. 

The  stories  are  then  read  aloud  and  a  prize  awarded  to  the 
funniest  story. 

Irish  jokes  and  witticisms  may  be  indulged  in,  and  some  of 
John  McCormack's  songs  may  be  put  on  the  victrola. 

Other  songs:  "Mother  Machree,"  "When  Irish  Eyes  are 
Smiling,"  "Where  the  River  Shannon  Flows,"  may  be  sung  and 
a  merry  dance  finish  the  evening. 

Refreshments  may  be: 
Murphy  Salad: 

(Potato  salad  served  in  potato  skins.) 
Tipperary  Sandwiches : 

(Minced  ham  and  watercress.) 
Shamrocks : 

(Small  cakes  cut  in  shamrock  form  and  iced  green.) 
Irish  Sherbet: 

(Fruit  sherbet,  colored  green  with  vegetable  coloring.) 


The  Music  Page. 


Question — How  shall  we  arrange  a  Stake  Relief  Society 
Choir?— H.  L. 

First.  Be  sure  you  have  made  a  good  selection  in  choosing 
your  stake  chorister  and  organist.  They  should  be  women  of 
strong  personality,  full  of  enthusiasm,  tact,  perseverance,  and 
patience,  as  well  as  being  women  of  musical  ability.  This  also 
applies  to  the  sisters  who  act  in  these  positions  in  the  various 
wards. 

The  stake  chorister  after  her  appointment  should  call  together 
her  local  choristers,  and  organists,  ward  choir  members,  and  any 
others  who  care  to  join. 

A  regular  day  each  month  should  be  chosen  for  rehearsals, 
and  some  simple  music  adapted  to  the  ability  of  the  women's 
voices  should  be  selected.  Do  not  attempt  to  sing  grand  opera 
choruses,  but  choose  some  of  the  simple  and  beautiful  music  writ- 
ten by  our  home  authors,  music  full  of  the  spirit  and  genius  of 
our  work.  What  is  lacking  in  musical  ability  in  our  Relief  choir 
work  may  be  made  up  in  love,  devotion,  and  enthusiasm. 

We  need  quality,  of  course,  and  we  also  need  quantity,  sing- 
ers with  influence,  and  enthusiasm. 

Get  all  the  trained  singers  that  are  available,  those  sweet,  true 
voices  which  have  had  some  cultivation  as  well  as  those  of  good 
native  ability,  who  are  able  to  sing  a  solo  if  needed  or  to  take  the 
lead  in  duet  or  quartet  singing. 

Of  quantity — these  make  up  the  rank  and  file  of  a  choir  of 
no  great  talent,  but  whose  hearts  are  in  the  work  and  who  love  tc 
do  their  part  in  the  service  of  praise. 

Be  sure  and  include  those  rare  souls  whose  sweet  influence 
will  bring  others  along,  whose  quiet  assistance  will  do  much  to 
bring  new  members  and  keep  up  the  interest  of  the  others,  even 
though  they  be  not  extra  good  singers. 

1^  stakes  where  wards-  are  scattered,  the  stake  chorister 
might  select  a  few  hymns  or  songs  and  give  them  tq  her  local 
choristers  to  be  learned  between  conferences ;  then  an  hour's  prac- 
tice of  the  combined  choirs  before  the  stake  conference  opens 
would  result  in  a  good  stake  choir. 

Sing  the  songs  of  Zion,  and  those  of  our  gifted  women 
writers.  Where  you  have  few  opportunities  to  sing  as  a  stake 
choir,  arrange  to  sing  for  the  old  folks  and  the  "shut-ins ;"  also 
have  an  occasional  social  with  a  concert  program  at  least  once  a 
year. 


Admiral  George  Dewey  and 
Homer  Davenport.  ■ 

By  Alice  Louise  Reynolds. 

Homer  Davenport,  the  cartoonist,  greatly  enriched  one  of 
his  public  addresses  with  the  following  story  of  Mr.  Dewey: 

In  gratitude  to  Admiral  Dewey  for  his  services  at  Manila 
Bay,  the  people  of  the  United  States  presented  him  with  a  home 
in  Washington,  D.  C.  He  very  promptly  put  the  deeds  of  the  home 
in  his  wife's  name. 

This  seemed  to  displease  many  Americans  and  the  press 
was  not  slow  in  voicing  this  displeasure.  About  this  time  Mr. 
Davenport  had  a  chance  meeting  with  Richard  Harding  Davis. 
Mr.  Davis  said  to  him,  /'Davenport,  what  do  you  think  of  all  this 
'hubbub'  that  is  going  on  over  Dewey's  deeding  his  home  to  his 
wife?" 

"I  think  it  is  a  great  shame,"  replied  Davenport. 

"Then  why  don't  you  say  so  with  a  cartoon  ?"  responded  Mr. 
Davis. 

Davenport  argued  the  point  with  Mr.  Davis,  insisting  that 
he  should  say  the  thing  that  needed  to  be  said  in  a  short  story. 

"No,"  said  the  novelist,  ''it  must  be  done  at  once  with  a  car- 
toon in  one  of  our  great  daily  newspapers ;  clearly  that  is  your 
job,  Davenport." 

On  Mr.  Davis'  suggestion,  said  Mr.  Davenport,  I  made  a 
cartoon.  I  placed  Dewey  standing  on  a  Man-of-war  in  Manila 
Bay.  At  a  distance  I  placed  Uncle  Sam  peering  through  field 
glasses  at  him,  his  very  expression  bespeaking  pride  and  satis- 
faction. Into  Uncle  Sam's  mouth  I  put  the  following  words  :  "If 
he'd  give  his  old  shoes  away,  he's  still  the  hero  of  Manila  Bay." 

Sometime  after,  I  visited  Washington.  In  my  mail  I  found 
a  most  urgent  invitation  from  Admiral  and  Mrs.  Dewey  to  call 
on  them.  I  did  so  and  was  amazed  on  entering  their  drawing 
room  to  find  hanging  on  the  wall,  in  a  frame,  my  cartoon.  The 
old  Admiral  noted  the  look  of  surprise  on  my  face,  and  said : 
"Mr.  Davenport,  that  is  just  why  we  urged  this  visit.  Do  you 
know  that  in  a  nation  where  the  men  are  noted  for  their  gallantry 
as  they  are  in  the  United  States,  I  fancied  that  the  thing  I  did 
would  meet  with  popular  approval.  I  was  astonished  beyond 
measure  at  the  abuse  it  brought  forth.  Indeed,  Mrs.  Dewey  and 
myself  were  so  disheartened  that  we  seriously  contemplated  mov- 


14S  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

ing  to  some  remote  village  in  France  until  the  storm  blew  over. 
In  the  garret  at  this  moment  there  is  a  trunk  partly  packed  for 
that  purpose. 

"You  turned  the  tide.  For  days  the  most  abusive  letters  ha  1 
been  coming  to  us  from  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  One 
morning  we  opened  an  envelope  containing  your  cartoon.  At- 
tached to  it  was  a  note  saying:  'These  are  our  sentiments.'  Day 
after  day  the  mail  brought  letters  of  approval  pinned  to  your 
cartoon.  Then  we  began  to  know  what  the  other  half  thought. 
So  we  gave  up  the  contemplated  trip  abroad,  and  Mrs.  Dewey 
teased  packing  trunks." 

BE  YE  ALSO  READY. 

By  Lucy  May  Green. 

Dedicated  to  President  Emmeline  B.  Wells  on  her  Eighty-ninth 

birthday. 

For  many  years  our  President's  voice  has  sounded: 

Tnto  the  storehouse,  bring  the  golden  grain, 
Soon  famine  dire,  and  sorrow  will  o'crtake  you, 
Prepare!  be  ready  for  these  days  of  pain, 
1  Tepare,  Prepare ! 
Garner  the  golden  harvest, 

The  summer  is  nearly  done, 
Bring  in  the  grain  to  the  storehouse, 
The  night  will  surely  come. 

Throughout  the  world  the  voice  of  God  is  speaking 

In  earthquake's  violence,  with  fire  and  sword, 

Dread  war's  alarm,  and  oceans'  bondage  breaking. 

Prepare !  oh,  nations,  soon  to  meet  your  Lord. 

Prepare,  Prepare ! 

Now  is  the  time  accepted, 

Soon  will  your  day  be  done; 
Repent,  receive  the  gospel 

Through  Jesus  Christ,  the  Son. 

"Now  is  the  time,"  the*  still  small  voice  is  pleading, 

"My  Saints,  be  faithful,  hear  the  living  Word, 
Your  dead  redeem.  Salvation's  message  heeding — 
Be  ready  to  receive  your  coming  Lord. 
Prepare,  Prepare ! 
Send  forth  the  glorious  gospel, 

Pray  for  the  happy  day 
When  Jesus  with  His  people 
Shall   reign   eternally." 


The  Relief  Society  Ward  President. 

By  Annie  Wells  Cannon. 

There  is,  in  my  opinion,  no  Church  officer  to  whom  I  would 
prefer  to  render  tribute  than  that  kind,  forceful,  and  generous 
woman  who  has  the  task  and  the  privilege  to  preside  over  a  ward 
Relief  Society. 

It  is  quite  interesting  to  note  the  inspiration  that  seems  to  be 
given  those  in  authority  in  the  selection  of  women  to  hold  this 
arduous  position.  Inspiration  it  certainly  has  to  be,  when  one 
knows  the  many  qualifications  and  requirements  the  office  de- 
mands. 

How  can  a  bishop  and  stake  officer  tell,  even  though  they 
may  have  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  woman  they  select,  that 
she  will  prove  equal  to  the  test ! 

A  successful  president  must  combine  many  graces,  besides 
the  devotion  of  much  time  and  energy.  Therefore,  one  would 
fancy  that  the  choice  would  fall  upon  an  educated,  capable  woman, 
so  well  provided  with  earthly  goods  that  she  could  afford  to  give 
time  and  means  and  thought  to  her  position.  On  the  contrary, 
the  majority  of  ward  Relief  Society  presidents — and  they  number 
nearly  a  thousand — are  the  busiest  women  in  the  community, 
known  perhaps  more  for  the  capable  way  they  are  serving  their 
large  families  than  anything  else.  And  why  not?  When  one 
finds  a  successful  Latter-day  Saint  mother,  immediately  may  one 
know  that  such  a  woman  has  ability  for  other  things,  and  will  so 
manage  her  time  that  she  can  perform  any  task  allotted  her. 

The  requirements  for  a  Relief  Society  president  combine 
many  virtues — executive  ability,  faith,  wisdom,  patience,  sincerity, 
and  most  of  all  charity,  in  its  very  broa'lest  sense.  Virtues  which 
adorn  anv  woman,  not  alone  in  the  home,  but  any  place  she  may 
h-ippen  to  be,  either  socially  or  officially.  King  Solomon  said, 
''Find  me  a  virtuous  woman  for  her  price  is  far  above  rubies." 
Among  our  Relief  Society  workers  such  women  are  numerous  and 
their  value  is  beyond  calculation.  Where  can  be  found  greater 
problems  than  come  before  the  social  service  worker?  How  to  uro- 
vide  for  the  needy:  how  to  comfort  the  sorrowful;  how  to  raise 
the  poor  in  heart:  how  to  serve  and  wait  upon  the  sick:  how  to 
enter  the  house  of  mourning  and  prepare  the  dead  for  burial,  at 
the  same  time  comfort  and  cheer  the  mourners:  how  to  seek  out 
the  poor,  and  the  sorrowful,  and  provide  for  their  wants;  the 
task,  too,  to  help  the  erring  one,  both  by  gentle  admonition  and  a 


150  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

needed  lift  along  the. way.  These  are  a  few  of  the  problems  that 
come  in  the  way  of  the  ward  president  and  her  duty  is  to  solve 
them  all.  That  she  is  successful  in  her  mission  the  thousands 
whom  she  has  served  will  testify. 

Relief  Society  work,  like  all  good  thh>gs,  carries  with  it  a 
beautiful  blessing,  and  though  one  may  feel  sometimes  the  strain 
of  the  work,  at  the  same  time  one  cannot  help  but  recognize  the 
wonderful  help  the  work  gives  the  worker.  It  is  an  education  in 
the  biggest,  broadest  sense.  Not  only  development  of  mind,  and 
strength  of  purpose,  biU  that  finer,  richer  education  of  the  heart, 
which  broadens  the  powers  for  good,  which  brings  discernment. 
judgment  and  the  most  beautiful  graces  to  the  human  soul.  T 
have  seen  uncultivated,  uneducated  women  of  the  poorer,  hard- 
working class,  develop  all  these  graces  under  the  work  of  the 
Relief  Society  and  become  most  efficient  and  capable  ward  presi- 
dents. The  woman  may  make  the  office  splendid,  but  at  the 
same  time,  the  office  makes  the  woman  splendid.  While  we  give 
a  tribute  of  praise  and  love  to  those  great  women,  the  ward 
presidents  of  the  Relief  Society,  let  us  also  praise  our  Heavenly 
Father  for  the  opportunities  of  Relief  Society  work. 


NOTICE.  TO  AGENTS. 

Only  duly  appointed  agents  for  the  Relief  Society  Magazine 
are  entitled  to  the  agents'  discount  of  10%.  Agents  are  fur- 
uished  with  subscription  blanks  and  receipt  books  from  the  Mag- 
azine office.  They  will  please  deduct  discount  before  sending  in 
subscription  lists — otherwise  the  discount  will  not  be  allowed. 

We  are  sorry  to  announce  that  the  January  number  of  the 
Magazine  is  exhausted.  All  late  subscribers  will  necessarily  be- 
gin with  the  February  number. 

The  heavy  storms  have  so  greatly  interfered  with  traffic  that 
the  February  number  was  late  in  reaching  subscribers,  a  matter 
which  is  greatly  regretted  at  the  General  Office. 


Notes  from  the  Field. 

Amy  Brown  Lyman,  General  Secretary. 

CHRISTMAS  GIFTS  AND  CHEER. 

The  stakes  in  and  about  Salt  Lake  City  make  a  feature  of 
special  charity  work  at  Christmas  time.  Following  are  some 
details  of  their  labors : 

Pioneer  Stake. 

According  to  the  usual  custom,  the  different  wards  of  Pioneer 
stake  sent  out  a  large  number  of  Christmas  baskets,  besides  small 
presents  of  money,  soft  slippers,  handkerchiefs,  comforts,  etc.,  to 
the  aged.  There  were  284  baskets  sent  out,  ranging  in  value 
from  $3  to  $6  each.  The  Relief  Society  also  distributed  several 
tons  of  coal. 

Cottonzvood  Stake. 

In  the  Cottonwood  stake  $318.07  in  cash  and  produce  and 
300  pounds  of  sugar  were  distributed  on  Christmas  day  to  the 
poor.  Each  member  of  the  Stake  Board  donated  one  quilt  for 
distribution,  making  18  quilts  in  all. 

I  iberty  Stake. 

In  this  stake,  the  following  donations  were  given :  Liberty 
ward  sent  20  baskets,  value  $4  each ;  the  Eighth  ward,  six  baskets, 
value  $3  each,  and  also  $36  in  cash ;  LeGrande  ward,  46  bas- 
kets, value  $4  to  $5  each ;  Thirty-third  ward,  one  ton  of  coal  to 
each  widow  and  needy  family;  Ninth  ward,  12  families  were  each 
given  $1  in  cash;  Second  ward,  46  baskets.  In  the  Tenth  and 
Thirty-third  wards,  the  bishoprics  took  full  charge  of  the  charity 
work. 

Salt  Lake  Stake. 

The  Fourteenth  ward  distributed  27  baskets  containing  mer- 
chandise and  $1  in  cash ;  Fifteenth  ward  Relief  Society  assisted 
the  bishop  in  sending  out  36  baskets.  The  Relief  Society  do- 
nated the  following  articles  to  be  added  to  the  baskets:  3  quilts, 
30  aprons,  2  kimonas,  2  underskirts,  12  pairs  of  ladies'  hose,  6 
pairs  men's  socks,  4  union  suits,  1  pair  slippers.  3  rag  rugs  three 
yards  long,  and  $15  in  cash.  / 

In  the  Seventeenth  ward  $350  was  collected  by  the  Relief 
Society  in  cash  and  merchandise.     Sixty  baskets  were  sent  out 


152  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

containing  meat,  potatoes,  sugar,  butter,  fruit,  and  canned  vege- 
tables. From  $1  to  $5  was  added  to  the  baskets,  according  to 
tlie  needs  of  the  families.  To  the  sick  and  aged,  a  plant  or  a 
hunch  of  cut  flowers  was  sent. 

The  bishop  of  the  Nineteenth  ward  took  charge  of  the  Christ- 
mas donations.  The  Relief  Society  prepared  a  hot  dinner,  and 
cnterained  about  twenty  of  the  needy  and  aged. 

Tn  the  Twenty-second  ward  24  baskets  containing  merchand 
ise  were  distributed.     Cash  was  collected  and  used  to  buy  coal 
which  was  sent  to  those  in  need.     Thirteen  baskets  were  distrih 
utcd,  each  containing  merchandise  and  $1.50  in  cash. 

The  Twenty-fourth  ward  M.  T.  A.  boy  scouts  assisted  the 
sisters  in  the  ward  to  distribute  30  baskets  containing  cash  and 
merchandise. 

In  the  Twenty^eighth  ward,  the  bishop  took  full  charge  of 
the  charity  work.  The  Relief  Society  sent  ten  old  ladies  $1  each. 
and  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  January,  they  entertained  their  ward 
teachers  and  the  old  folks. 

The  Twenty-ninth  ward  Relief  Society  sisters  assisted  the 
bishop  in  sending  out  16  baskets  of  merchandise;  $2  in  cash  was 
-cut  each  widow;  S48.50  in  all  were  distributed. 

The  Center  ward  distributed  $14.80  in  cash  and  merchandise, 
most  of  this  going  to  four  families. 

In  the  North  Point  ward  there  is  no  needy,  and  the  Relief 
Society  donated  $5  to  a  ward  entertainment  for  the  children. 

Ensign  Stake. 

The  Eleventh  ward  distributed  70  baskets  filled  with  gro- 
ceries which  consisted  of  sugar,  canned  peas,  tomatoes,  corn,  meat; 
etc.,  and  from  50  cents  to  $1  in  cash ;  $40  in  cash  was  sent  out 
in  this  ward. 

The  Twelfth-Thirteenth  ward  sent  out  68  boxes.  These 
boxes  each  contained  a  chicken,  potatoes,  groceries  of  all  kinds, 
including  one  can  of  cocoa  for  each  family  and  a  hag  of  candy. 
end  cash  from  $1.50  to  $2.50.  according  to  the  size  of  the  family : 
$50  in  cash  was  distributed  in  this  ward.  Money  was  collected 
for  the  groceries  and  they  were  purchased  wholesale  by  the 
bishop.  The  potatoes  were  brought  in  by  members  of  the  Relief 
Society,  each  one  bringing  three.  Tn  addition  to  this,  flour  and 
potatoes  were  given  to  many  other  families.  The  Ensign  ward 
collected  and  distributed  $27.46. 

In  the  Twenty-first  ward,  the  officers  of  the  Relief  Society 
visited  every  home  and  received  $221  in  donations.  They  sent 
baskets  to  forty-two  families,  a  sack  of  potatoes,  a  sack  of  apples 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD  153 

and  $1.50  to  $2  in  cash  to  each  of  them.  Thirteen  sacks  of  flour 
were  also  sent  out. 

In  the  Twentieth  ward,  forty-seven  baskets,  at  a  value  of 
from  $1.50  to  $2  each,  were  distributed.  One  of  the  residents  of 
the  ward  donated  $15,  with  which  to  buy  toys  for  poor  children. 
The  Twenty-seventh  ward  distributed  twelve  baskets  and  several 
tons  of  coal. 

In  the  Eighteenth  ward  the  bishopric  and  Relief  Society 
worked  tog-ether  in  collecting  and  distributing  charity  funds.  On 
Christmas  day,  $401.75  was  distributed  to  the  worthy  poor  and 
widows ;  $100  was  sent  to  the  missionaries,  making  a  total  dis- 
bursement for  Christmas  of  $501.75. 

Granite  Stake. 

The  Granite  stake  Relief  Society,  in  September  and  October, 
1916,  inaugurated  a  Food  Preparedness  Campaign,  when  Relief 
Society  teachers  visited  the  homes  of  the  people — both  Latter-day 
Saints  and  non-members — in  the  various  wards  of  the  stake,  and 
solicited  a  special  "free  will  donation,"  consisting  of  one  pound 
of  flour,  sugar,  rice,  beans,  peas,  etc.,  which  could  be  stored  away 
for  a  time  of  emergency  or  special  need  among  the  working  poor. 
On  October  27,  entertainments  were  given  in  the  ward  meeting 
houses,  in  the  afternoon  for  the  children,  who  paid  for -admission 
in  coal  and  potatoes,  and  in  the  evening  for  adults,  who  paid  ad- 
mission in  pounds,  if  they  so  desired.  The  movement  was  at- 
tended with  gratifying  success,  as  is  attested  by  the  following 
figures:  Collected  in  cash,  $680.86;  pounds,  6,l60y2  ;  bottled 
fruit,  91  quarts  ;  canned  goods,  426;  packages,  116;  coal,  12  sacks  ; 
potatoes,  8  sacks ;  soap,  36  bars. 

The  people,  generally,  entered  into  the  spirit  of  the  campaign 
wtih  such  manifest  enthusiasm  that  it  is  hoped  to  make  it  an 
annual  affair. 

President  Lorilla  L.  Home,  of  the  Granite  stake  Primary 
Association,  with  her  officers  and  the  workers  of  the  several 
wards,  pleasantly  surprised  the  Relief  Society  sisters  in  their 
various  January  work  and  business  meetings.  These  Primary 
workers  assisted  in  the  sewing,  and  afterwards  served  delicious 
refreshments.  In  one  of  the  wards  a  complete  layette  was  made 
for  an  expectant  mother. 

The  old  folks  of  the  County  Infirmary  were  given  the  cus- 
tomary musical  and  dramatic  treat  during  the  Christmas  holidays. 
Stake  Chorister  Lucy  M.  Green,  and  the  Relief  Society  choir,  paid 
them  a  visit  and  discoursed  sweet  music,  and  the  members  of  the 
Miller  ward  Relief  Society  presented  a  play  for  their  amusement 
and  pleasure.  Both  of  the  entertainments  were  greatly  enjoyed 
and  highly  appreciated. 


154  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Swiss  and  German  Mission. 

Mrs.  Rose  Ellen  Bywater  Valentine,  who  with  her  husband 
Mr.  H.  W.  Valentine,  late  President  of  the  Swiss  and  German 
Mission,  has  just  returned  from  Europe,  and  was  a  recent  visitor 
at  Relief  Society  headquarters.  We  were  delighted  to  receive 
Mrs.  Valentine  and  to  hear  her  interesting  account  concerning  the 
people  with  whom  she  has  been  associated,  in  the  old  world. 

Mrs.  Valentine  was  for  three  and  one-half  years  president  of 
the  Relief  Societies  in  Germany  and  Switzerland.  She  was  set 
apart  for  this  special  work  in  March,  1913,  by  Elder  Rudger 
Clawson,  who  was  at  that  time  President  of  the  European  Mis- 
sion, and  she  continued  in  this  position  until  her  release  in  the 
late  fall  of  1916. 

There  are  at  present  17  branches  of  the  Relief  Society  in  this 
mission,  13  in  Germany  and  four  in  Switzerland,  and  a  total  mem- 
bership of  600.  The  German  societies  are  located  in  Berlin,  Dres- 
den, Chemnitz,  Hamburg,  Konigsburg,  Stettin,  Karlsruhe, 
Zwickau,  Gerlitz,  Frankfurt,  Nurnberg,  Breslau,  and  Spandau ; 
and  the  Swiss  branches  are  located  in  Berne,  Basle,  St.  Gallen, 
and  Zurich. 

Mrs.  Valentine  reports  that  weekly  meetings  are  held  in  most 
of  these  societies,  and  that  the  average  attendance  throughout  the 
Mission  is  7S%. 

For  class  work,  outlines  were  prepared  and  printed  in  German 
at  the  Mission  headquarters,  consisting  of  lessons  on  the  life  of 
Joseph  Smith  and  on  the  subject  "Salvation  possible  for  all  man- 
kind," the  latter  subject  being  studied  with  the  special  object  of 
leading  up  to  the  study  of  Genealogy. 

The  Swiss  branches,  all  recently  visited  by  the  President, 
were  found  to  be  in  good  working  condition,  half  of  the  meeting 
days  being  given  up  to  study  and  the  other  half  to  sewing  and 
hand  work. 

Mrs.  Valentine  was  not  able  to  visit  the  German  societies 
after  the  outbreak  of  the  war  in  1914;  but  from  the  excellent  re- 
ports sent  her,  she  learned  that  the  faithful  sisters  in  these 
branches  are  more  earnest  than  ever  before  in  their  Relief  Society 
work,  and  in  all  the  duties  connected  with  it.  Many  of  them 
have  sustained  severe  losses,  and  their  tender  and  aching  hearts 
are  filled  with  only  one  desire — that  of  doing  good. 

Many  Germans  who  were  living  in  Switzerland  at  the  out- 
break of  the  war,  enlisted  immediately  for  service  in  Germany — 
the  city  of  Basle,  furnishing  1.500  men  at  the  outset.  Fourteen 
of  the  members  of  the  Relief  Society  in  this  city  were  thus  left 
without  support  of  any  kind  while  their  husbands  were  hurriedly 
taken  off  to  the  German  front. 

The  Swiss  government  has  also  called  many  of  its  citizens 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD  155 

into  service  on  the  border,  and,  as  a  result  of  their  continued  ab- 
sence from  home,  there  is  much  suffering1  among  their  families  in 
Switzerland  and  much  opportunity  is  afforded  for  relief  work. 

Of  the  donation  sent  to  the  European  Mission  by  our  Church 
for  relief  work,  $340  or  $20  for  each  Society  in  the  Swiss  and 
German  Mission,  was  sent  to  President  Valentine  for  distribution. 
This  money  was  joyfully  received  by  the  organizations  and,  with 
their  wonderful  thrift  and  economy,  the  members  were  able  to 
make  turns  that  furnished  relief  to  many  who  were  in  need. 

The  Swiss  and  German  women  are  such  careful  planners  and 
are  so  economical  that  very  few  families  were  found  to  be  in 
need  of  clothing.  Mrs.  Valentine  says  it  is  invariably  the  case 
that  they  are  found  with  sufficient  clothing  and  sufficient  bed  and 
table  linen  on  hand  to  last  them  for  several  years.  She  says 
American  housewives  might,  with  profit,  go  to  these  foreign 
sifters  to  learn  economy. 

Cassia  Stake. 

At  the  January  stake  and  local  officers'  meeting  of  the  Cassia 
stake,  the  entire  time  was  devoted  to  an  introduction  of  the  new 
literary  lessons,  and  it  proved  to  be  one  of  the  most  profitable  and 
enjoyable  sessions  ever  held. 

The  first  lesson  in  the  course  was  given  by  a  capable  teacher, 
and  was  thoroughly  discussed.  Attention  was  drawn  to  the 
literary  productions  of  our  own  authors.  At  the  close  of  the 
lesson,  "My  Dear  Old  Garden,"  by  "Aunt  Em"  Wells,  was  read 
by  one  of  the  most  gifted  readers,  and  "O  Ye  Mountains  High," 
by  President  Charles  W.  Penrose,  was  sung  in  an  impressive  way 
by  one  of  the  most  talented  singers. 

The  stake  and  ward  officers  of  the  Y.  L".  M.  I.  A.  attended 
the  session  as  special  guests  of  the  Relief  Society. 

During  the  holiday  season,  President  Emmeline  B.  Wells  re- 
ceived dozens  of  letters  and  cards  from  Relief  Society  workers 
throughout  the  Church — all  expressing  love  and  good  wishes  for 
the  coming  year. 

For  these  messages  of  greeting  and  for  the  loving  thoughts 
that  prompted  them,  "our  beloved  President  desires  to  express, 
thron,gh  the  Magazine,  her  gratitude  and  appreciation. 

California  Mission. 

Late  in  December  a  Relief  Society  was  organized  at  Sparks, 
Nevada,  with  the  following  officers  :  Artie  E.  Vanderhoof,  Pres- 
ident; Linnie  C.  Rossiter,  First  Counselor;  Bertha  M.  Anderson. 
Second  Counselor ;  Gladys  Huyke,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 


Home  Science  Department. 

By  J  and  I  c  A.  Hyde. 

In  the  Bible  bread  is  called  the  ""staff  of  life."  It  has  been 
used  so  long  that  no  one  can  tell  exactly  who  the  first  bread  eaters 
were.  We  have  record  of  its  use  in  ancient  times.  When  the  city 
of  Pompeii  was  uncovered,  mills  for  grinding  wheat,  and  ovens 
containing  loaves  of  bread  were  found.  We  also  find  on  the  pyra- 
mids and  tombs  in  Egypt,  hieroglyphics  showing  men  reaping  and 
crushing  wheat.  From  this  we  know  that  the  raising  of  wheat 
was  an  occupation  on  the  Nile.  Among  the  Chinese  there  is  a 
tradition  that  wheat  originally  came  from  heaven.  It  has  been 
grown  for  thousands  of  years  in  China.  The  ( i  reeks  and  Romans 
worshiped  Ceres,  the  goddess  of  the  grain  and  of  the  harvest. 
From  this  ancient  goddess  we  have  derived  the  word  "cereal," 
which  applies  to  varieties  of  grain,  among  which  are  the  follow 
ing  important  ones :  wheat,  corn,  oats,  rye.  barley  and  rice. 

No  more  important  food  stuff  exists  than  wheat,  for  it  fur- 
nishes the  principal  food  product  for  civilized  man.  It  is  gratifying 
to  know  that  this  nation  raises  more  wheat  than  any  other  nation, 
and  more  corn  than  all  the  rest  of  the  world  put  together.  In 
order  to  fully  appreciate  the  flour  industry,  one  should  go  to 
Minneapolis,  the  chief  flour-making  city  in  the  world,  though  by 
no  means  the  only  milling  center  in  our  country. 

Wheat  is  of  many  varieties,  each  of  which  requires  certain 
climatic  conditions  for  perfect  development.  Among  the  most 
important  kinds  are  spring  and  winter  wheat.  Spring  wheat  is 
excellent  for  bread-making,  producing  more  bread  to  the  barrel 
of  flour  than  winter  wheat.  Winter  wheat  contains  more  starch. 
It  makes  good  bread  and  is  particularly  desirable  for  pastry. 

In  order  to  produce  the  best  flour  wheat  must  pass  through 
several  processes  in  the  grinding.  1  f  flour  is  used  which  has  not 
been  thus  treated,  the  difference  wonld  soon  be  discovered.  Whole 
wheat  flour  is  much  like  graham  except  that  in  this  flour  the  outer 
skin  or  husk  is  removed  before  grinding,  leaving  it  not  as  coarse 
as  graham.  Standard  patent  is  the  flour  rflost  used  in  the  United 
States.  It  makes  the  most  digestible  bread,  whole  wheat  comes 
second,  and  graham  last.  The  patent  process  was  grst  used  about 
1865. 

There  are  two  general  methods  of  bread-making  in  vogue, 
one  producing  unleavened  and  the  other  leavened  bread.  Be- 
cause of  the  lack  of  knowledge  of  elements  that  would  leaven 
bread,  the  unleavend  bread  was  mainly  used  by  ancient  people. 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT.  157 

It  is  made  by  mixing  flour  and  water  into  a  hard  dough  and  bak- 
ing it.  The  bread  used  by  the  Jews  at  their  Passover,  and  also 
the  English  crackers,  arc  unleavened  bread.  Both  are  hard  to 
masticate,  but  nevertheless,  healthful  and  nutritious.  Leavened 
bread  is  made  of  flour,  with  yeast,  baking-soda  or  baking-powder 
as  leavening  agencies,  and  with  sufficient  liquid  to  form  a  dough. 

Bread  is  a  great  heat  and  energy  producing  food.  It  pro- 
duces also  a  moderate  amount  of  muscle  mineral,  but  little  fat. 

Corn,  a  native  product  of  America  and  Mexico,  is  used  very 
extensively  for  bread  in  some  parts  of  the  United  States.  Colum- 
bus found  the  Indians  using  for  bread,  corn  meal  crushed  by 
means  of  rocks.  They  made  it  into  a  batter  with  water  and  baked 
it  on  hot  rocks.  The  Indians  called  it  "mahiz,"  from  which  our 
word  "maize"  is  derived.  They  not  only. made  corn  meal  into 
plain  bread,  but  also  combined  it  with  nut  meats,  pumpkins,  ber- 
ries, corn  and  beans.    Corn  is  a  typically  American  food. 

Many  varieties  of  bread  are  made  from  corn  meal.  For  in- 
stance, the  corn  bread,  hoe  cake,  Boston  brown  bread,  griddle 
cakes,  Johnny  cake,  corn  muffins  and  corn  meal  gems.  All  these 
varieties  are  found  on  the  American  table.  The  people  of  the 
South  consume  more  corn  bread  than  those  of  the  North,  for  the 
reason  that  the  flavor  of  the  meal  made  in  the  South  is  more  ap- 
petizing and  delicious  than  that  made  in  the  North.  This  flavor 
is  due  to  the  fact  that  it  is  made  from  ground  corn,  from  which 
the  indigestible  hulls  only  have  been  removed  by  bolting.  In  the 
North  the  mills  remove,  in  addition  to  the  hulls,  a  portion  of  the 
kernel  which  contains  the  fat  and  mineral — this  process  taking 
away  most  of  the  flavor  of  the  corn.  The  food  value  of  the  corn 
is  thus  reduced.  Americans  have  meekly  submitted  to  this  be- 
cause the  facts  are  not  generally  known.  However,  it  is  to  be 
hoped  that  they  will  refuse  to  buy  corn  meal  from  which  most  of 
the  flour  has  been  eliminated.  Personally,  I  think  corn  bread  more 
tasty  than  wheat  bread.  The  only  advantage  wheat  bread  has 
over  corn  bread  is  the  fact  that  it  can  be  made  into  a  lighter  loaf. 
But  this  difference  can  be  overcome  by  baking  corn  bread  in  thin 
cakes.  

CORN  BREAD. 

Two  cups  of  milk,  two  eggs,  two  tablespoonsful  butter  fat, 
one  tablespoonful  sugar,  on  molasses,  one  saltspoon  ,of  salt,  one 
tablespoon  baking  powder,  two  cups  of  corn  meal  (yellow  or 
white),  and  one  cup  of  flour. 

Put  all  dry  ingredients  together.  Mix  thoroughly,  add 
melted  butter  fat  to  milk  and  eggs,  make  into  a  soft  batter,  and 
bake  in  moderate  oven. 

Ground  up  cracklings  may  be  used  instead  of  the  butter  fat. 


Current  Topics. 

James  H.  Anderson. 

American  troops  have  been  withdrawn  from  Mexico;  but 
Villa  is  not  yet  captured  or  killed. 


A  German  war  vessel  sank  fifteen  freight  ships  in  the  South 
Atlantic  in  December,  whereupon  a  British  squadron  was  sent 
in  search  of  the  raider. 


German  war  successes  continued  in  Rumania  during  the  past 
month.  On  the  other  war  fronts  there  was  little  change  in  the 
situation  from  the  previous  month. 


Switzerland  fears  being  forced  into  actual  war  in  the  great 
European  conflict,  and  has  mobilized  all  her  available  military 
strength. 


Utah  Guardsmen  were  withdrawn  from  the  Mexican  border 
the  last  week  in  January.  All  the  Utah  troops  are  back  home, 
and  glad  of  it. 


A  Temple  for  the  Latter-day  Saints  is  heing  talked  of  for 
Mesa,  Arizona,  and  may  be  an  assured  fact  within  a  few  years. 


A  sugar  factory  has  been  decided  upon  for  Cornish,  in 
Cache  county,  Utah,  and  the  West  Cache  Sugar  Company  organ- 
ized to  build  it. 


Nudity  in  moving  picture  shows  has  been  condemned  by  the 
National  board  of  censors,  and  none  too  soon  to  restrict  the 
coarseness  which  produced  such  exhibitions. 


President  Wilson  addressed  the  United  States  Senate  on  a 
universal  peace  plan  on  January  22;  but  the  United  States  could 
not  display  sufficient  strength  to  enforce  such  a  plan,  and  uni- 
versal peace  is  not  in  sight  by  any  human  means  yet  devised. 


Cold  and  stormy  weather  for  the  longest  period  Utah  has 
experienced  in  more  than  thirty  years  has  been  the  record  for 
December  and  January.  After  such  a  winter,  spring  is  doubly 
welcome. 


CURRENT  TOPICS.  159 

A  Mormon  Battalion  monument  to  cost  $200,000  is  pro- 
posed, and  the  State  has  been  asked  to  contribute  half  the  sum 
necessary,  upon  the  other  half  being-  raised  by  popular  subscrip- 
tion. 


Two  AViATOfiS  of  the  United  States  army  lost  their  way  on 
a  flight  eastward  from  California  in  January,  and  landed  in 
Lower  California,  whence  they  were  rescued  when  almost  dead 
from  exhaustion.    They  claim  the  compass  went  wrong. 


The  word  "sex,"  as  an  addition  in  the  fifteenth  amendment 
to  the  National  Constitution,  has  been  proposed  in  Congress.  Its 
adoption  would  admit  women  to  the  elective  franchise  all  over  the 
Union. 


Admiral  George  Dewey,  who  won  lasting  fame  by  his  bril- 
liant exploit  at  Manila  Bay  on  May  1,  1898,  during  the  Spanish- 
American  war,  died  16th  January,  in  the  eightieth  year  of  his 
age.  The  great  western  scout,  William  F.  Cody,  popularlv  known 
as  "Buffalo  Bill,"  died  on  January  10. 


Peace  terms  were  named  by  the  Entente  Allies  in  reply  to 
the  German  note  stating  a  willingness  to  conclude  peace ;  but 
Germany  made  no  counter-proposition  further  than  to  declare 
for  a  more  vigorous  war  policy. 


Coal  shortage  in  Utah  became  very  acute  during  the  month 
nf  January.  The  public  blames  the  railway,  because  of  its  failure 
to  deliver  shipments  of  coal  earlier  in  the  season,  when  partial 
storage  of  a  winter  supply  could  have  been  made. 


The  Utah  Legislature  has  an  abundance  of  legislation  be- 
fore it  at  the  present  session,  some  good  and  some  bad. 


Increased  revenues  for  the  State  is  the  call  of  many  office- 
holders' schemes  before  the  Utah  Legislature ;  but  it  is  notable 
that  there  is  no  scheme  of  increased  revenue  for  or  a  saving  of 
expense  to  the  common  taxpayer. 


The  Mann  white  slave  act  has  been  held  by  the  United 
States  Supreme  Court  to  cover  all  interstate  transportation  of 
women  for  immoral  purposes.  As  mi,ght  be  expected,  men  who 
justify  personal  immorality  are  not  pleased  with  the  broad  scope 
of  the  decision. 


EDITORIAL 


Entered   as  second  class  matter  at  the  Poit  Office,   Salt   Lake  City.   Utah. 

Motto — Charity   Never  Faileth. 

THE  GENERAL   BOARD 

Mas.    Emmeline    B.    Wells President 

Mis.   Claiissa    S.    Williams First   Counselor 

Mas.   Julina   L.    Smith Second   Counselor 

Mas.    Amy    Bbown    Lyman GeneraJ    Secretary 

Mas.    Suia   Young   Gates Corresponding   Secretary 

Mas.   Emma   A.    Empey Treasurer 

Mrs.  Sarah  Jenne  Cannon         Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  Miss  Edna  May  Davis 

Dr.  Romania  B.  Penrose  Mrs.  Priscilla  P.  Jennings        Miss  Sarah  McLelland 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards  Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Crismon 

Mrs.  Julia  M.  P.  Farnsworth    Mrs.  Rebecca  Niebaur  Nibley  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde 
Mrs.  Phebe  Y.  Beatie  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune         Miss  Sarah  Eddington 

Mrs.  Ida  S.  Dusenberry  Miss  Lillian  Cameron 

Mrs.  Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,  Music  Director 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Susa    Young    Gates 

Business    Manager Janette    A.    Hyde 

Assistant   Manager    Amy    Brown    Lyman 

Room  29,   Bishop's  Building,   Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 


Vol.  IV.  MARCH,  1917.  No. 


OUR  ANNUAL  DAY. 

It  was  a  happy  thought,  that  of  commemorat- 
A  Happy  ing  the  organization  of  the  Relief  Society  by 

Thought.  celebration,  in   speech,  in  retrospect  and  in 

general  rejoicing.  This  day  is  so  full  of 
wonders  and  possibilities;  and  yet,  our  human  memories  are  so 
treacherous — human  life  is  so  transient — that  we  would  forget 
friends,  teachers,  parents,  prophets,  leaders,  and  all  great  worl  1 
events,  were  it  not  for  memorial  days,  history  hooks,  portraits  or 
Ftatues.  Out  of  our  lives  these  would  fade  and  out  of  the  world's 
great  hall  of  fame  they  would  all  pass  away  hut  for  some  natural 
and  human  devised  methods  of  preserving  their  memory  for  pos- 
terity. The  results  of  great  events  and  lives  would  live — true — 
hut  not  the  human  recollection  of  them.  And  so,  it  is  good  to 
meet  on  this  day  and  to  remind  ourselves  of  the  organization  of 
this,  the  first  duly  organized  hody  of  women  in  modern  times. 
I  et  us  hear  ahout  it,  read  about  it,  think  about  it.  with  gratitude 
and  with  much  of  awe  and  reverence. 

There  have  been  groups  of  Catholic  women 
The  Pioneer  shul  up  in  convents  for  nearly  two  thousand 
and  Pathmaker.     years,  hut  these   were   under  the  control   "I 

the  priests;  there  was  no  effort  at  self-expres- 
sion nor  self-government  among  the  women.     They  were  doing 


EDITORIAL.  161 

violence  to  every  call  and  demand  of  nature,  but  one — benev- 
olence. The  bishop  or  priests  made  the  rules  of  their  order  and 
controlled  the  property  of  the  order.  The  women  were — in 
short — recluses,  living  without  any  human  ties,  most  of  them  for- 
ever forbidden  intercourse  with  friends  or  family.  Many  de- 
voted women  thus  immolated  themselves  on  the  altar  of  sacrifice 
—they  left  the  world  in  order  to  escape  the  snares  of  the  world. 
Here  and  there  in  modern  times  a  woman  had  risen — a  Mary 
Wollstonecroft,  an  Abigail  Adams,  a  Mary  Lyon,  crying  out  the 
need  for  greater  freedom  of  thought  and  action  for  women ;  but 
not  until  that  day  in  March.  1842,  had  women  gathered  to  or- 
ganize or  to  be  organized  into  an  independent  self-governing 
body  for  cultural  and  benevolent  purposes.  Six  years  after  that, 
in  1848,  at  Seneca  Falls,  there  gathered  that  brave  group  of  three 
women  who  named  themselves,  "The  Woman's  Rights  Associa- 
tion." Others  and  still  others  followed  in  quick  and  bewildering 
succession.  But  the  Relief  Society,  organized  by  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith,  was  the  pioneer,  the  pathmaker,  the  foundation- 
stone  of  woman's  modern  evolution. 

What  vast  interests  for  the  betterment  of 
Benefits  women,   children,   of    humanity    in   general 

Resulting.  have  grown  out  of  that  meeting  seventy-five 

years  ago.  The  Society  itself  has  developed 
its  charitable  and  benevolent  functions,  into  mammoth  propor- 
tions. Nursing  the  sick  as  a  neighborhood  activity,  training 
nurses  and  midwives,  co-operative  enterprises,  the  raising  and 
manufacture  of  silk,  equal  suffrage.  Young  Ladies  and  Young 
Men's  Improvement  Associations,  Primary  Associations  for  the 
children,  a  Home  for  Women,  a  magazine  owned,  managed  and 
edited  by  women,  books  written  and  printed  for  women  and  chil- 
dren, correspondence  courses  in  literature,  art,  home  science,  in 
genealogy,  with  great  genealogical  conventions,  libraries,  com- 
modious offices  as  headquarters  for  all  three  of  the  women's 
organizations,  elaborate  and  effective  organization  houses,  great 
stores  of  grain  for  times  of  famine,  lands,  stocks,  bonds,  prop- 
erties— all  these  are  among  the  many  blessings  and  benefits  which 
have  resulted  directly  and  indirectly  to  the  "Mormon"  women  as 
the  outgrowth  of  that  meeting  seventy-five  years  ago. 

Great  organizations  and  councils  of  women 
Light  and  have   developed   among  the   women   of  the 

Privilege  world    until    these    club    and    council    move- 

for  Women.  ments     well-nigh     cover    the     earth    as    the 

waters  cover  the  mighty  deep.  Truth — once 
revealed  to  the  world,  may  and  often  does  become — the  common 
property  of  men  in  various  parts  of  the  earth.  So  when  the 
Prophet  "turned  the  key  for  women,"  in  that  wondrous  March 


162  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

meeting,  the  door  was  opened,  and  an  increasing  flood  of  light 
and  privilege  for  women  issued  therefrom.  The  light  of  sex- 
freedom  was  in  the  world  and  it  was  freely  offered  to  the  women 
of  this  Church  while  the  women  of  the  world  found  and  still  do 
find  it  necessary  to  strive  and  struggle  and  sacrifice  to  obtain  that 
which  is  our  free  gift. 

Did  the  Prophet  see  all  this  with  the  sure 
A  Wondrous  vision?  No  doubt  he  did  ;  his  words  presage 
Day.  that.     And  above  all — dear  and  earnest  sis- 

ters and  readers — this  has  all  been  done  with- 
out one  shadow  of  sex-antagonism.  The  Savior  asked  the  Father 
for  His  disciples  in  His  last  earthly  prayer,  "I  pray  not  that  thou 
shouldst  take  them  out  of  the  world,  but  that  thou  shouldst  keep 
them  from  the  evil"  (John  17:15).  So  indeed,  has  it  been  with 
the  women  of  this  Society.  They  have  not  set  aside  nor  neg- 
lected their  daily  toils,  nor  precious  home  duties ;  but,  through 
enlargement  of  soul  and  sphere,  they  have  found  time  and  oppor- 
tunity to  mother  the  ward,  the  town,  the  community.  They  are 
still  women  and  wives  and  mothers — they  are  also  human,  and 
world  movers.  What  a  wondrous  day  was  that — the  seventeenth 
of  March,  1842.  Let  us  recall  it  in  song  and  story,  while  we 
rejoice  that  we  are  women  and  members  of  the  Relief  Society  of 
the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

STEPHEN  L.  RICHARDS. 

Elder  Stephen  L.  Richards  has  been  chosen  and  ordained  an 
Apostle  to  fill  the  vacancy  in  the  quorum  which  was  caused  by 
the  death  of  President  Francis  M.  Lyman. 

Elder  Richards  is  a  young  man  of  intellectual  and  physical 
vigor,  and  is  not  only  a  power  for  good  in  his  own  community, 
but  in  every  quarter  where  his  influence  is  felt.  He  was  born 
June  18, 1879,  and  is  the  son  of  Dr.  Stephen  Longstroth  and  Louise 
Slayner  Richards.  He  is  the  grandson  of  Willard  Richards  who 
was  a  prisoner  in  Carthage  jail  with  the  Prophet  and  Patriarch 
when  these  two  were  murdered  by  a  mob.  He  received  his  early 
education  in  the  public  schools  of  Salt  Lake  City  and  later  at- 
tended the  University  of  Utah  and  the  University  of  Chicago, 
being  graduated  from  the  law  department  of  the  latter  institution 
in  1904.  Since  that  time  he  has  been  successfully  engaged  in  the 
practice  of  law  in  Salt  Lake  City. 

Elder  Richards  has  held  many  positions  of  importance  in  the 
various  auxilliary  organizations  of  the  Church,  and  in  1007  was 
appointed  a  member  of  the  General  Board  of  the  Deseret  Sunday 
School  Union.  Two  years  later  he  was  made  Second  Assistant 
to  the  General    Superintendent  of    Sunday    Schools,     President 


EDITORIAL.  163 

Joseph  F.  Smith.  He  is  also  a  member  of  the  General  Board  of 
the  Religion  Class  and  a  member  of  the  General  Priesthood  Com- 
mittee. 

In  February,  1900,  Elder  Richards  was  married  to  Irene  W. 
Merrill,  a  granddaughter  of  the  late  beloved  President  of  the 
Relief  Society,  Bathsheba  W.  Smith.  There  are  six  beautiful 
children  in  the  Richards  home. 


CONSOLATION. 
By  Lena  C, Stephens. 

Dear    little    sad-hearted    mother, 

Your  heart  is  broken  today; 
For  one  you  have  loved  and  cherished 

Has  gone  from  your  earth-home  away. 

One  of  the  flowers  God  sent  you 
To  bloom  in  your  garden  of  love 

Has  finished  its  measure  of  earth-life, 
And  gone  to  His  garden  above. 

How  lonely  you  feel  little  mother, 
How  dreary  and  broken  and  sad, 

Because  you  are  given  this  trial — 
The  hardest  one  you've  ever  had. 

Don't  you  see,  dear — life's  pathway  is  thorny, 
It  has  brambles  and  briars  and  stones; 

How  often  we're  hurt  on  life's  journey; 
How  often  there  are  tears,  cries,  and  moans. 

But  look!  all  around  us  are  blessings, 
There  are  joys,  if  we  seek,  we  shall  find, 

Great  gifts  from  our  Father's  rich  storehouse, 
Gifts  of  spirit  and  wisdom  of  mind. 

There  is  always  a  kind  hand  to  help  us, 

There  are  friends  and  companions  who  care; 

And  God  watching  ever  above  us, 
His  wisdom  will  bring  us  safe  there. 

Cheer  up,  little  mother,  find  comfort. 

You  have  blessings  still  left  in  rich  store; 

Let  them  fill  your  whole  soul  with  thanksgiving 
Let  your  spirit  rejoice  evermore. 

You  have  many  to  love  and  to  cheer  you, 
Be  consoled  and  love  one  another; 

For  beyond  in  the  home  that  awaits  you, 
There's  an  angel  who  calls  you  dear  mother. 


Guide  Lessons. 

LESSON  I. 

Theology  and  Testimony. 
FiHSr  Week  in  April. 

SEEKING  A  WIFE— RACHEL. 

(Reading-:    Chapters  37-47  of  Genesis,  omitting  Chapter  38.) 

Marriage  cuts  a  very  wide  swath  in  all  primitive  society,  but 
it  cuts  an  especially  wide  one  in  the  early  days  of  Israelitish  his- 
tory, on  account  of  the  promises  made  to  Abraham  concerning 
"the  seed."  This  is  why  so  much  of  the  biblical  account  of  the 
first  patriarchs  is  occupied  with  the  matrimonial  affairs  of  those 
who  comprise  the  direct  line  to  Christ,  like  Isaac  and  Jacob.  But 
the  wooing  of  Rebecca  and  that  of  Rachel  were  essentially  dif- 
ferent, although  each  is  characteristic  of  the  times  in  which  it 
took  place. 

Jacob,  like  his  father,  was  a  shepherd.  But  his  brother  Esau 
was  a  hunter.  These  were  the  principal  occupations  in  those  early 
times.  And,  if  we  may  judge  by  the  characters  of  the  two  men. 
they  chose  their  callings  wisely.  Indeed,  Rachael  herself,  and 
perhaps  Leah,  may  be  called  a  shepherdess,  for  when  Jacob  came 
to  the  home  of  his  ancestors  first  he  found  his  future  wife  taking- 
care  of  sheep.  Josephus  notes  that  he  met  "with  shepherds  in 
the  suburbs"  of  Haran,  "boys  grown  up,  and  maidens  sitting 
about  a  certain  well,"  Rachel  being  apparently  among  the  num- 
ber. 

Isaac,  seemingly,  and  Rebecca  were  imbued  with  the  same 
idea  which  Abraham  had — that  no  marriages  should  be  con- 
tracted between  the  Chosen  People  and  their  Canaanitish  neigh- 
bors. This  pair,  especially  Tsaac  with  whom  the  hairy  Edomite 
was  a  favorite,  found  great  offense  in  Esau's  marriage  with  two 
Canaanitish  women,  one  of  whom  was  the  daughter  of  "a  great 
lord,"  such  as  lords  went  in  those  days.  Esau  realized  this,  for 
he  afterward  took  another  wife  who  he  thought  would  please 
his  father.  And  Jacob  might  not  have  done  any  better  if  it  had 
not  been  for  the  forethought  of  his  shrewd  mother.  It  was  she 
who  suggested,  when  the  rupture  over  the  mess  of  potage  oc- 
curred between  the  two  sons,  that  Jacob  should  go  to  the  land 
of  her  nativity  to  marry  him  a  wife — a  suggestion  to  which  Isaac 
readily  agreed. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  165 

As  in  the  days  of  Abraham,  so  in  those  of  Jacob,  children 
were  something  like  property  in  the  hands  of  their  parents,  as 
long  as  the  parents  were  living.  We  do  not  read  of  the  slightest 
objection  on  the  part  of  Jacob,  although  he  was  past  forty,  to 
the  proposal  that  he  go  to  Mesopotamia  for  a  wife.  Josephus  has 
a  curious  passage  in  this  connection  as  affecting  Esau.  He  tells 
us  that  Esau,  "now  come  to  the  age  of  forty,"  when  he  married 
the  Canaanitish  women  already  referred  to,  did  so  "without  so 
much  as  asking  the  advice  of  his  father ;  for  had  Isaac  been  the 
arbitrator,  he  had  not  given  him  leave  to  marry  thus,  for  he  was 
not  pleased  with  contracting  any  alliance  with  the  people  of  that 
country;  but  not  caring  to  be  uneasy  to  his  son,  by  commanding 
him  to  put  away  these  wives,  he  resolved  to  be  silent."  The  same 
unquestioning  obedience  to  parental  advice  is  observed  also  in  the 
case  of  Leah  and  Rachel.  Although  Rachel  must  have  known  of 
Jacob's  love  for  her  and  of  the  request  he  had  made  her  father 
for  her  hand  and  although  she  must  therefore  have  looked  for- 
ward for  seven  long  years  to  the  union,  she  nevertheless  had 
nothing  to  say  apparently  when  her  father  unceremoniously  sub- 
stituted her  sister  for  her  on  the  night  of  the  marriage.  Im- 
plicit obedience  was  exacted  by  parents  in  ancient  times,  not  only 
of  children  but  of  grown  sons  and  daughters  as  well. 

Whatever  view  we  take  of  this  marriage  of  Jacob,  much  de- 
pended upon  it.  Jacob,  by  reason  of  his  purchase  of  the  birth- 
right, was  heir  to  the  family  promises.  Moreover,  he  had  re- 
ceived the  blessing  belonging  to  the  heir.  When  Isaac's  sight  had 
failed  him  to  the  point  where  he  could  no  longer  attend  properly 
to  the  customary  sacrifice,  he  asked  Esau  to  prepare  him  some 
venison.  This  was  not,  most  likely,  an  ordinary  meal.  Rather  it 
\\  as  a  sacrificial  feast  of  some  sort.  The  aged  patriarch  expected 
>m  this  occasion,  it  would  seem,  a  manifestation  from  heaven 
which  would  enable  him  to  give  his  son  an  inspired  blessing.  This 
blessing,  however,  Jacob  received  by  anticipating  his  brothers' 
offering.  It  was  through  him,  therefore,  that  the  promised  Seed 
should  come.  Hence  the  importance  that  attached  to  his  mar- 
riage. 

There  are  two  customs  connected  with  marriage  in  those 
days  which  are  thrown  into  sight  in  the  biblical  narrative  of  the 
events  we  have  been  considering.  One  of  these  is  that  the  daugh- 
ters were  married  off  according  to  their  age,  the  eldest  first,  in- 
stead of  according  to  their  success  in  attracting  the  attention  of 
the  male.  Or  was  this  merely  a  ruse  to  deceive  the  unwary  Jacob 
into  remaining  another  seven  years?  For  Laban  was  a  tricky 
man  by  nature.  When  he  saw  that  in  his  proposed  son-in-law 
he  had  an  exceptional  person,  he  professed  to  be  absolutely  op- 
opposed  to  having  Rachel  go  to  the  strange  land  which  had  lured 


166  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

his  sister  Rebecca.  At  all  events,  Jacob  seems  not  to  have  known 
anything  about  this  custom — if  such  it  was.  Another  custom, 
it  appears,  was  to  veil  the  bride  on  entering  the  bridal  chamber. 
This  fact — if  we  reject  the  explanation  of  Josephus  that  Jacob  was 
"in  drink  as  well  as  in  the  dark" — would  account  for  Jacob's 
not  recognizing  Leah  till  next  morning. 

Polygamy,  it  would  appear,  was  common  in  those  times, 
not  only  in  the  chosen  family  but  also  among  the  nations  sur- 
rounding them.  Isaac,  it  seems,  had  but  one  wife,  although  Ins 
father  Abraham  had  more  than  one.  Jacob  was  a  polygamist  by 
compulsion.  He  was  forced  into  plural  marriage  first  by  his 
crafty  father-in-law  and  afterward  by  the  rivalry  of  Leah  and 
Rachel.  If  he  had  had  his  own  way,  doubtless,  he  would  have 
been  content  with  his  first  Love.  But  then  the  course  of  history 
would  have  taken  a  different  direction,  so  that,  after  all,  the 
Lord  may  have  been  using  Laban  and  his  two  daughters  to  bring 
about  His  great  purposes.  Esau,  as  we  have  already  seen,  took 
two  Canaanitish  women  to  be  his  wives.  We  are  told  all  these 
details  in  such  a  way  as  to  leave  us  the  inevitable  inference  that 
this  custom  was  a  common  practice  in  that  age. 

Religion  appears  to  have  figured  very  largely  in  the  daily 
lives  of  the  group  of  persons  we  are  considering.  Rebecca,  as  we 
have  seen,  sought  the  Lord  just  prior  to  the  birth  of  her  famous 
"twin  sons."  Josephus  tells  us  that  Isaac  appealed  to  Him  for 
guidance  in  this  important  event — whether  in  connection  with  his 
wife  or  alone,  we  do  not  know.  Visions  and  dreams  play  an  im- 
portant part  in  the  daily  lives  of  these  people.  Jacob,  while  on 
his  way  from  the  home  of  his  father,  saw  that  famous  ladder 
"reaching  up  into  heaven,  on  which  the  angels  were  ascending 
and  descending."  Even  Laban  was  warned  in  a  dream,  or  vision, 
that  if  he  attacked  Jacob,  when  the  latter  was  fleeing  from  his 
iather-in-law,  the  Lord  would  fight  Israel's  battles  for  him.  And 
again,  just  before  Jacob  met  his  brother  Esau,  the  angel  of  the 
Lord  appeared  to  him  and  told  him  not  to  fear  the  Edomite. 
Joseph  also  was  "a  dreamer."  Before  he  was  sold  into  Egypt, 
he  had  his  two  dreams  of  the  sheaves  of  grain  and  the  sun  and 
the  moon,  which  symbolized  the  relation  he  would  sustain  to  his 
lather  and  his  brothers  in  the  dim  future.  And  then  there  are 
the  dreams  he  interpreted  in  Egypt,  through  which  he  was  ele- 
vated to  the  second  place  in  that  great  nation. 

It  was  doubtless  religion  that  gave  these  people  such  a  high 
ideal  of  chastity.  When  Dinah,  Jacob's  daughter,  was  violated, 
as  the  family  was  on  its  way  back  to  the  Promised  Land,  we  are 
informed  just  how  virtue  was  looked  upon  in  woman.  Although 
the  defiler  was  the  son  of  a  "king"  and  although  it  appears  that 
the  act  was  performed  in  order  to  bring  about  a  marriage  between 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  167 

the  pair,  still,  when  Jacob's  sons  learned  of  the  affair,  they  fell 
upon  the  whole  town  where  the  offense  had  been  committed,  and 
slaughtered  every  grown  male  therein.  As  to  how  virtue  was 
looked  upon  in  the  man  in  those  days,  perhaps  the  best  example 
is  to  he  found  in  Joseph,  the  son  of  Rachel  and  Jacob.  After 
his  arrival  in  the  valley  of  the  Nile,  he  entered  the  household  of 
Potiphar.  He  was  an  unusually  handsome  young  man,  it  seems, 
and  the  lady  of  the  house  fell  in  love  with  him.  Now,  in  those 
days  immorality  was  extremely  prevalent  in  Egypt ;  society  was 
corrupt.  And  most  likely  Joseph  came  in  contact  with  this  form 
of  corruption.  But  he  preferred  to  keep  his  virtue,  even  though 
in  doing  so  he  ran  the  risk  of  imprisonment  or  death. 

Rachel  and  Leah,  it  appears  from  the  biblical  narrative,  were 
accustomed  to  a  species  of  idolatry  in  their  father's  house.  There 
were  household  gods  in  the  family,  which  had  been  handed  down 
from  generation  to  generation.  Josephus  represents  Laban  as 
saying,  on  the  occasion  that  he  follows  Jacob  in  search  of  the 
gods  which  Rachel  had  stolen :  "Thou  hast  treated  me  as  an 
enemy,  by  driving  away  my  cattle ;  and  by  persuading  my  daugh- 
ters to  run  away  from  their  father ;  and  by  carrying  home  those 
sacred  paternal  images  which  were  worshiped  by  my  forefathers, 
and  have  been  honored  with  the  like  worship  which  they  paid 
them,  by  myself."  Jacob,  we  are  told  by  this  same  historian, 
"had  taught  Rachel  to  despise  the  worship  of  those  gods." 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  Why  is  marriage  given  so  much  prominence  in  the  ac- 
count of  the  patriarchs  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob?  2.What  were 
the  chief  occupations  in  those  times?  3.  What  did  Rachel  and 
Isaac  think  of  a  marriage  between  their  children  and  the  Canaan- 
ites?  4.  Show  from  actual  citations  what  was  the  relation  be- 
tween children  and  parents.  Is  that  condition  preferable  to  ours? 
Why  do  you  think  so?  5.  Why  did  such  importance  attach  to 
the  marriage  of  Jacob?  6.  Tell  of  some  customs  connected  with 
marriage  then.  7.  Show  that  plural  marriage  was  common  at 
that  time.  8.  Explain  the  importance  of  religion  in  those  days. 
9.  How  was  chastity  looked  upon  ,by  the  Israelites  of  that  day? 
By  the  Egyptians?  Did  the  Israelites  have  a  single  or  a  double 
standard  of  morality?    Justify  your  views. 

BIBLE  READINGS  FOR  APRIL. 

"And  take  *  *  *  the  Sword  of  the  Spirit  which  is  the 
Word  of  God." 


168  RELIEF  S0CIE1  Y  MAGAZINE. 

1.  Bible.  Genesis,  Chapter  37 

2.  Bible,  Genesis,  chapter  38. 

3.  Bible.  Exodus,  Chapter    2. 

4.  Bible.  Exodus,  Chapter     3. 

5.  Bible.  Exodus;  Chapter    <>. 

6.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  20. 

7.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,   Section  21. 

8.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  22. 

9.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  23. 

10.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  24. 

11.  Doctrine  and   Covenants.  Section   19. 

12.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  18. 

13.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sections  15,  16,  17. 

14.  Doctrine  and   Covenants,  Sections  13.  14. 

15.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sections  11,  12. 

16.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section   10. 

17.  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  Sections  S.  9. 
IS.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sections  6,  7. 
1".  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sections  4,  5. 

20.  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  Sections  2,3. 

21.  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  1. 

22.  Bible,  Exodus,  Chapter  15. 

23.  Bible,  Exodus,  Chapter  18. 
2-1.  Bible,  Exodus,  Chapter  1''. 
25.  Bible.  Exodus,  Chapter  20. 
26  Bible,  Psalm  30. 

27.  Bible.  Psalm.  31. 

28.  Bible,  Psalm,  32. 
2<>.  Bible,  Psalm,  33. 
30.  Bible.  Psalm,  34. 

LESSON  II. 

Work  and  Business. 

Si  co.\i>  W'kkk  ix  April. 
'  LESSON  III. 

Genealogy  and  Literature. 
Tui ui)  Week  ix  April. 

PLACE  NAMES. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  many  people  all  over  Europe  adopte  1 
the  easy  custom  of  surnaming  themselves  after  states,  or  farms. 
or  towns,  or  any  dwelling  place  where  they  resided  permanently. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  169 

The  ^Frenchman  retains  to  this  day,  the  little  preposition  "de" 
which  means  of  attached  to  his  surname  and  even  to  his  title. 
For  instance,  D'Arcy,  and  PeVesci  are'  still  famous  French 
names.  DeRudeville  is  another.  DePomeroy  is  still  another  name 
which  was  transplanted  to  England.  These  names  simply  meant 
that  William  DePomeroy  or  John  D'Arcy  once  Heed  or  owned 
estates  which  bore  the  name  Arcy  and  Pomeroy.  In  England 
these  names  were  very  quickly  Englishized.  It  soon  came  about 
that  men  who  owned  large  estates  would  be  spoken  of  as  John  of 
Dean.  If  he  lived  near  a  church  he  might  be  called  William  of 
Eccles.  If  he  was  a  toll-gate  keeper  he  might  be  called  Gates  or 
Yates,  the  •  Gate-keeper.  On  the  other  hand  if  he  lived  near  a 
hill  or  boundary,  he  might  be  called  Lynch,  the  Anglo-Saxon  spell- 
ing of  which  was  Fflinch. 

Mr.  Lower  who  wrote  a  book  about  surnames  tells  us : 

"The  Saxons  and  Angles  called  places  after  their  names. 
Wright,  in  his  History  of  Ludlow,  says:  "Many  of  th'e  names 
are  compounded  of  those  of  Anglo-Saxon  possessors,  or  culti- 
vators, and  the  original  forms  of  such  words  are  readily  discovered 
by  a  reference  to  Domesday  Book.  *  *  *  Names  of  places 
having  ing  in  the  middle  are  generally  formed  from  patronymics, 
which  in  Anglo-Saxon  had  this  termination.  Thus,  a  son  of 
Alfred  was  yElfreding;  his  descendants  in  general  were  yElfred- 
ings  or  ^Elfredingas.  These  patronymics  are  generally  com- 
pounded with  ham,  tun,  etc.,  and  whenever  we  can  find  the  name 
of  a  place  in  pure  Saxon  documents,  we  have  the  patronymic  in 
the  genitive  case  plural.  Thus,  Birmingham  was  Boerm-inge- 
ham,  the  home  or  residence  of  the  sons  and  descendants  of 
Beorm." 

In  the  old  Anglo-Saxon  "hus"  was  house ;  cot  is  well  known ; 
"burh'  was  a  fortified  place  from  which  came  Canterbury,  Salis- 
bury, Amesbury,  Shaftesbury. 

Acre  always  meant  the  cornland,  ploughed  or  sown.  It  enters 
into  many  combinations:    Goodacrc,  Oldacre,  Longacrc,  Witacre. 

Angle,  a  corner.  Atten-Angle  has  given  us  Nangle.  John 
de  Angulo,  was  in  the  1273  (Hundred  Rolls"). 

Barrow  (A.  S.,  Beam'),  a  wooded  hill  fit  for  pasturing  swine. 

Beck  is  an  Old  English  name  for  a  high  pasture  or  shelving 
piece  of  moorland  ;  thence  the  names  Broadbend  and  Bentlcy. 

Both  (A.  S.).  a.  booth  or  wooden  house.  Also  Celtic  bodd, 
a  settlement,  as  Bodmin,  the  monastic  settlement;  Freebody,  and 
other  names  ending  in  bod  and  body. 

Bottle  (A.  S.  BotI),  a  diminutive  of  both.  In  the  High- 
lands a  bothie  is  so  used ;  in  German  we  have  W olfen-buttel.    It 


170  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

occurs  in  Harbottle  (the  highly-situated  bottle),  Newbottle, 
Bolton  is  the  tun  containing  a  bottle ;  Dothzvell  and  Claypole,  the 
bottle  in  the  clay. 

Bottom  (A.  S.  botn),  the  head  of  a  valley. 

Burg  (A.  S.  burh,  in  O.  N.  bjorg,  D.  borg,  G.  burg). 

Brook,  originally  a  morass,  then  a  stream,  was  a  very  com- 
mon name.    It  occurs  over  and  over  again  in  the  Hundred  Rolls. 

By  (O.  N.  barr,  byr;  Danish  by,  a  farm),  originally  a  single 
house,  then  came  to  be  employed  of  a  group  of  houses. 

Cot  (A.  S.),  a  thatched  cottage,  with  mud  walls.  Draycott 
is  the  dry  cottage. 

Dingle,  a  depth  of  wood. 

Eccles  (German),  was  a  church:  Egloskerry,  Egloshayle, 
Fccles  in  Norfolk  and  Lancashire,  Ecclesfield  in  Yorkshire,  and 
F.ccleston. 

Field  is  properly  a  clearing,  where  trees  have  been  felled. 

Ford  (Celtic  fordd;  Anglo-Saxon  ford),  a  way;  only  in  a 
s-econdary  sense  signifies  a  ford  across  a  river. 

Garth  (A.  S.),  an  enclosed  place;  hence  garden,  yard. 

Gate  may  mean  a  road,  as  Bishopsgate ;  but  also  a  barrier. 
Sometimes  corrupted  to  yat:  Ramsgate,  Margate,  Westgate ;  sur- 
names Gates  and  Yates,  Ycatman  (the  gatekeeper). 

Hatch  and  Hacket,  a  gate  or  bar  thrown  across  a  gap. 

Hall  and  Heal  (A.  S.),  a  slope. 

Ham  (A.  S.),  has  two  significations — with  the  a  long  it  sig- 
nifies home ;  with  the  a  short  it  signifies  a  field  enclosed.  Burn- 
ham  is  the  enclosure  by  the  brook. 

Hay,  a  hedge  to  an  enclosure ;  often  a  small  park.  From  this 
simple  root  we  have  the  surnames  Hay,  Hayes,  Haigh,  and  Hawis 
and  Hazves,  and  in  combination  Haywood,  Hazvorth,  Haughton. 

Holm  (O.  N.),a  flat  island. 

Holt  is  the  same  as  the  German  Holz,  a  wood  or  copse. 

House  (A.  S.,  and  O.  N.),  often  contracted  in  us,  as  Alus 
(the  old  house),  Malthus  (the  malt-house),  Loftus  (the  house 
with  a  loft). 

Hurst  (A.  S.),  a  wood,  very  common  in  Sussex. 

Ing  (O.  N.  eng),  a  meadow  by  the  river. 

Lane.  On  the  Hundred  Rolls  are  numerous  entries  such  as 
these:  Cecilia  in  the  Lane,  Emma  a  la  Lane,  John  de  la  Lane, 
Phillippa  atte  Lane,  Thomas  super  Lane ;  so  that,  although  a  Nor- 
man family  of  L'Ane  came  over  with  the  Conqueror,  we  cannot 
set  down  all  the  Lanes  as  his  descendants. 

Lee,  Legh,  Leigh,  Ley,  Lea  (A.  S.  leah,  m.),  a  fallow  pastur- 
age. 

Pitt,  a  sawpit,  coalpit,  or  pitfall. 

Piatt,  low-lying  ground. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  171 

Ros  (C.  rhos),  a  heath:    Roskelly,  Penrose,  Rosedue. 

Royd  (O.  N.),  a  clearing  in  a  wood. 

Shaw  (O.  N.  skog)  is — (1)  A  small  wood  or  coppice;  (2) 
a  flat  at  the  foot  of  a  hill;  (3)  a  boggy  place  by  a  river. 

Stead  (A.  S.),  a  home. 

Thrope  (A.  S. ;  Danish  torp;  German  dorf),  a.  hamlet. 

Tun  (O.  N),  the  enclosure  about  a  farm,  enters  into  many 
combinations,  as  ton  and  town.  Brighton  is  Brighthelmstron, 
Wolverhampton  is  Wolfardes-home-field. 

Wick,  Wyke,  Week  (Lat.  vicus),  a  settlement:  Warwick, 
Greenwich,  Berwick,  Germansweek,  Week  St.  Mary,  Hardwick, 
Norwich,  and  many  others  come  from  this  root. 

With  (O.  N.  vioi),  a  wood:  Beckwith,  Skipwith. 

Wood  becomes  sometimes  in  combination  Hood,  sometimes 
Good. 

Yat,  for  Gate,  a  still  common  pronunciation;  hence  the  sur- 
name Yates. 

LITERATURE 
Third  Week  in  April. 

POETRY  FOR  CHILDREN 

Most  of  the  poetry  we  have  for  children  has  been  written  dur- 
ing very  recent  times.  Before  about  fifty  years  ago,  indeed, 
authors  paid  little  attention  to  child  life.  In  Shakespeare's  plays, 
for  example,  there  are  almost  no  child  characters.  But  within 
the  last  half  century  much  poetry  has  been  written  for  children.  It 
should  be  our  effort  to  study  this  literature  and  make  choice  se- 
lections from  it  for  reading  in  our  homes. 

In  saying  that  children's  poetry  i?  of  very  recent  origin,  we 
must  not  overlook  our  Mother  Goose  melodies,  which  are  really 
about  as  old  as  the  race.  No  one  knows  exactly  when  such  non- 
sense jingles  as  "This  little  pig  went  to  market,"  "Hey  diddle 
diddle,"  "Sing  a  song  of  sixpence,"  "Rockaby  baby  up  in  the  tree 
top,"  and  the  other  nursery  rhymes  were  first  sung  to  amuse  the 
little  folk.  These  harmless  nonsense  songs  have  been  heard  by 
babes  of  every  generation  for  hundreds  of  years,  and  they  will 
probably  continue  to  be  sung  as  long  as  there  are  babies  to  play 
with  and  rock  to  sleep.    These  are  the  child's  first  poetry. 

Some  of  the  Mother  Goose  rhymes,  such  as  "King  William  was 
King  James's  son,"  "London's  bridge  is  falling  down,"  and  the 
old  counting  out  rhymes  used  in  "hide-and-seek,"  were  created 
for  plays  and  games.  In  earlier  times,  young  and  old  would 
romp  together  over  the  village  green,  making  up  their  own 
music  for  their  folk  games  and  dances. 


172  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

The  nursery  jingles  were  followed  years  afterward  by  rhymes 
written  to  teach  morals  and  manner's.    These  seem  to  have  sprung 

chilly  from  Puritan  source-.  Parents  and  preacher-  then  were 
rightly  very  anxious  to  "train  up  the  child  in  the  way  he  should 
'They  therefore  gave  him  little  lessons  of  life  in  rhymes, 
which  made  them  easy  t<»  get  and  hard  to  forget.  For  illustra- 
tion : 

"Let  dogs  delighl  to  hark  and  bite, 

For  'tis  their  nature  to  ; 
But,  children,  yon  should  never  let 

Yonr  angry  passions  rise, 

Your  little  hand-   were  never  made 
To  tear  each  other's  eyes." 

"Little  drops  of  water. 

Little  grains  of  sand. 
Make  tlie  mighty  ocean 

And  the  pleasant  land. 

"Little   <\ve<\^   of  kindness. 

Little  words  of  love, 
Make  the  earth  an  Eden 

Like  the  heaven  above." 

Snch  wholesome  rhymes  serve  a  very  good  purpose.  Strictly 
speaking,  however,  they  are  hardly  child  rhymes;  hecanse  the 
child  dors  not  naturally  moralize.  He  simply  enjoys  life.  Nev- 
ertheless, these  little  life  lessons,  done  up  in  easy-to-carry  pack- 
ages, are  good  for  him  to  take  with  his  Mother  Goose  melodies. 

When  the  poets  of  later  days,  chiefly  of  our  own  time,  began 
to  pay  attention  to  children,  they  wrote  of  them  from  an  adult 
viewpoint.  Their  poems  were  about  children,  not  for  them. 
Whittier's  "Barefoot  Boy,"  pictures  the  poet  remembering  the 
joys  of  his  own  boyhood.  It  is  an  old  man  patting  a  boy  on  the 
head — a  beautiful  picture,  but  not  so  much  for  boys  as  grownups. 
Longfellow'-  "Children's  Hour."  and  Lowell's  "First  Snowfall" 
are  likewise  poems  for  older  folk.  Such  poems  may  bring  some 
enjoyment  to  children  :  but  truly  speaking,  they  arc  not  child 
poetry. 

Among  the  earliest  poets  who  really  made  an  effort  to  write 
from  the  child's  viewpoint  are  Alice  and  Phoebe  Cary.  These 
sisters  produced  a  good  many  little  poems  that  are  wholesome 
and  childlike.  Among  them  are  "The  Leak  in  the  Dike."  "An' 
Order  for  a  Picture."  "Three  Little  Bugs  in  a  Basket."  and  "Sup- 
pose."    The  last  named  begins  as  follows: 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  173 

"Suppose,  my  little  lady. 

Your  doll  should  break  its  head, 
Could  you  make  it  well  by  crying 
Till  your  eyes  and  nose  were  red  ?" 

The  poems  by  the'Cary  sisters,  always  teach  a  moral. 

Charles  and  Mary  Lamb  also  wrote  a  few  little  poems  for 
little  folk.  They  were  very  prim  little  English  rhymes,  intended 
to  help  children  to  act  very  properly. 

From  this  type  of  poetry,  there  has  been  a  gradual  develop- 
ment into  the  real  child  rhymes  of  today.  Among  the  first  of  the 
poems  that  reallv  reflect  the  child  spirit  was 

MARY    AND    HER    LITTLE    LAMB. 

"Mary  had  a  little  lamb, 

Its  fleece  was  white  as  snow, 
And  everywhere  that  Mary  went. 

The  lamb  was  sure  to  go. 

"It  followed  her  to  school  one  day, 

Which  was  against  the  rule. 
It  made  the  children  laugh  and  play 

To  see  a  lamb  in  school. 

"And  then  the  teacher  turned  it  out. 

But  still  it  lingered  near. 
And  waited  patiently  about 

Till  Mary  did  appear. 

"  'What  makes  the  lamb  love  Mary  so?' 

The  eager  children  cry, 
'Why,  Mary  loves  the  lamb,  you  know,' 

The  teacher  did  reply." 

There  has  been  some  doubt  as  to  the  authorship  of  this  poem  ; 
but  recent  investigations  have  practically  proved  that  it  was  writ- 
ten by  a  Mr.  Coulson,  and  that  the  incident  on  which  the  poem 
is  based  is  true.  It  happened  one  day  when  this  gentleman  was 
visiting  a  country  school.  On  returning  home,  he  wrote  the 
poem. 

"Mary  and  Her  Lamb"  is  a  true  type  of  child's  poetry.  It 
reflects  child-life  from  the  child's  viewpoint.  A  sweet  little  les- 
son is  suggested  in  the  last  stanza  ;  but  there  is  no  moralizing 
nor  preaching  about  it. 

"Twinkle.  Twinkle,  Little  Star"  is  another  beautiful  poem, 
produced  in  earlier  days  for  children. 


174  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

From  these  beginnings  toward  the  right  kind  of  verse  for 
little  folk,  we  have  developed  rather  rapidly  until  now  we  have 
a  good  many  beautiful  poems  for  children.  Among  those  who 
have  helped  to  produce  such  literature  is  Mary  Mapes  Dodge, 
for  many  years  editor  of  the  St.  Nicholas  Magazine.  She  deserves 
first  mention,  not  because  she  wrote  much  children's  literature 
herself — though  she  did  write  some  very  good  stories  and  poems 
— but  bcause  she  inspired  a  host  of  others  to  write ;  and  she  gave 
them  opportunity  to  publish  their  writings  in  her  magazine.  Mary 
Mapes  Dodge  may  be  called  the  mother  of  writers  for  children. 

Other  special  names  that  should  be  remembered  here  are 
Lucy  Larcom,  Jane  Taylor,  Celia  Thaxter,  Eliza  Follen,  Edward 
Lear,  Frank  D.  Sherman,  Christina  Rosetti,  and  Emilie  Pouls- 
son.  These  all  have  given  us  bright  and  beautiful  verse  for 
children.  As  an  illustration,  take  this  first  stanza  of  Sir  Robin, 
a  delightful  bird  lyric,  from  the  pen  of  Lucy  Larcom : 

"Rollicking  robin  is  here  again, 
What  does  he  care  for  the  April  rain  ? 
Care  for  it !     Glad  of  it !     Doesn't  he  know 
That  the  April  rain  carries  off  the  snow 
And  coaxes  out  leaves  to  shelter  his  nest. 
And  washes  his  pretty  red  Easter  vest, 
And  makes  the  juice  of  the  cherry  sweet, 
For  the  hungry  little  robins  to  eat ! 
'Ha,  ha,  ha,'  hear  the  jolly  bird  laugh, 
That  isn't  the  best  of  the  story,  by  half." 

Among  all  our  children's  poets,  however,  these  three  names 
stand  out :  Robert  Louis  Stevenson,  Eugene  Field,  and  James 
Whitcomb  Riley. 

Stevenson  has  given  us  a  charming  little  volume  called  A 
Child's  Garden  of  Verses,  filled  with  poems  that  reflect  the  heart 
of  the  chlidren.  This  great  writer  never  forgot  his  childhood 
days  in  bonnie  Scotland.  "The  Shadow,"  "Foreign  Children," 
"Windy  Nights,"  "The  Swing,"  all  of  his  child  poems  show 
clearly  that  he  was  a  child  at  heart. 

Eugene  Field,  likewise,  kept  the  rollicking  spirit  of  youth. 
His  Love  Songs  of  Childhood  and  With  Trumpet  and  Drum  are 
two  little  volumes  full  of  choice  lyrics  of  child  life. 

Of  James  W.  Riley  a  volume  might  be  written.  On  his 
seventieth  birthday  the  children  of  his  birthtown  strewed  his  way 
with  roses  as  he  rode  along  its  streets  in  an  automobile  with  the 
"happy  little  cripple  boy,"  whom  he  has  immortalized  in  one  of 
his  poems.     Riley's  verse  is  written  artistically  in  child  dialect. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  175 

It  is  full  of  sweet  humor  and  pathos,  and  always  reflects  truly 
the  spirit  of  the  little  folk.  Space  forbids  our  giving  further 
illustrations ;  but  the  following  books  containing  these  and  other 
child  verse  can  be  readily  obtained.  We  commend  them  to  our 
mothers  for  the  home  library : 

Nursing  Rhymes,  Welsh,  D.  C.  Heath  &  Co. 
Rhymes  and  Stories,  Lansing,  Ginn  &  Co. 
Pinafore  Palace,  Wiggin,  McClure  Co. 
The  Posy  Ring,  Wiggin,  McClure  Co. 
Child's  Calendar  Beautiful,  Beeson,  Scribner's. 
Little  Folk  Lyrics,  Sherman,  Houghton  Mifflin  Co. 
Child's  Garden  of  Verses,  Stevenson,  Rand  McNally. 
The  Eugene  Field  Book,  Field,  Scribners. 
Child  Rhymes,  Riley,  Bobbs-Merrill. 
The  Ritey  Reader,  Riley,  Bobbs-Merrill. 
Mothers  may  also  find  in  the  readers  used  in  school  much 
beautiful   poetry   for   children. 

LESSON  OUTLINE. 

1.  During  what  time  has  most  of  the  poetry  we  have  for 
children  been  created? 

2.  ,  What  kind  of  verse  for  little  folks  has  come  from  very 
early  times? 

3.  For  what  purpose  mainly  were  the  Mother  Goose  melo- 
dies created  ?    Illustrate. 

4.  Let  each  class  member  be  ready  to  give  a  little  "moral 
rhyme"  intended  to  teach  a  lesson  to  children. 

•  5.  What  characterizes  the  poetry  that  Longfellow,  Whit- 
tier  and  other  poets  of  their  time  wrote  concerning  children.  Il- 
lustrate by  reading  "The  Village  Blacksmith,"  or  some  other 
poem. 

6.  Find  some  child  poem  written  bv  Alice  or  Phoebe  Cary, 
or  by  the  other  children's  poets  named  herein  and  read  it  to 
class. 

7.  What  qualities  does  the  true  child's  poem  possess? 

8.  What  three  children's  poets  have  gained  greatest  prom- 
inence?    Let  poems  from  each  of  these  be  read. 

9.  Find  in  The  Juvenile  Instructor,  The  Children's  Friend, 
and  other  Church  magazines  ;  or  in  our  song  book,  some  poem 
that  you  feel  is  true  to  the  spirit  of  child  life. 


176  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


LESS*  >X  IV. 

Home  Economics 

[NTR<  >DUCTI<  >.\  <  >F  S<  ILID  I  <  ><  >DS. 

Fourth  Week  in  April. 

The  weaning  of  the  child  with  the  subsequent  introduction 
of  solid  foods  is  oik-  of  the  most  difficult  problems  in  medicine. 
I ']-,  to  the  time  of  weaning,  the  child  has  been  receiving  the  per- 
fect food,  the  mother's  milk.  Our  problem  now  is  to  introduce 
in  their  proper  proportion  the  different  food  ingredients  in  a  form 
that  can  he  easily  handled  by  the  child.  The  same  care  must  be 
exercised  here  in  the  selection  of  foods  that  we  would  exercise  in 
the  modification  of  cow's  milk.  The  proprietary  foods  have  been 
condemned  because  they  did  not  contain  a  proper  proportion  of 
all  of  the  food  ingredients.  We  must  exercise  care  that  we  are 
nol  guilty  of  the  same  fault  in  the  feeding  of  the  child  during  the 
second  year  of  life,  fl  has  been  said  that  40  per  tent  of  all 
children  in  their  second  year  are  anemic,  by  that,  \  mean  that 
there  is  a  deficiency  of  iron  and  other  mineral  salts  in  the  blood. 
This  is  entirely  due  to  mistakes  in  diet.  A  common  saying 
amongst  mothers  is  that  the  second  summer  is  the  most  difficult 
foi  the  child  to  pass  through.  This  is  clearly  due  to  the  fact 
that  we  do  not  make  a  proper  choice  of  foods  for  the  child. 
During  the  first  year  of  life  babies  are1  peculiarly  immune  to  the 
infectious  diseases.  (  mly  where  the  mother's  health  is  poor  with 
the  subsequent  production  of  poor  milk  do  we  find  babies  that 
contract  the  infectious  diseases.  If  the  problem  of  diet  could  he 
carefully  worked  out  I  Feel  certain  that  the  reason  for  this  im- 
munity would  he  found  to  he  due  to  the  fact  that  the  child  is 
getting  perfect  food.  This  immunity  then  could  he  prolonged 
through  the  second  year  of  life  and  throughout  life  if  we  could 
properly  nourish  the  body.  Within  the  human  organism  are  all 
the  possibilities  for  developing  substances  that  protect  us  against 
the  inroads  of  disease.  Perfect  physical  health  which  would  fol- 
low the  proper  nourishment  of  the  body  would  give  to  us  abund- 
ance of  all  of  these  protective  forces  and  our  fear  of  contagious 
diseases  would  he  very  much  lessened.  Disease  can  only  make 
headway  where  the  vitality  is  lowered,  and  in  the  vast  majority 
of  cases  our  vitality  is  lowere  1  through  mistakes  in  diet  and 
errors  in  hygiene. 

The  baby's  teeth  should  appear  at  six  months  of  acre,  this 
is  nature's  signal  to  begin  the  introduction  of  outside  foo  Is.  A 
crust  of  stale  bread  given  at  this  time  serves  to  satisfv  the  child'- 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  177 

craving  for  other  foods  as  w,ell  as  to  assist  in  breaking  the  way 
of  the  teeth  through  the  gums.  As  the  child  gets  older  the  cereals, 
oat  meal,  cream  of  wheat  or  other  cereals  cooked  three  hours  in 
a  double  boiler  so  as  to  thoroughly  dissolve  the  starch  granules, 
with  a  little  cream  or  milk,  and  sugar  in  small  quantities,  should 
be  also  introduced  at  this  time.  Sugar,  however,  is  usually  a 
dangerous  food  because  the  child  forms  a  liking  for  the  sugar 
and  will  not  take  any  food  unless  it  is  sweetened  excessivelv. 
Sugar  plays  an  important  part  in  the  diet  of  the  child,  but  in 
cases  where  there  are  any  indications  of  indigestion  or  malnutri- 
tion the  cereal  foods  should  be  given  without  sugar.  T  have  found 
no  difficulty  in  getting  babies  to  take  the  cereals  without  sugar. 
Their  liking  for  sugar  comes  only  as  the  result  of  its  long  con- 
tinued use.  If  the  baby's  teeth  are  slow  in  appearing  it  is  some- 
times necessary  towards  the  end  of  the  first  year  to  allow  half  of 
a  soft-boiled  egg,  some  fruit  in  the  form  of  orange  juice,  stewei 
or  baked  apples,  stewed  prunes  and  some  of  the  vegetables ;  pure? 
of  peas,  string  beans,  asparagus  tips  and  carrots  cooked  until  they 
mash  readily  with  a  fork,  prepared  preferably  in  milk  gravy.  Oc- 
casionally the  mother  may  notice  that  particles  of  vegetables 
come  through  the  intestine  apparently  undigested.  Unless  these 
food  particles  set  up  an  irritation  with  the  subsequent  diarrhea  no 
attention  should  be  paid  to  this  since  the  mineral  salts  are  absorbed 
even  though  nature  does  not  extract  all  of  the  food  value  from 
them.  Cow's  milk  should  be  allowed  with  a  normal  child  in  a 
dilution  of  two-thirds  milk  and  one-third  water.  Tf  the  child  be- 
gins to  vomit  or  there  is  trouble  with  the  bowels  the  milk  can 
be  diluted  still  more.  Gradually,  however,  the  milk  should  be  in- 
creased in  amount  until  by  the  end  of  the  first  year  the  child  shoul  1 
be  getting  the  whole  milk.  As  the  time  for  weaning  approaches, 
the  mother  can  introduce  one  bottle  a  day  of  this  modified  cow's 
milk,  gradually  increasing  the  number  of  feedings  with  cow's 
milk  and  decreasing  the  breast  feedings.  In  this  way  the  child 
will  be  made  to  wean  itself  within  a  very  short  time  and  with  no 
trouble  whatever.  Only  in  exceptional  cases  should  the  child  be 
weaned  suddenly.  There  is  generally  no  necessity  for  this  sudden 
breaking  awav  from  the  breast  feedings. 

In  introducing  new  foods  to  the  child  one  important  point 
should  alwavs  be  born  in  mind,  that  every  food  introduced  is  new 
to  the  child's  digestive  apparatus.  It  is  necessary,  therefore,  to 
adopt  these  foods  gradually.  A  tolerance  must  be  formed  for 
every  food  that  is  given.  In  other  words  educate  the  digestive 
tract  to  handle  these  foods.  Beginning  with  small  quantities  in- 
crease the  amounts  until  a  normal  diet  is  reached. 

Very  frequently  mothers  ask  why  it  is  that  their  children  are 
unhealthy  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  they  exercise  every  precaution 


178  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

o-  diet  within  their  power,  whereas,  Mrs.  Smith's  babies  are 
never  sick  and  yet  are  allowed  to  eat  everything  that  is  on  the 
table.  The  reason  for  this  is  apparent,  the  careful  mother  goes 
to  the  extreme  in  depriving  her  child  of  foods  that  it  should  have 
while  the  careless  mother  permits  the  child's  appetite  to  be  its  own 
guide.  As  a  result  it  gets  those  foods  that  nature  calls  for.  The 
instinct  for  self-preservation  manifests  itself  here  very  clearly. 
Animals  will  go  for  miles  and  lick  up  the  dirt  in  their  search  for 
certain  of  the  minerals.  The  same  is  true  with  children,  guided 
by  nature  they  take  those  foods  that  their  system  is  demanding. 
Often  I  am  consulted  to  know  why  children  eat  dirt.  In  some 
cases  babies  have  picked  large  holes  in  the  plaster  in  the  wall  and 
eaten  it.  This  illustrates  the  necessity  for  a  well  balanced  diet 
=  ince  nature  will  go  to  the  extreme  of  leading  the  child  to  eat 
dirt  and  plaster  in  its  efforts  to  obtain  mineral  salts. 

The  points  then  to  be  remembered  in  the  introduction  of 
solid  foods,  is  to  be  sure  to  get  that  variety  of  foods  that  will 
insure  an  abundant  supply  of  all  of  the  food  elements.  The 
following  diet  is  merely  suggestive  but  will  give  mothers  an  idea 
cf  what  children  should  have  during  the  second  year. 

Cereals: 

Oat  meal. 

Cream  of  wheat. 

Corn  meal. 

Farina. 

Cooked  three  hours.  They  should  be  cooked  the  evening  be- 
fore serving  and  warmed  up  for  breakfast  in  the  morning. 

Eggs: 

Soft  boiled  or  Poached. 

In  some  cases  this  should  be  given  daily  particularly  if  the 
child  is  poorly  nourished,  slow  in  walking  and  slow  in  teething. 

Meat: 

Scraped  rare  beef. 

This  is  an  extremely  valuable  food  at  this  period,  in  all  cases 
where  there  is  malnutrition  or  any  symptoms  of  rickets.  It  is 
best  prepared  by  broiling  a  thick  steak  over  red  hot  coals  until 
thoroughly  heated  through,  then  sliced  longitudinallv  with  a  sharp 
knife  and  the  juice  and  pulp  scraped  out  with  a  table  spoon. 
Spread  this  on  bread  or  on  a  cracker  with  a  little  salt  and  allow 
the  child  to  eat  the  rare  beef. 
Broths: 

Chicken. 

Beef. 

Vegetable. 

These  may  be  allowed  at  this  time. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  179 

Vegetables: 

Spinach. 

Asparagus. 

Squash. 

Strained  stewed  tomatoes. 

Carrots. 

Mashed  cauliflower. 

String  beans. 

Peas. 

Baked  potato,  may  be  permitted. 

All  of  these  vegetables  with  the  exception  of  the  potato  are 
rich  in  the  mineral  salts  and  should  not  be  neglected. 

Fruits: 

Oranges. 

Scraped  apple. 

Stewed  or  baked  apple. 

Stewed  prunes. 

Stewed  figs. 

Fresh  bottled  fruits   are  permissible. 

Milk. 

Desserts: 
Rice. 
Tapicoa. 
Custards. 
Junket. 
Jello. 
Small  amounts  of  ice  cream. 

Bread: 

Graham. 
White. 

If  the  child  is  constipated,  graham  bread  should  be  used  ex- 
clusively A  small  dish  of  stewed  figs  given  before  breakfast 
and  before  going  to  bed  will  usually  suffice  to  overcome  this  con- 
stipation. Where  the  diet  is  well  balanced  constipation  will  not 
result. 

QUESTIONS. 

1  When  should  the  first  teeth  appear? 

2  What  is  the  appearance  of  the  teeth  the  signal  for?    _ 
3.     Why  should  so  much  care  be  exercised  in  the  choice 

of  foods  during  the  second  year? 


180  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

4.  Why   does   the   child     experience    difficulty    in    getting 
through  the  second  summer? 

5.  What  care  should  he  exercised  in  the  introduction  of  the 
solid  foods? 

6.  What  are  the  symptoms  of  an  exclusive  milk  diet  during 
the  second  year?    (This  can  he  found  in  the  previous  lesson). 

7.  What  foods  should  he  emphasized  in  a  child  that  shows 
symptoms  of  rickets  or  scurvy? 

8.  How   would   you   proceed   to   overcome   constipation? 


HISTORY  OF  II  All. 

The  painstaking  historian,  (  )rson  F.  Whitney,  and  the  Des- 
eret  News  Publishing  house,  have  united  in  contributing  one  of 
the  most  useful  and  handsome  books  ever  put  upon  the  local 
market,  in  the  new  one  volume.  Popular  History  of  Utah.  The 
history  itself  has  practically  every  important  fact  treated  briefly 
and  vividly,  vet  without  bias  or  prejudice.  The  information  is 
tabulated  and  arranged  in  the  best  modern  style  which  makes 
it  a  handy  reference  work  to  keep  at  the  student's  elbow.  The 
mechanical  part  is  unquestionably  superior  and  pleasing  to  the 
eve.     We  congratulate  both   author  and   publisher, 

As  women  we  might  have  wished  a  chapter  devoted  to  the 
very  noble  humanitarian  work  performed  by  the  first  Relief 
Society,  the  Young  Ladies'  Association,  and  the  Primary  Associ- 
ation of  this  Church.  The  club  movement  has  also  helped  make 
1  tali  history  in  various  directions.  There  is  a  little  mention  of 
woman's  suffrage  which  movement  was  but  one  of  the  many  utili- 
tarian efforts  put  forth  by  the  intelligent  organizers  and  state 
builders  amongst  the  women  of  this  state.  However,  it  may  be 
expecting  too  much  for  women  to  ask  recognition  at  the  hands 
of  our  men  writers.  Notwithstanding  this  little  defect,  we  cheer- 
fully recommend  the  book  to  all  our  societies  and  suggest  that  all 
ward  societies  should  come  into  possession  of  one. 


To  Genealogical  Class  Leaders. 

Finding-  it  impossible  to  secure  the  Baring-Gould  Surname 
book,  a  Committee  was  appointed  to  prepare  a  Surname  book  of 
our  own.  It  was  hoped  that  this  book  could  be  published  this 
winter,  but  the  task  is  too  great,  the  results  too  important  for  a 
hasty  preparation.  We  therefore  ask  our  students  to  do  the  best 
they  can  with  our  Guide  lessons,  and  we  hope  to  have  the  book  all 
ready  for  next  season's  fuller  and  more  complete  study. 

Susa  Young  Gates, 
Amy  Brown  Lyman, 
Lillian  Cameron,. 

Surname  Book  Commitee. 


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The  wedding  ring  that's  just  right  should  be  narrow,  perfect  oval 
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English  and  American 
ARCHITECTURE 

By  GEO.  M.  ALLEN 

Is  in  Mrs.  Home's  Art  Book,  "Dev- 
otees and  Their  Shrines."  Send  to 
this  office  or  to  Mrs.  Alice  Merrill 
Home,  4  Ostlers  Court,  Salt  Lake  City, 
for  this  book  from  which  the  lessons 
on  Architecture  for  1916  are  assigned. 

Price  $1.25  Postpaid 


"Civilization  begins  and  ends  with  the  plow."— Roberts. 

Utah  Agricultural  College 

LOGAN,  UTAH 

Devoted  to  the  ideal  of  extending  the  blessings  of  edu- 
cation to  every  fireside. 

Firm  in  the  conviction  that  a  favorable  home  life  is  the 
Nations  greatest  asset. 

CONENVIENT    )  (INTELLIGENT 

SANITARY  U  f|  M  F  Q  ^  REVERENT 

DRUDGELESS    J  ,,umL,U  (  HAPPY 

The  College  offers  work  in  all  the  branches  of  Home 
Economics. 

Further  information  furnished  on  request. 

Address:    The   President,   Utah   Agricultural    College, 
Logan,  Utah. 

LABOR  IS  LIFE 


Garment  Wearer's  Attention 


A  label  like  the  above  is  found  below  the  Temple  brand  in  the  neck  of 

all  L.  D.  S.  "Temple  Brand"  garments.    Be  sure  it  is  in  those  you  buy.    If  your 

leading  dealer  does  not  have  the  garment  you  desire,  select  your  wants  from 
this  list  and  send  us  the  order.  We  will  pay  postage  to  any  part  of  the  United 
States.    Samples  submitted  on  request. 

Cotton,  bleached,  light  weight   $1.00 

Cotton,  bleached,  gauze  weight  1.35 

Cotton,  bleached,  medium  weight  1.50 

Cotton,  bleached,  medium  heavy  1.75 

Cotton,  unbleached,  heavy  weight  1.75 

Lisle,  bleached,   gauze  weight   2.00 

Lisle,  bleached,  light  weight  1.75 

Fleeced  cotton,  bleached,  heavy  2.00 

Mercerized   cotton,  light  weight  2.00 

Mercerized  cotton,  medium   weight  3.00 

Wash-shrunk  wool,  medium  weight  2.50 

Wash-shrunk  wool,  heavy  weight  3.00 

Silk  and  wool,  medium  weight  3.50 

Australian  wool,  medium  weight  3.50 

Australian  wool,  heavy  weight  i _ 6.00 

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THIS  IS  AN  ERA  OF  PREPARATION. 

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WE  NOTE: 

We  have  five  Temples,  one 
destroyed,  two  building 

A  picture  of  a  Nephite  Temple 

President  Emmeline  B.  Wells 
is  89  years  old,  75  years  bap- 
tized 

Water-cress  is  the  only  cheap 
salad 

Social  work  is  the  need  of  to- 
day 

Conference  is  Coming?  Are 
you  Coming? 


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please  say — 

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Then  the  next  time  you  will 
buy  a  100  pound  bag.  This 
sugar  may  also  be  had  in  25 
and  50  pound  bags.  For  par- 
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that  you  get  Extra  Fine  Ta- 
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made  by — 

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TWO  BOOKS 

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Arranged  specially  for  recording  in  a 
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The  book  will  help  you  in  your  Theology  Lessons,  it  will  give  you 
a  greater  insight  and  love  for  the  Bible  characters,  and  will  also 
make  you  glad  that  you  are  a  woman  and  a  sister  to  these  good  and 
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The  Relief  Society  Magazine 

Owned  and  Published  by  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

CONTENTS. 

APRIL,  1917. 

April Lucy  May  Green 

Pont  for  the  Hawaiian  Temple. — Avard  Fairbanks.  .Frontispiece 

Latter-day  Temples  183 

Birthday  Celebration  of  our  Honored  President 200 

Our  New  Board  Member 201 

Winning  the  Man's  Mother Ida  Stewart  Peay  202 

April   Entertainment    Morag  211 

Home  Science  Department Janette  A.  Hyde  214 

Notes  from  the  Field Amy  Brown  Lyman  217 

Current  Topics James  H.  Anderson  220 

Social  Work  222 

On  the  Way • Mrs.  Parley  Nelson  227 

Editorial :     Spiritual   Manifestations 228 

Guide  Lessons    • 230 


ADVERTISERS*    DIRECTORY. 

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SALT  LAKE  KNITTING  STORE,  70  S.  Main. 
STAR  PRINTING  CO.,  30  P.  O.  Place,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SANDERS,  MRS.  EMMA  J.,  Florist,  278  So.  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SOUTHERN  PACIFIC  RY.,  Second  Floor,  Walker  Bk.  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
THOMAS  STUDIO,  Photographs,  44  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
TAYLOR,  S.  M.  &  CO.,  Undertakers,  251-257  E.  First  So.  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
UTAH-IDAHO  SUGAR  COMPANY,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 
UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL  BANK,  Salt  Lake  City. 
"WOMEN  OF  THE  BIBLE,"  by  Willard  Done. 
Z.  C.  M.  I.,  Salt  Lake  City. 


/ — 

Importance  of 
Thrift 


i 


The  thrift  habit  has  been  the 
foundation  of  most  business 
successes.  Are  you  giving  your 
children  a  start,  and  encourag- 
ing them  in  this  direction? 

They'll  like  coming  to  the 
"Merchants"  to  make  their  de- 
posits. Get  one  of  our  dime 
banks  for  them.  4  per  cent  in- 
terest is  added  to  savings  here. 

"The  Bank  with  a  Personality" 

Merchant's  Bank 

Capital     $260,000.     Member    of 

Salt   Lake   Clearing    House. 

John     Plngree,     Prest. ;     O.     P. 

Soule,    V.    P.;    Moroni    Helner, 

V.  P.;   Radcllffe  Q.  Cannon,  L. 

J.    Hays,   Asst.   Cashiers. 


ARE  WE  OF  ISRAEL? 

By  GEO.  REYNOLDS 

A  NEW  EDITION 
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Schramm-Johnion  No.  5 

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BURIAL  INSURANCE 
IN  THE  BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  COMPANY 

The  women  of  the  Relief  Society  have  now  the  opportunity  of  securing 
a  sufficient  sum  for  proper  burial  by  the  payment  of  a  small  monthly  amount. 
The  moment  you  sign  you  policy  your  burial  expenses  are  assured  without 
burdening    your    children.        Talk    to    us    about    this.  RELIEF    SOCIETY 

HEADQUARTERS,  or 

Beneficial  Life  Insurance  Company 
Relief  Society  Department 

HOME    OFFICE:      VERMONT    BUILDING,    SaLT    LAKE    CITY,    UTAH 


theL 
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One  of  the  largest 
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resources  and   unexcelled  facilities 

Officers 

Joseph  F.   Smith,   President 
Heber  J.  Grant,  Vice-President 
Rodney  T.  Badger,  Vice-Prest. 
Henry  T.  McEwan,  Cashier. 
George  H.  Butler,  Asst. Cashier 


Established  1860        Incorporated  1908 

S.M.TAYLOR  &  Co. 

Undertakers  and  Embalmers 

Successors  to 

Joseph  E.  Taylor 

The  Pioneer  Undertaker  of  the  West 
Fifty-three  years  in  one  location — 

251-257  East  First  South  Street 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Efficient   Service,   Modern   Methods 
Complete  Equipment 


To  President  Emmeline  B.  Wells 

On  Her  Eighty-Ninth  Birthday  and  Her  Recovery  From  a  Grave 

Illness. 

By  Kate  Thomas. 

LITTLE  SILVER  MOTHER. 

Little  s:lver  mother,  don't  you  hear  the  call  o'  spring 
Coaxing  you  and  teasing  you  to  come  out  in  the  sun 

That's  splashing  down  its  color  on  the  budding  crocus  bed 
And  gilding  new  the  glad  hearts  of  the  daisies  one  by  one? 

Little  silver  mother,  don't  you  hear  the  blackbird  trill? 

It  says,  "Come  out,  come  out,  come  out  and  play  at  tag  with 
me!" 
The  wide  brown  fields  are  greening  and  the  ladyslipper's  red, 

And  I  saw  a  bluebird  flashing  in  the  old  bark-maple  tree. 

Little  silver  mother  with  your  heart  so  full  of  spring, 

'Tis  God  has  been  the  wondrous  sun  that  made  yon  garden 
grow. 
Life's  tempests  could  not  drown  the  sweet  forgetmenots  outspread 
Because  His  warmth  gold-tipped  them  with  a  never-fading 
glow. 

Little  silver  mother,  you're  a  flower  of  His  own, 
A  flower  full  of  flowers  that  has  made  the  world  more  fair. 

That  has  made  the  fresh  breeze  sweeter  by  the  perfumes  it  has 
shed, 
And  your  conquest  is:     His  blessing  and  our  prayer. 


THE 


Relief  Society  Magazine 


Vol.  IV.  APRIL,  1917.  No.  4. 


Latter-day  Temples 

History  discloses  somewhat  freely  the  underlying  reasons 
for  temple  building  among  the  ancients.  Both  the  Hebrews 
from  their  earliest  history  as  well  as  the  Egyptians,  Babyloni- 
ans. Assyrians,  Hindus  and  Chinese  built  temples  in  which  to 
perform  sacrificial  rites  and  to  administer  ritual  services  to  neo- 
phytes, and  to  store  the  records  and  sacred  works  of  the  various 
peoples  who  built  these  sacred  houses  to  their  gods.  The  He- 
brews alone  tolerated  no  images  and  accepted  no  human  sacri- 
fices. The  rituals  or  ceremonies  of  initiation  for  the  priestly 
candidates  were  all  performed  in  that  sacred  secrecy  which 
guarded  the  rites  by  penalties  of  destruction  and  divine  wrath. 
For  this  reason  only  vague  tradition  and  veiled  allusions  in 
the  Scriptures,  permit  the  modern  student  a  glimpse  of  the  hid- 
den mysteries  of  the  temples. 

The  pagan  temples  were  similar  in  ideals  and  in  some  cases 
similar  in  construction  to  the  great  original  Hebrew  and  Sem- 
itic holy  houses.  Indeed,  all  of  the  great  original  structures  and 
ceremonies  are  but  a  corrupted  remnant  of  the  great  original  and 
divine  plan  which  was  revealed  to  the  ancient  prophets  from 
Adam  down  to  Noah,  from  Noah  to  Moses,  to  David  and  to  the 
Savior  Himself.  These  mysteries  and  sacrifices  had  for  their 
root  or  foundation,  the  great  atonement  of  our  Lord  and  Savior. 
With  the  destruction  of  the  temple  in  Jerusalem  these  things 
passed  away  and  went  with  the  Bride  into  the  Wildernesss,  where 
they  were  hidden  from  the  memory  of  man.  Only  the  Masonic 
ceremonies  remained  as  a  fragment  of  the  truth  bequeathed  from 
an  alien  source  from  the  days  of  Solomon  down  through  the  ages. 

When  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  was  commissioned  of  God 
the  Father  and  His  Son  Jesus  Christ  to  restore  the  everlasting 
gospel  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth,  the  revelations  which  were 
given  him  included  as  the  final  crown  the  ceremonies  and  rituals 
of  baptism  for  the  living  and  the  dead  and  those  keys  and  bless- 


184 


RELIEE  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


ings  which  alone  unlock  the  door  to  the  Kingdom  of  God  for 
such  candidates  as  are  privileged  to  enter  there. 


the  kirtland  temple.     (Still  standing.) 

The  first  temlpe  built  by  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  the  cor- 
ner stones  of  which  were  laid  July  23,  1833,  was  accepted  by  our 
Father  in  a  series  of  glorious  manifestations  and  levelations 
which  are  thrilling  in  their  intensity  and  power  on  the  printed 
pages  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  109. 

Here  Elijah  visited  the  Prophet  as  Malachi  prophesied  he 
would  do  and  committed,  through  Joseph,  the  keys  of  salvation 
for  the  dead  which  turned  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the  chil- 
dren and  the  hearts  of  the  children  to  the  fathers.  The  cere- 
monies administered  in  this  temple,  however,  were  but  prelimin- 
ary to  the  final  blessings  which  were  to  be  revealed  and  insti- 
tuted in  the  temple  at  Nauvoo. 

On  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi  River,  April  30,  1846,  the 
Nauvoo  Temple  was   dedicated   privately  and   later  publicly  on 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES. 


185 


May  2  and  3,  and  the  Saints  received  their  endowments  before 
leaving  there.  The  corner  stones  of  this  temple  were  laid  by  the 
Prophet  Joseph  Smith  April  6,  1841.  Built  under  the  most  stren- 
uous circumstances,  the  glass  and  nails  costing  over  $2,000  was 
contributed  by  the  sisters  of  Nauvoo  in  that  donation  known  as 
the  Sisters'  Penny  Subscription  Fund.  The  font  was  dedicated 
by  the  Prophet  himself  for  baptisms  for  the  living  and  the  dead 
on  November  8,  1841,  and  the  main  structure  sufficiently  com- 
pleted, in  1846,  for  the  full  ceremonies  of  the  endowment.  These 
were  to  be  given  after  the  pattern  laid  down  by  the  Prophet  Jos- 
eph Smith  who  had  revealed  and  taught  them  to  the  Twelve  and 
their  wives  with  other  leading  brethren  and  sisters.  These  cer- 
emonies were  given  under  his  direction  in  the  upper  room  or 
hall  over  the  Nauvoo  store.  The  temple  at  Nauvoo  saw  the  en- 
trance of  thousands  of  eager  Saints  after  the  martyrdom,  who 
knew  that  they  were  about  to  be  driven  into  the  trackless  west, 
away  from  their  city  and  temple.  Many  baptisms  for  the  dead 
were  also  performed. 

The  writer  has  often  heard  President  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  re- 
fer to  her  experiences  at  this  period,  and  she  related  how  she  her- 
self and  other  women  with  her  received  their  preliminary  bless- 
ings under  the  hands  of  the  Prophet's  wife,  Emma  Hale  Smith  ; 


the  nauvoo  temple.      (Destroyed  in  1846.     Cost  $1,000,000.) 


186 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


and  then  how  they  joined  with  their  husbands  in  the  completion 
of  the  ceremonies,  led  and  taught  as  the  company  was  by  the 
Prophet  himself  who  explained  and  enlarged  wonderfully  upon 
every  point  as  they  passed  along  the  way.  The  testimony  of  our 
present  President.  F.mmeline  B.  Wells,  will  also  be  interesting 
and  valuable  at  this  point.  She  has  recorded  in  the  pages  of  one 
of  the  old  numbers  of  the  Exponent  the  names  of  the  men  and 
women  who  hail  their  endowments  under  the  hands  of  the 
Prophet  Joseph  Smith. 

The  Nauvoo  Temple  ceremonies  were  presided  over,  after 
the  death  "t  the  Prophet,  by  Brigham  Young,  President  of  the 
Twelve  Apostles.  Me  was  assisted  by  Heber  C.  Kimball  and 
Willard  Richards  and  others  of  the  Twelve,  while  some  of  the 
sisters  who  labored  in  that  temple  were:  Mary  Fielding  Smith, 
Eliza  R.  Snow.  Elizabeth  Ann  Whitney.  Mercy  R.  Thompson, 
Desdamona  Fulmer,  Leonora  Taylor,  and  Bathsheba  W.  Smith. 

The  Temple  was  destroyed  on  the  evacuation  of  Nauvoo, 
in  1846. 


IP 


SALT  LAKE  TEMPLE. 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES. 


187 


After  the  Saints  arrived  in  Salt  Lake  City,  the  first  official 
act  of  President  Brigham  Young  was  to  indicate  by  the  voice  of 
inspiration  the  spot  where  the  temple  of  the  Lord  should  be 
erected.  Forty  years  were  consumed  in  the  building  of  a  $4,000- 
000  structure  which  is  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  every  visl- 
itor  and  tourist,  while  it  is  the  object  of  love  and  veneration  in 
the  hearts  of  all  Latter-day  Saints.  Unique  in  its  architecture, 
supremely  grand  in  its  simplicity,  it  is  the  symbol  of  the  eternal 
faith  and  hope  of  a  people  who  believe  in  God  and  in  the  mis- 
sion of  the  Savior  of  the  world.  This  temple  was  completed  and 
dedicated  April  6,  1893,  and  has  seen  the  redemption  of  hun- 
dreds of  thousands  of  the  dead  kindred  of  the  Saints  as  well  as 
the  marriage  of  tens  of  thousands  of  the  children  of  this  people. 
Beautiful  without  and  within,  it  is  a  shrine  for  which  the  people 
strive. 

Long  before  the  completion  of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  the  St. 
George  Temple  rose  white  and  stainless  in  its  embrasure  of  green 


IllSff^ 


ST.  GEORGE  TEMPLE. 


188 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


shrubbery  and  its  background  of  the  black  and  red-gold  hills 
which  rim  the  picture.  The  St.  George  Temple  was  costly  in  the 
extreme  because  of  the  care  which  went  into  its  construction. 
Exquisitely  simple  in  all  its  appointments,  it  is  still  a  retreat  for 
the  weary  and  an  open  door  to  the  imprisoned  dead.  It  was  com- 
pleted and  dedicated  by  President  Rrigham  Young,  January  1. 
1877,  and  its  doors  have  never  closed  since  that  dav. 


LOGAN  TEMPLE. 


The  Logan  Temple  was  begun  on  September  17,  1877.  Sit- 
uated upon  a  commanding  hillside,  the  Logan  Temple  looks  out 
upon  a  valley  of  verdure  and  exceeding  richness.  Seen  from 
every  point  of  that  valley  it  is  a  stately,  white  sentinel  of  guard- 
ianship ami  peace.  It  is  the  mecca  for  all  the  Saints  dwelling  in 
the  northern  portion  of  the  Church  and  has  been  always  filled 
with  the  spirit  of  tender  sympathy  and  companionship  for  those 
who  enter  its  doors. 

The  Manti  Temple,  the  ground  for  which  was  broken  by 
President  I  Ingham  Young  April  30,  1877,  was  dedicated  by  Pres- 
ident Wilford  Woodruff,  May  21,  1888.     Cost,  $1,000,000. 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES. 


189 


In  this  temple  has  been  witnessed  many  glorious  manifes- 
tations, both  at  its  dedication  and  at  subsequent  periods.  The 
benign  influence  of  President  Daniel  H.  Wells,  and,  later,  Pres- 
ident Anthon  H.  Lund,  and  now  President  Lewis  Anderson  per- 
meates these  sacred  courts  and  enfolds  all  who  enter  with  the  ben- 
ediction of  peace. 


MANTI  TEMPLE. 


It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  women  of  the  Latter-day 
Saints  during  the  last  ten  years  have  done  a  great  deal  through 
their  labors  and  their  writings  to  renew  the  spirit  of  temple  work 
in  the  midst  of  this  people.  Classes  have  been  established  and 
conventions  held  in  many  of  the  stakes  of  Zion  for  the  study  and 
practice  of  genealogy.  During  the  last  two  years  every  mem- 
ber of  the  41,000  women  of  the  Relief  Society  has  been  required 
to  attend  the  temple  in  her  district  once  a  year  in  person,  or  to 
send  a  substitute.  It  is  really  impossible  to  estimate  the  force 
and  power  which  the  women  of  the  Relief  Society  through  their 
united  efforts  have  set  in  operation.  It  is  like  a  stone  cast  into 
the  sea — small  though  it  may  be,  the  waves  set  in  motion  thereby 
will  never  cease  until  their  circles  reach  the  shores  of  eternity. 

A  new  phase  of  their  labor  in  this  connection  was  inaugu- 
rated last  September  in  what  is  known  as  the  Sisters'  Penny  Sub- 
scription Fund,  and  the  readers  of  this  article  will  be  interested 
to  learn  that  through  the  modest  and  quiet  efforts  of  this  fund 


190  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

considerably  over  $3,000  has  been  sent  in  to  the  General  Board 
Office  for  the  six  months'  term  ending-  with  January  1,1917.  It 
seems  almost  unbelievable  that  such  a  thing  could  be  when  so  little 
has  been  said  and  almost  no  preaching  has  been  done  on  the  sub- 
ject. It  creates  a  feeling  of  awe  to  contemplate  the  power  pos- 
sessed by  this  organization  known  as  the  Relief  Society. 

The  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  was  the  pioneer  temple  builder. 
He  laid  down  the  pattern,  he  revealed  the  principle,  he  established 
the  covenant.  Two  temples  were  built  under  his  direction.  The 
ceremonies  of  marriage  and  endowment,  of  baptism  for  the 
dead,  and  ordinance  work  for  the  dead,  were  revealed  and  es- 
tablished by  him  and  taught  to  the  people  in  Kirtland  and  Nau- 
voo.  His  last  labors  and  teachings  centered  in  the  temple  work, 
and  he  told  the  people  that  this  was  the  most  important  respon- 
sibility resting  upon  their  shoulders.  He  said  that  those  Saints 
who  neglect  this  work  in  behalf  of  their  deceased  relatives,  do 
it  at  the  peril  of  their  own  salvation. 

Following  him  came  President  Brigham  Young  who  also 
was  a  temple  builder.  He  planned  and  built  the  temple  in  St. 
George,  planned  and  laid  the  foundations  of  the  temples  in 
Logan,  Manti,  and  Salt  Lake  City.  Like  his  file  leader,  the 
Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  his  thoughts  dwelt  solemnly  upon  the 
necessity  of  this  work,  and  his  last  years  were  dedicated  to  the 
preparation  of  the  people  for  a  millennium  of  temple  building  and 
temple  work. 

With  his  death  and  the  subsequent  persecutions  and  prose- 
cutions of  the  leaders  of  this  people  by  their  enemies,  the  work 
was  somewhat  delayed  and  hindered.  President  John  Taylor 
dedicated  the  temple  in  Logan,  and  President  Wilford  Wood- 
ruff the  temples  in  Manti  and  Salt  Lake  City,  while  President 
Lorenzo  Snow  was  president  of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  during  his 
brief  presidency. 

President  Joseph  F.  Smith  is  our  third  great  temple  builder. 
He  has  dedicated  the  ground  for  the  temples  in  Canada  and 
Hawaii,  and  will  under  the  blessing  of  the  Lord,  dedicate  them 
both,  and,  we  hope,  break  ground  and  dedicate  other  temples 
in  other  parts  of  Zion.  It  is  under  his  administration  and  through 
his  sympathetic  leadership  that  temple  work  has  grown  and  de- 
veloped until  every  town  and  hamlet  in  this  Church  feels  the 
stirring  impetus  of  this  crowning  labor  of  the  Latter-day  Saints. 
We  may  well  offer  up  our  prayers  that  he  shall  be  with  us  to  lay 
the  foundation  of  the  temple  in  Jackson  County. 

No  more  cheering  news  could  be  given  to  the  Latter-day 
Saints  than  the  announcement  that  a  temple  would  be  erected  in 
Canada  for  the  Saints  living  in  that  portion  of  this  land.  The 
active  labors  of  President  Edward  J.  Wood  in  encouraging  gen- 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES. 


191 


ealogical  activities,  and  the  pleasant  situation  of  Cardston,  deter- 
mined the  choice,  no  doubt,  of  the  sightly  hill  upon  which  the 
Canadian  temple  is  now  being  erected.  The  cost  of  this  temple 
has  far  exceeded  the  estimates,  as  native  stone  has  been  chosen 
with  which  to  build  it,  and  war  times  have  necessarily  increased 
greatly  the  cost  of  material  and  labor  which  is  going  into  this 


CANADIAN   TEMPLE. 

beautiful  edifice.  It  is  a  comforting  thought  that  every  penny 
contributed  by  the  sisters  of  the  Relief  Society  may  help  to  buy 
the  glass  and  nails  for  this  temple  in  far-off  Canada,  even  as 
their  pennies  purchased  the  glass  and  nails  for  the  temple  in  Nau- 
voo.  We  shall  have  a  claim  upon  the  blessings  which  will  be 
given  in  this  temple  at  its  completion.  It  is  an  interesting  phase 
of  the  situation  here  to  know  that  President  John  Taylor  and  the 
martyred  Patriarch  Hyrum  Smith's  wife,  Mary  Fielding  Smith, 
mother  of  President  Joseph  F.  Smith,  accepted  the  gospel^  in 
eastern  Canada  along  with  Elder  Joseph  Home  and  his  wife, 
M.  Isabella  Home.  Lydia  Goldthwaite  Knight,  Amos  Fielding 
and  other  noted  pioneers  in  the  Church. 

The  last  temple  site  chosen  and  dedicated  by  President  Jos- 
eph F.  Smith  is  that  situated  at  Laie  on  the  island'  of  Oahu,  Sand- 
wich Islands  on  the  Church  plantation.  President  Samuel  E. 
Woolley  has  long  maintained  the  fact  that  the  Lord  inspired  his 
servants  to  build  a  temple  for  the  ocean-girt  isolated  people  of 
Hawaii.  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  dedicated  this  ground  on 
Tune  1,  1915,  and  that  temple  is  nearly  completed.  It  will  be  a 
"small  temple,  comparatively  speaking,  accommodating  but  fifty 
in  a  company,  but  beautiful  for  situation  and  comely  within  and 
without.     The  singular  prophecy   made  by  President  Brigham 


192 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


Young  at  the  laying  of  the  corner  stone  of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple, 
when  he  told  the  people  that  temples  would  be  built  in  the  future 


UNFINISHED   HAWAIIAN    TEMPLE. 


HAWAIIAN  TEMPLE. 


containing  flower  gardens  and  fish  ponds  upon  the  roof  thereof, 
seems  likely  to  be  fulfilled  in  the  plans  made  by  President  Wool- 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES. 


193 


ley  for  such  adornments  on  the  Hawaiian  temple.  This  temple 
will,  no  doubt,  be  ready  for  dedication  during  the  early  summer 
months,  and  it  is  anticipated  that  10,000  Hawaiian  Saints  will 
be  in  attendance  at  this  service,  thus  disappointing  somewhat  the 
hopes  of  some  of  our  Saints  in  Utah  who  have  been  attracted  by 
the  thought  of  a  possible  excursion  at  the  dedication  time,  to  this 
"paradise  of  the  Pacific."  All  in  good  time  these  things  will 
come,  and  when  the  Hawaiians  themselves  measurably  satisfy 
their  own  righteous  desires  in  temple  labors  we  may  hope  to  have 
an  opportunity  of  some  future  visit  and  labor  in  this  beautiful 
temple. 

In  connection  with  the  labors  of  the  Saints  to  redeem  their 
dead  in  the  temples,  the  study  and  practice  of  genealogy  is  an 
absolute  necessity.  We  are  a  kingdom  of  priests  and  priestesses 
and  among  the  wonderful  privileges  and  responsibilities  that 
accompany  the  priestly  office  is  the  art  and  science  of  recording 
the  genealogy  of  the  living  and  the  dead.  The  Levitical  Priest- 
hood in  Moses'  time  and  the  Priesthood  long  before  his  time  were 
trained  in  this  science.  It  is  given  now  as  a  great  honor  to  every 
member  of  this  Church  to  become  his  own  genealogist  and  the 
genealogist  of  his  or  her  family.  It  will  be  impossible — it  has 
been  and  ever  will  be  impossible — to  perform  work  for  our  dead 
kindred  unless  we  have  their  records,  and  these  records  properly 
prepared  in  books  suited  to  temple  purposes,  so  that  the  pre- 
paration of  genealogies  lies  at  the  root  of  all  temple  labor. 

We  have  been  furnished  with  an  account  of  the  pioneer  gen- 


MISSION  HOUSE  AT  LAIE, 


194 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


ealogical  class  held  in   Hawaii  by    Mrs.   Leah   D.  Widtsoe  on  a 
recent  visit  to  those  islands.    She  says: 


"l  111.    FIRST    CLASS    IN    GENEALOGY    AT    HAWAII." 

"The  Temple  in  Hawaii  is  fast  nearing  completion.  Tt  is 
planned  to  accomodate  fifty  people,  and  it  is  hoped  that  draw- 
ing as  it  will  from  all  the  Polynesian  group  of  islands,  it  will 
he  occupied  most  of  the  time. 

"The  question  often  asked  is:  'Will  the  people  have  their 
genealogies  in  such  shape  that  they  can  make  full  use  of  the  tem- 
ple when  it  is  dedicated?'  To  one  who  never  sees  beyond  the 
mere  accomplishment  of  man's  power,  the  question  must  be  an- 
swered decidedly  in  the  negative,  because,  while  the  people  them- 
selves have  kept  their  family  records  only  by  tradition,  even  the 
ruling  families  have  been  very  remiss  in  this  respect. 

"During  a  recent  visit  there.  I  was  much  impressed  with 
the  necessity  of  the  Hawaiian  .Saints,  generally  and  individu- 
ally making  a  systematic  beginning  in  this  great  field,  so  thai 
there  will  be  work  for  them  to  do  from  the  beginning.  In  con- 
versation with  President  S.  E.  Woolley  1  asked  if  he  had  any 
objection  to  my  urging  this  upon  the  Saints  publicly,  if  I  had  a 
chance.     He  gave  his  consent,  so  when  the  Relief  Society  of  Hon- 


PRESIDENT  SAMUEL  WOOLLEY,  ELDERS  AND  SAINTS  AT  LAIE. 


LA  TTER-DA  \ '  TEMPLES. 


195 


olulu  asked  me  to  be  present  at  their  meeting  and  speak  to  tHem, 
I  chose  as  my  theme,  the  necessity  of  gathering  genealogy. 

About  a  week  later  at  a  meeting  of  the  Relief  Society,  at 
Laie,  the  same  theme  was  chosen,  and  the  sisters  became  every 
much  interested- — so  much  so  that  they  insisted  upon  having  a 
class  formed  for  study  upon  this  subject. 

"I  talked  with  President  Woolley  and  assured  him  of  my 
willingness  to  help  them  make  the  right  start  in  this  direction. 
But  since  I  had  not  come  with  any  special  commission  from  the 
genealogical  authorities  and  also,  of  course,  because  I  was  not 
familiar  with  their  language,  I  could  not  take  them  very  far. 

"I  explained  to  the  Saints  in  general  that  Inasmuch  as  the 
Lord  never  required  His  children  to  perform  any  task  unlesss  the 
way  was  made  clear,  nevertheless,  His  children  had  to  put  forth 
their  own  effort  and  use  their  own  intelligence  or  the  Lord's  help 
would  be  useless.  And  while  the  gathering  of  genealogy  in  Ha- 
waii may  seem  hopeless  to  many,  there  was  a  very  simple  begin- 
ning to  make — and  we  could  never  climb  any  mountan,  be  it  high 
or  low,  except  by  taking  one  step  at  a  time.  The  first  step  in 
gathering  genealogy  is  to  start  with  the  living. 

"I  had  with  me  the  guide  book  of  the  Relief  Society  and 
used  the  simple  instructions  there  for  beginners,  adding  some 
things  from  my  own  experience. 


GENEALOGICAL  CLASS  IN   HAWAII. 


1<>6 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


The  first  class  met  at  Laie  in  June,  1916,  in  the  large  mis- 
sion home,  Lani  Hull,  and  consisted  of  the  following:  President 
Samuel  E.  Woolly;  Sisters  Ivy  K.  Apuakehau,  Violet  Meyer, 
Kanoe  Kekauoha,  Kapili  Luahiua,  Makanoe  Makakao,  Rel,*cca 
Bridges,  I  alia  Cummings,  Ellen  C.  Cole. 


LAIE  PLANTATION. 


"President  Woolley  was  invited  to  be  present  and  a  very 
good  start  \va-  made.  Another  class  was  called  for  one  week 
later  and  the  sisters  were  asked  to  come  with  the  names  and 
oates  of  their  own  families,  as  far  as  they  were  able  to  gather 
them  in  one  week.  One  of  the  best  lessons  learned  from  the 
entire  course  was  that  it  is  no  light  thing  to  gather  the  records 
of  one's  own  immediate  family,  unless  careful  records  have  been 
kept,  and  that  it  is  a  vital  thing  to  keep  these  records  for  the 
future. 

"The  points  that  were  brought  out  in  these  classes  was  the 
sacredhess  of  these  records,  and  that  some  place  in  the  home 
should  be  chosen,  even  though  a  box  or  a  drawer,  where  these 
records  would  be  safe;  and  that  as  far  as  possible  no  record 
rhould  be  taken  on  loose  leaves.  A  few  of  these  preliminary 
instructions  were  emphasized  and  the  Saints  urged  to  make  the 
work  as  near  correct  as  possible  from  the  beginning,  thus  saving 
much  time  and  the  many  mistakes  made  by  our  home  people 
before  we  knew  bow   to  do  this  work  correctly. 

"The  system  of  numbering  the  individual  names  was  taught, 
as  also  the  grouping  of  the  names  into  families.  Also  some  gen- 
eral instructions  regarding  the  keeping  of  the  note  book  and  the 
copying  and  care  of  the  larger  Family  Temple  Records. 

"They  were  urged  to  use  some  form  of  family  record  book 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES. 


197 


for  their  own  living  families,  so  that  records  may  be  correctly 
kept  now  for  future  generations. 

"Sister  Ivy  Kekuku,  President  Laie  Primary  Association, 
arranged  a  picnic  party  for  the  Primary  officers  and  a  few  friends 
on  the  24th  of  July.  We  were  glad  to  be  in  the  party.  One  of 
the  most  beautiful  summer  resorts  on  the  islands,  belonging  to 
a  wealthy  family  of  Hawaiians,  is  not  far  from  Laie  and  permis- 
sion was  obtained  to  spend  the  day  there.  While  resting  and  en- 
joying the  beauties  of  the  place,  some  one  suggested  that  a  picture 
be  taken  of  the  first  genealogical  class  in  Hawaii.  All  of  the 
sisters  of  the  class  were  not  present  at  the  picnic,  but  a  snap  shot 
was  taken  of  the  few  who  were  present  and  a  copy  of  the  result 
illustrates  these  notes. 

"The  Hawaiians  are  truly  a  branch  of  the  House  of  Israel 
and  the  Lord  certainly  is  mindful  of  them.  President  Woolley's 
remark  must  come  to  pass :  'The  Lord  has  made  it  possible  to 
build  a  temple  here.  And  will  the  Saints  be  able  to  gather  enough 
genealogies  to  keep  it  busy?  Of  course  they  will.  The  Lord 
has  never  yet  required  anything  impossible  of  His  children.  He 
will  open  the  way.' 


CHURCH   AT  LAIE. 


"He  surely  will ;  but,  dear  Saints,  we  will  have  to  'walk  in 
the  way.'  The  Lord  has  never  yet  done  for  his  children  what 
they  may  do  for  themselves.  We  must  be  up  and  doing,  fill  our 
lamps,  trim  our  wicks  so  that  when  the  cry  goes  forth,  'Lo,  the 


us 

M 

o     . 


V. 


o 

O  c 

o  u 

—  HM 

o  3 

w  ft, 


3  s 

—  — 

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< 

H 

U 
OS 

p 

H 
U 


LATTER-DAY  TEMPLES.  199 

Temple  is  finished,'  we  may  not  be  kept  on  the  outside  because 
we  preferred  ease  to  effort,  and  let  our  lamps  burn  too  low. 

"May  the  Lord  bless  the  efforts  of  his  children  in  this  far 
off  land !" 

In  connection  with  temple  building  amongst  this  people  there 
is  a  very  remarkable  circumstance  to  which  we  call  attention  as 
the  closing  thought  in  this  article.  We  have  read  in  the  Book  of 
Mormon  of  the  temples  built  by  the  descendants  of  Lehi  and 
Nephi.  Ruins  have  been  scattered  here  and  there,  especially  in 
South  and  Central  America.  The  Central  American  ruins  have 
been  described  and  illustrated  by  a  number  of  discoverers.  Over 
eighty  years  ago  a  gentleman  by  the  name  of  Lord  Kingsborough 
published  in  a  costly  set  of  books,  the  result  of  his  discoveries 
in  Yucatan  and  other  parts  of  Central  America.  Apostle  Orson 
Pratt  paid  $500  for  this  set  of  books  and  these  are  now  stored 
in  the  Historian's  Office  of  this  city.  One  of  these  large  volumes 
contains  beautiful  engravings  of  the  ruins  there  discovered ; 
among  them  is  the  picture  of  a  building  found  engraved  upon  a 
large  box  lid,  and  we  reproduce  it  here  as  a  most  curious  illus- 
tration of  the  temple  built  by  the  Nephites.  If  such  a  thing  were 
possible  one  would  think  that  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  might 
have  chosen  this  des-'gn  upon  which  to  pattern  the  temples  in 
Kirtland  and  Nauvoo,  and  more  particularly  does  it  resemble  the 
outlines  of  our  Salt  Lake  Temple.  We  commend  this  similarity 
of  temple  design  and  structure  to  the  skeptically  minded  who  need 
confirmation,  as  well  as  to  the  sacred  and  serious  contemplation  of 
those  who  love  the  work  of  the  Lord. 

How  wonderful  are  Thy  works,  oh  Lord — how  perfect  are 
Thy  designs — how  harmonious  are  Thy  laws !  Under  the  shadow 
of  the  Temple  walls  we  dedicate  to  Thee  anew,  our  best  efforts  to 
save  the  living  and  to  redeem  the  dead. 


NOTICE   TO    GENEALOGICAL   WORKERS. 

There  will  be  a  meeting  held  at  4:30,  April  7th,  1917,  in 
the  beautiful  new  class  room  of  the  Genealogical  Library  quar- 
ters of  the  palatial  Church  offices.  All  invited.  Topics  to  be 
treated  :     Reports  and  Problems. 

SUBSCRIBERS: 

All  subscribtions  to  magazines  must  begin  with  the  March 
number.    Other  numbers  exhausted. 


Birthday  Celebration  of  our  Honored 

President 

President  Emmeline  B.  Wells  was  eighty-nine  years  old 
somewhere  between  the  striking  of  midnight  on  the  28th  of  Feb- 
ruary and  the  1st  of  March,  and  as  the  first  of  March  was  the 
anniversary  of  her  baptism  seventy-five  years  ago,  the  General 
Board  of  the  Relief  Society  celebrated  both  days  appropriately. 

On  Wednesday,  the  28th,  the  Board  tendered  her  a  beautiful 
complimentary  luncheon  in  the  Hotel  Utah.  The  menu  included 
roast  turkey,  for  Aunt  Em  relates  the  story  of  her  first  real  birth- 
day anniversary,  when  she  was  four  years  old.  She  was  sent  to 
bring  her  grandfather  to  the  dinner  and  she  trotted  along  by  his 
side  until  they  reached  the  old  home.  He  spent  the  time  at  the 
party  in  reminiscences  of  his  Revolutionary  experiences.  The 
principal  item  of  the  feast  was  a  turkey,  roasted  on  a  spit  before 
the  open  fire. 

At  the  luncheon  various  wise  and  otherwise  remarks  were  made 
by  the  members  of  the  Board  in  honor  of  the  occasion.  Our 
President  herself  responded  to  these  gracious  sentiments  of  love 
and  appreciation  in  her  usual  happy  way. 

The  next  day  a  public  reception  was  given  in  the  Bishop's 
Building  where  a  program  was  given  as  follows: 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  read  one  of  Aunt  Em's  poems; 
Prof.  Willard  Wiehe,  accompanied  by  Prof.  J.  J.  McClellan  ren- 
dered two  exquisite  solos ;  Mrs.  Nellie  Druce  Pugsley  sang,  "The 
Last  Rose  of  Summer."  and  Horace  S.  Ensign  sang,  "Give  Me 
the  Sunshine  of  Your  Smile,"  in  his  best  voice ;  our  Chorister. 
Lizzie  Thomas  Edward  rendered  "The  Swallows,"  in  a  delightful 
manner.  The  meeting  was  opened  by  Elder  Hyrum  M.  Smith 
and  remarks  were  made  by  President  Heber  J.  Grant. 

Other  leaders  who  were  present  were :  Elder  Rudger 
Clawson,  Orson  F.  Whitnev,  Elder  T.  Golden  Kimball,  Bishops 
O.  P.  Miller  and  David  A.'  Smith. 

One  of  the  delightful  features  of  the  occasion  was  t'ne 
charming  tribute  paid  by  Mr.  H.  G.  Whitney  to  the  guest  of 
honor  which  was  both  touching  and  witty. 

Counselor  Clarissa  Smith  Williams  presided  on  the  occasion 
with  dignity  and  grace. 

In  her  response  President  Wells  said  she  was  glad  her  an- 
cestors had  been  soldiers  in  the  Revolution  and  in  the  French  and 
Indian  wars,  and  that  her  mother  had  danced  with  Lafayette.  She 
herself  had  known  many  great  men,  but  the  greatest  of  them  all 
was  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith.  She  bore  a  strong  testimony 
ro  his  life  and  mission  and  to  the  many  stirring  events  associated 


BIRTHDAY  CELEBRATION.  201 

with  Nauvoo  and  the  martyrdom.  She  remembered  when  the 
Temple  was  built  in  Nauvoo,  how  honored  she  felt  to  assist  in 
preparing  dinner  every  day,  in  the  upper  floor  of  Parley  P.  Pratt's 
partially  finished  house,  for  nine  of  the  twelve  apostles.  She 
thought  and  still  thinks  that  no  greater  earthly  honor  could  be 
given  socially  to  any  person,  and  it  seemed  almost  as  remarkable 
as  dining  with  the  Savior.  Now-a-days  it  seemed  to  her  that  our 
\oung  people  dine  with  the  Presidency  and  Twelve  Apostles  with- 
out any  sense  of  reverence  or  real  appreciation  of  the  honor  they 
enjoy.  She  closed  with  her  blessing  upon  all  and  a  strong  testi- 
mony to  the  truth. 

The  meeting  was  dismissed  by  Elder  Rtidger  Clawson,  and 
a  beautiful  souvenir  card  was  given  to  all  present. 


Our  New  Board  Member 

MISS  LILLIAN  CAMERON. 

The  members  of  the  Relief  Society  will 
be  interested  to  know  that  we  have  a  talented 
young  worker  added  to  our  General  Board. 

Miss  Lillian  Cameron  is  the  daughter  of 
David  and  Sarah  A.  Childs  Cameron.  She  is 
of  the  third  generation  in  the  Church  on  her 
father's  and  the  fourth  on  her  mother's  side. 
Her  father  was  born  in  Scotland  and  her 
mother  in  England.  She  was  born  in  Utah. 
She  has  been  a  teacher  in  the  Sunday  Schools, 
in  all  the  grades,  and  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A., 
Laving  acted  as  First  and  Second  Counselor  in  the  Eleventh  Ward 
Mutual.  Her  best  public  work,  however,  has  been  done  in  the 
Genealogical  Office.  She  went  into  the  Historian's  Office  in  1008, 
and  in  1909  she  went  into  the  Genealogical  Office.  Very  shortly 
thereafter  she  became  Assistant  Librarian,  which  position  she 
still  occupies.  She  is  one  of  the  most  expert  workers  in  the 
Scandinavian  pedigrees  in  the  Church,  that  is,  she  is  able  to  follow 
out  the  intricate  tables  and  reduce  them  to  the  standardized 
American  form  for  temple  purposes. 

She  has  acted  as  stake  chairman  of  the  Temple  work  in  the 
Ensign  Stake  Board  Relief  Society,  giving  splendid  satisfaction 
by  her  labors. 

She  is  naturally  refined,  intellectual,  and  her  expert  knowl 
edge  of  genealogy,  as  well  as  other  educational  topics,  makes  her 
an  invaluable  help  to  the  General  Board.     We  welcome  her  to 
our  circle. 


Winning  the  Man's  Mother. 

By  Ida  Ipswich. 

"Did  you  order  that  chicken  for  tomorrow,  Jim?"  Lucy 
Mackson  imprisoned  her  big-boy  husband  in  the  corner  of  the 
kitchen  by  the  baking  table,  where  he  had  slipped  to  playfully 
piltcr  some  of  the  cake  dough  she  was  assiduously  stirring. 

"Tastes  just  like  it  used  to  when  mother  would  turn  her  back, 
and  I  was  barely  tall  enough  to  jab  a  spoon  into  the  jar  or  gouge 
out  a  mouthful  with  my  dirty  finger,"  laughed  the  man,  evading 
her  question  and  teasingly  smacking  his  lips  over  another  sip  of 
the  golden  mixture. 

"Here!"  cried  the  wife  with  mock  severity,  "you'll  eat  it  all 
up  so  I  won't  have  any  angel  food  for  tomorrow.  But  you  did 
not  answer  my  question,  now  confess  your  sins — did  you  forget 
the  chicken  ?"  There  was  the  tender  light  of  young  love  in  her 
eyes  but  she  held  an  egg-beater  over  his  head  menacingly. 

The  youthful  husband  pretended  to  quake  under  such  a 
deadly  weapon  and  hastened  to  declare  that  he  had  remembered 
the  pesky  fowl — the  troubled  look  did  not  come  into  his  eyes  until 
the  happy  little  wife  turned  away. 

"Lucky  thing  for  you  that  you  did  as  you  were  told  for  once," 
she  chimed  sweetly.  "You  know — "  turning  to  the  neighbor 
woman  and  close  friend  who  had  just  dropped  in  for  a  moment's 
chat — "I've  invited  Jim's  mother  up  for  dinner  tomorrow — hence 
all  this  pastry.  Oh,  I'm  going  to  have  a  fancy  spread,  all  right. 
Here,  laddie,"  she  ordered  with  naive  charm,  "you  may  crack  the 
nuts  for  the  salad." 

Standing  behind  his  wife  the  man's  expression  was  one  of 
dejection  and  anxiety.  Her  jolly  enthusiasm  smote  him  to  the 
heart,  but  he  affected  a  careless  note,  as,  not  being  able  to  let 
her  chatter  on  this  way,  he  burst  out. 

"Oh,  ah, — a — by — the — way,  Louie,  I  forgot  to  tell  you,  I 
went  around  to  see  mother  and — and,  by  George,  as  luck  will 
have  it  she'd  just  put  a  quilt  on  the  frames — right  in  the  living 
room  where  it  couldn't  be  left,  you  know — and  it  will  take  her  all 
'lay  tomorrow  to  get  it  off — she's  doing  it  alone  and  its  fine,  she 
told  me.  So,  you  see,  it  will  be  quite  impossible  for  her  to — a — 
get  here.  But  we'll  have  the  spread  just  the  same,"  he  worked 
himeslf  into  a  lively  manner — "and  invite  your  mother  over." 

"Not  coming!"  there  was  painful  disappointment  in  the  am- 
ateur cook's  ejaculation  and  heedless  of  his  last  suggestion  she 


WINNING  THE  MAN'S  MOTHER.  203 

cried  again  with  incredulous  astonishment,  "your  mother  isn't 
coming!" 

"Why  no,  you  see,  Louie,  she  couldn't  leave  the  quilt  that 
way — " 

"But" — a  gravely  puzzled  look  through  which  the  gleam  of 
a  new  discovery  was  slowly  struggling,  showed  plainly  in  the 
mobile  face  of  the  slender  matron,  "but — a — "  she  protested  re- 
calling something — "your  mother  had  just  put  a  quilt  on  the  last 
time  I  sent  for  her  and  also,  now  I  come  to  think  of  it,  the  time 
before  and  the  time  before  that  it  was,  let  me  see,  something  she 
couldn't  leave — I  forget  now.  And,  really,  she  hasn't  been  here 
since — a — why,  since  you  went  into  business  for  yourself,  Jim — " 
Lucy  Mackson  searched  her  husband's  face  with  awakening  per- 
ception— "I  wonder  if  she's — "  then  remembering  the  guest  in  the 
room  and  that  this  was  a  family  affair  she  ended  vaguely — "if 
anything's  wrong,"  though  her  eyes  kept  on  questioning. 

"O  no,  of  course  not,"  Jim  assured  her,  a  quality  of  positive- 
ness  in  his  tone  that  was  clearly  forced.  "Everything  is  all  right, 
and  say,  I'll  scamper  over  and  engage  your  mother  for  the  mor- 
row's guest  of  honor,  what  do  you  say?"  but  without  waiting  for 
her  assent  or  the  contrary,  he  took  the  kitchen  steps  at  a  bound 
and  fled  through  the  garden  to  the  next  house.  His  wife  gazed 
absently  after  him,  a  deepening  suspicion  gradually  replacing  her 
mystified  amazement. 

The  unwitting  caller,  to  relieve  the  tension  and  having  jumped 
at  an  obvious  conclusion,  vouchsafed  a  little  sympathy. 

"It's  a  good  thing  your  mother  lives  near  you,  if  your  hus- 
band's people  are  going  to  treat  you  so  coldly." 

Lucy  Mackson's  fresh  flushed  face  showed  no  sign  of  having 
heard  'mis  remark.  She  seemed  lost  in  curious  speculation.  Her 
friend  threw  out  another  line. 

"I'm  sure  you've  been  splendid  to  Jim's  folks.  You've  had 
dinners  and  dinners  for  them  and  entertained  them  royally" — 
she  warmed  to  her  subject — "especially  his  mother.  And  now  for 
her  to  act  like  this !  I've  noticed  none  of  them  have  been  near 
you  for  ages."  She  waited  a  moment  but  as  her  hostess  still  ig- 
nored the  bait  to  unburden  her  wrongs,  persisted,  "Oh,  I  know 
these  mother's-in-law — had  one  myself.  /  was  like  you,  I  took 
Harry's  folks  right  into  my  arms,  you  know,  and  for  a  time  we 
got  along  famously.  But  Harry's  mother  wanted  to  manage 
our  affairs  and  when  we  deliberately  started  on  a  course  she  did 
not  approve  she  began  to  act  queer.  I  didn't  pay  any  attention  to 
it  for  a  long  time.  At  last  she  wouldn't  come  to  our  house  any 
more  and  treated  me  cooler  than  frost  when  I  went  to  see  her. 
To  cap  the  climax  she  turned  all  the  family  against  me,  then 
my  patience  gave  out  and  I  broke  diplomatic  relations  with  the 


3)4  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

i 

pack  of  them."  She  gurgled  amusedly  at  the  recollection  then 
added.  "We  haven't  visited  with  Harry's  mother  for  three  years, 
and  after  all  those  strivings,  snubs,  disappointments  and  heart- 
aches, I  tell  you,  it  seems  good." 

Mrs.  Mackson  was  listening  intently,  now,  astonishment  and 
wonder  in  her  sensitive  face. 

"But  doesn't  Harry  miss  his  mother  awfully?"  she  marveled 
in  a  calamity  stricken  tone. 

"Well,  mayhe  he  does,  hut  it  can't  be  helped.  We've  got  to 
live  our  lives  in  our  own  way,  and  if  it  doesn't  suit  her  why  we 
can't  be  blamed.  She  cannot  expect  to  direct  me  nor  Harry 
either.    Then  we  have  my  mother." 

"Yes,  that  is  lovely  for  you — but  what  must  it  mean  to  a  man 
to  be  estranged  from  the  old  home  with  its  memories  and  associ- 
ations and  particularly  from  the  love  of  his  dear,  faithful  mother? 
And  she  must  be  dreadfully  unhappy  never  to  see  her  boy!"  Lucy 
M  ickson  seemed  pondering  aloud,  her  face  a  study  in  sym- 
pathetic abstraction. 

"It's  her  own  fault,"  sighed  the  neighbor  woman.  "I  did  my 
best.  And  my  advice  to  you  is  the  sooner  you  give  up  trying 
to  get  along  with  them  now  they  are  set  against  you — which  is 
plain  to  everybody — the  better  for  your  peace  of  mind." 

They  talked  on  for  a  few  minutes  then  the  visitor  took  her 
leave  and  Mrs.  Mackson,  her  joyous  preparation  at  a  standstill, 
stood  in  perturbed,  puzzled,  idleness  for  a  long  time.  Pres- 
ently there  was  a  faint  sound  somewhere  in  the  interior  of  the 
little  bungalow  that  roused  her.  She  hastily  washed  her  hands 
and  tripped  out  of  the  kitchen,  her  young  face  illuminated  by 
such  a  smile  of  glorious  anticipation  one  would  have  thought  her 
going  to  meet  a  lover — except  that  she  did  not  stop  before  the 
mirror  to  smooth  her  hair.  In  a  trice  she  was  bending  over  a 
daintily  draped  basket  from  which  now  issued  the  soft,  velvety 
cooing  of  a  little  babe. 

"Mother's  idol !"  breathed  the  woman  rapturously,  lifting 
the  pink  and  white  morsel  lovingly  to  her  breast.  "Mother's 
precious  idol !" 

"That's  a  new  one,"  laughed  the  husband  over  her  shoulder 
having  tiptoed  in  to  surprise  her.  "Mary  calls  her  infant  'lamb- 
kin' ;  Allie  says  'honey' ;  Vera,  'lovey' ;  Eva,  'pet' ;  and  oh,  I've 
heard  many  others  but  'precious  idol'  is  a  new  one.  Trust  my 
Louie  for  being  original,"  he  laughed  softly  and  put  his  arm 
r-rotectingly  around  the  new  mother  and  their  first  born. 

"But  isn't  he  precious!"  cried  the  wife  as  the  baby  just  old 
enough  to  recognize  them  held  out  his  chubby  arms  and  jumped 
gaily  from  one  adoring  parent  to  the  other,  claiming  their  whole 
attention.     "Tust  think,  dearest,"  there  was  a  touch  of  sentiment 


WINNING  THE  MAN'S  MOTHER.  •    205 

in  the  woman's  voice,  "you  were  once  a  little  baby — love  like 
this — your  mother's  joy!  Think  of  all  you  have  been  to  her — 
and  she  to  you.    And  now  you  have  left  her — " 

"It's  life,"  defended  the  man  philosophically,  but  his  memory 
flew  back  with  a  sense  of  pleasure  to  the  old  home  and  the  never- 
to-be-forgotten  companionship  of  his  devoted  mother. 

"But  you  can  be  all  in  all  to  her  still,  a  wonderful  comfort 
in  her  riper  year  if — oh.  I  don't  ever  want  any  woman  to  take 
my  son  away  from  me,"  emotionalized  the  new  mother  almost 
tearfully  as  she  clasped  her  baby  boy  tightly  to  her. 

"You  want  him  to  marry,  don't  you?"  asked  Jim  still  on  the 
defensive. 

"Certainly,  but  I  want  to  make  room  in  my  heart  for  a 
daughter,  if  she  will  come  in,  and  so  keep  my  boy." 

"Sure,"  murmured  young  Mackson,  but  with  no  assurance 
and  the  depressed  look  stole  over  his  face  again. 

"Now,  Jim,"  began  Lucy,  when  the  husband  encsonced  in 
the  big  rocker  had  pulled  both  mother  and  babe  tenderly  down 
upon  his  knee,  "Tell  me— what  is  the  matter  with  your  mother? 
And  what  is  wrong  with  your  sisters?  Now  I  come  to  go  over 
things  in  my  mind,  I  realize  not  one  in  your  family  have  been 
here  for  ever  such  a  long  time.    What  is  the  matter? 

"O,  nothing,  nothing  is  wrong,  Lome,  that  I  know  of,"  he 
replied  rather  lamely  while  the  dejection  in  his  face  deepened. 
Lucy  questioned  and  questioned  but  Jim  would  not  admit  any 
trouble.  He  just  could  not  bring  himself  to  tell  his  loving  little 
wife  about  the  storm  of  protest  that  was  brewing  among  his 
people  over  their  financial  ventures.  He  was  well  aware  that 
the  whole  family  blamed  Lucy  for  the  initiative  or  for  having 
driven  their  own  favorite  lad  into  debt  and  its  burdens.  He  also 
knew  they  had  determined  to  have  nothing  more  to  do  with  her. 

"Let  me  see,  if  I  remember  correctly,  none  of  your  folks  have 
been  here  since  before  Arbor  Day,  right  after  that  you  went  into 
business  for  yourself,"  Lucy  began  to  formulate  a  theory  detec- 
tive-wise, "I  wonder  if  your  mother  is  worrying  about  us  not 
accomplishing  what  we 'have  undertaken,"  she  guessed  with 
womanlike  intuition  pinning  Jim  down. 

"Well,  she  may  be— some,"  the  husband  admitted  slowly. 

"Poor  dear!" 

"But,  of  course,"  the  man  meditated  aloud  a  trifle^  sorrow- 
fully, "we  have  to  plan  for  ourselves,  now,  mother  can't  expect 

to—"  „      . 

"N-no,  not  exacth — "  interrupted  the  wife,  also  meditating. 

"She  really  hasn't  any  right — " 

"She  has  a  right  to  be  happy  and  comfortable  about  her  boy," 
Mrs.  Mackson  broke  in  again  this  time  spiritedly  while  she  pressed 


206     •  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

her  own  child  closer.  "O,  Jim,  it's  a  shame  to  have  your  dear 
mother  fretting  about  you  and  thinking  you  are  going  to  fail." 
Then  springing  to  her  feet  with  sudden  decision  she  exclaimed. 
"1  have  a  plan — er — did  mother  say  she  would  come  over?" 

"No,  she  wasn't  at  home." 

"Then  we'll  have  her  some  other  time.  Tomorrow  you  must 
get  your  mother  over  here." 

"Dearie,"  Jim  spoke  sadly,  "I  don't  see  how  it  is — why  it  is — 
I  don't  understand — but  I  know  for  a  certainty  that  she  positively 
will  not  come." 

"Not  under  ordinary  circumstances,"  allowed  the  wife,  "but 
you  must  bring  her.  anyway.  Use  strategy,  anything,  but  bring 
her.  Now  I'll  leave  that  part  with  you,  so  prove  your  resourceful- 
ness.    I'll  take  care  of  the  rest." 

Thus  put  upon  his  mettle  the  young  husband  determined  to 
carry  out  his  commission  if  such  a  thing  were  possible.  He  be- 
gan to  rack  his  brains  for  a  feasible  device  to  kidnap  his  aposta- 
tizing parent  for  he  knew,  having  tried  sympathetically  for  three 
months,  he  could  never  overcome  her  prejudice  sufficiently  to  get 
her  to  willingly  visit  the  daughter-in-law  who  was  held  in  such 
gross  disfavor. 

It  was  twelve  o'clock  the  next  day,  just  a  half  an  hour  in  ad- 
vance of  the  time  set  for  the  dinner,  before  he  really  hit  upon  an 
acceptable  course,  even  then  he  was  in  serious  doubt.  However, 
as  the  whistles  shrilled  for  noon  he  rushed  out  of  his  new  grocery 
store — the  innocent  cause  of  such  offense — hired  a  taxi  and 
dashed  up  to  his  mother's  door  in  tremendous  haste. 

The  elder  Mrs.  Mackson  was  sitting  before  the  fire  in  the 
living  room  thoughtfully  knitting — there  was  no  quilt  on  the 
frames.  Her  son  burst  in  breathlessly.  It  did  not  require  any 
a  cling  for  him  to  appear  agitated  for  it  was  with  real  trepidation 
that  he  began, 

"Mother,  I  wonder  if  I  can  get  you  to  do  me  a  favor?" 
Throwing  an  arm  about  her  shoulders  he  kissed  her  with  genu- 
ine emotion. 

"Why,  my  son,"  exclaimed  the  devoted  and  anxious  parent 
in  tremulous  concern,  "whatever  is  it?"  The  question  was  super- 
fluous. As  a  matter  of  fact  she  knew  the  crisis  had  arrived,  the 
crisis  she  had  been  dreading  and  fully  anticipating.  James  had 
come  to  ask  her  to  help  him  some  way  to  save  his  credit,  or  home, 
or  business,  or  all  three.  His  striving  wife  with  her  million  dol- 
lar ideas  had  brought  him  to  ruin  this  soon.    Poor  boy! 

"Whatever  is  it,  James,  my  son?  You  know  I  will  do  any- 
thing on  earth  for  you,"  she  cried  returning  his  embrance  with 
the  tenderest  sympathy. 


WINNING  THE  MAN'S  MOTHER.  207 

Jim  felt  like  a  cad.  But,  was  it  not  to  keep  this  loved  one  in 
his  life  that  he  was  practicing  such  deception? 

"Why,  mother  dear,  it  isn't  anything  serious,"  he  assured  her 
looking  the  picture  of  anxiety  and  glancing  hastily  around  as 
though  hunting  for  something— "I— I  haven't  time  to  explain 
now  but  will  you  get  on  your  wraps  and  come  with  me  ?  Here" 
—his  searching  eye  discovered  her  old  grey  shawl,  the  old  grey 
shawl  of  childhood  memories  he  held  out— "this  and  a  fascinator 
will  do— no  one  will  see  you,  I  have  a  closed  car  outside.    Will 

vou  come?" 

"Of  course,  I'll  come,"  vowed  the  dear  soul,  trembling  like  an 
aspen  leaf,  while  her  son— kicking  himself  for  a  scoundrel- 
hustled  her  into  the  closed  conveyance.  The  chauffeur  drove 
like  mad  and  before  there  was  time  for  the  exchange  of  a.  dozen 
words  the  short  distance  was  covered  and  they  stopped  in  front 
of  the  little  bungalow.  Expecting  some  crushing  shock  the  lady 
followed  her  son  into  the  very  presence  of  the  vexatious  daughter- 
in-law.  -ii 

That  dainty  little  creature  was  in  the  act  of  putting  the  last 
of  a  steaming  and  savory  meal  on  the  dining  table. 

"Ah,  we're  just  in  time,"  cried  Jim  while  his  wife  ran  up  and 
embraced  the  elder  woman  heartily. 

"Oh,  how  good  it  is  to  have  you  here  again,  Mother  Mack- 
son.  We  haven't  seen  you  for  so  long  we  are  starving^  for  a  visit 
with  you.    Now  sit  right  up  and  have  dinner  with  us." 

"But  James,"  the  deluded  woman  had  a  notion  to  act  out- 
raged and  to  decline  ungraciously.  She  even  thought  of  speaking 
her  mind  on  the  spot. 

"Mother,  will  you  do  me  the  favor  to  eat  with  us?"  Jim 
coaxed,  a  boyish  mother-hunger  in  his  eyes  that  was  responsible 
for  a  relunctant  capitulation.  With  unsmiling  face  she  permitted 
Lucy  to  take  the  old  grey  shawl  and  scarf  while  Jim  put  her  lov- 
ingly down  at  the  head  of  the  table.  During  the  meal  the  man 
and  wife  kept  up  a  steady  flow  of  light  conversation.  They  were 
jolly  and  mischievous  and  told  such  funny  little  jokes  that  the 
elder  Mrs.  Mackson  could  not  possibly  freeze  up  but  instead  actu- 
ally indulged  in  a  few  unwilling  chuckles. 

Jim  persuaded  her  to  acknowledge  his  wife  a  remarkable 
band  at  roasting  fowl  and  Lucy  reminiscenced  about  the  good 
things  Jim's  "mother  to  used  to  make"  and  of  which  she  had  par- 
taken with  such  pleasure  when  visiting  at  Jim's  old  home. 

When  the  repast  was  over  the  man  hustled  around  evidently 
preparing  to  go  back  to  work.  His  mother  stiffened  slightly  and 
looked  about  for  her  things. 

"Well,  James,"  she  said  in  the  manner  of  one  announcing 
readiness  for  some  solemn  proceedure. 


208  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Jim  looked  at  her  in  enquiring  surprise. 

"You  said  you  wished  me  to  do  you  a  favor,  I'm  ready — " 

"Oh,"  said  her  son  as  though  suddenly  enlightened,  "sure, 
sure  I  did — I  wanted  you  to  break  bread  with  my  wife  and 
me,  and  you  can  not  imagine  how  much  good  it  has  done  us.  Now 
I'm  going  to  leave  you  to  visit  with  Louie  and  Jim  Junior  this 
afternoon  and  after  a  while  I'm  coming  around  with  an  automo- 
bile to  take  you  home.  You  musn't  leave  on  any  account  until  I 
jjet  back."  With  this  rapid-fire  explanation  he  gained  the  door 
and  in  another  second  dashed  out,  shaking  his  head  doubtfully 
when  out  of  sight  over  the  greater  task  to  be  undertaken  by  the 
little  unapproved  helpmate. 

Yes,  it  was  the  wife's  turn  now  and  her  heart,  too.  sank  with 
misgivings  as  she  preceived  the  renewed  uncompromising  man- 
ner of  her  mother-in-law.  The  elder  Mrs.  Mackson  was,  indeed, 
dumb-founded  and  stood  angrily  staring  first  at  the  door  which 
had  closed  behind  her  son  and  then  at  the  flushed  face  of  his 
young  wife.    At  last  she  managed  to  speak. 

"If  you'll  get  my  shawl — James  wouldn't  wait  for  me  to 
find  anything  else — I'll  be  going.  T  can't  stay  today,"  her  tone  was 
frigid. 

Lucy  had  to  think  quick.  "Oh,  please  don't  burr/.  Mother 
Mackson,"  she  pleaded.  "I  had  a  bit  of  news  I  wanted  to  tell 
you.  You  remember  Vira  Grey,  don't  you?  Here,  have  this 
rocker,  baby  and  I  will  sit  on  this  stool  beside  you.  You  know 
Yira  married  Jack  Neiber — well,  thev've  just  had  the  worst 
luck." 

"Gone  to  the  wall — I  knew  they  would,"  was  the  mother-in- 
law's  mental  comment  but  she  said  nothing  aloud,  just  premitted 
Lucy  to  put  her  into  the  easy  chair  where  she  sat  interestedly 
listening  in  spite  of  herself  but  maintaining  a  very  stern  counte- 
nance. 

"Yes,  they  have  failed  utterly — everything  is  gone,"  the  host- 
ess hastened  on.  "You  know,  he  had  as  much  as  ten  thousand 
dollars  worth  of  property  from  his  uncle  when  he  married  Vira 
but  they  have  gone  through  it."  The  mother-in-law's  ire  and  in- 
dignation rose  almost  to  the  point  of  boiling  water  over  this 
revelation,  but  she  was  thinking  of  her  own  extravagant  daugh- 
ter-in-law instead  of  Yira  Neiber.  She  winked  hard  to  keep  back 
the  angry  tears.     Lucy  proceeded. 

"I  know  just  how  it  happened.  Yira  and  T  have  been  life 
long  friends,  you  know — "  At  this  remark  Mrs.  Mackson,  the 
elder,  unconsciously  nodded  (these  two  girls  had  been  friends, 
also  the  town  belles  and  were  alike  in  that  both  had  been  reared 
in  considerable  luxury).  "You  see" — Lucy  chattered  on — "after 
Yira  and  Jack  were  married  they  went  right  in  for  pleasure  and 


WINNING  THE  MAN'S  MOTHER.  209 

social  leadership.  First  they  spent  three  idle  months  on  a  honey 
moon  trip.  Then,  Vira  would  have  a  much  finer  home  than  their 
means  warranted.  Next  they  went  to  the  Exposition  and  squand- 
ered a  lot  of  money.  Since  then  they  have  entertained  lavishly, 
they  have  a  car,  a  box  at  the  theater,  and  Vira  has  dressed  ex- 
quisitely. Jack  told  us  that  from  the  first  they  had  spent  a  good 
deal  more  every  month  than  he  earned  and  he  had  to  borrow  and 
so  had  mortgaged  all  his  possessions.  He  was  working  for  a 
salary,  a  large  one,  to  be  sure,  but  last  week  he  lost  his  position 
because  of  neglecting  his  duties  for  auto  trips,  hunting  excursions 
and  other  society  calls,  and  now  they  haven't  anything — not  even 
a  baby,"  the  new  mother's  voice  was  gentle  with  compassion  as 
she  tenderly  hugged  her  little  one.  "Another  sad  thing  about  it 
is  that  they  cannot  be  comforted  by  the  love  and  sympathy  of 
Jack's  mother  as  they  have  become  estranged  from  her,  that 
leaves  her,  too,  to  grieve  over  her  boy's  failure  alone  and  discon- 
solate.   Isn't  it  all  too  bad?" 

This  last  deliberate  parallel  of  her  case  with  Jack  Neiber's 
mother  was  almost  too  much  for  the  abducted  guest,  she  allowed 
herself  no  comment  but  her  face  was  convulsed  with  the  pain  of 
self  pity. 

"Now  Jim  and  I — "  Lucy  began  her  real  plea — "are  trying 
to  lay  a  foundation  for  sound  financial  strength."  The  first  Mrs. 
Mackson  gasped  at  such  audacity  then  swallowed  the  very  gall  of 
bitterness,  her  nose  turned  up,  the  corners  of  her  mouth  down, 
and  her  eyes  burned  with  contemptuous  unbelief.  The  younger 
woman  went  on.  "When  we  were  first  married  we  didn't  take  a 
trip  but  reserved  Jim's  savings  to  buy  our  furniture.  Then  as 
Jim  was  making  $90.00  per  month  we  decided  we  could  build  this 
little  house.  It  costs  us  $22.00  a  month  to  live  here  and  having 
borrowed  from  a  building  society  the  place  will  be  paid  for  in  the 
next  eight  years.  That  left  us  $68.00  each  month  for  living  ex- 
penses and  by  being  economical  we  have  managed  nicely."  Mrs. 
Mackson  senior's  lip  curled  more  scornfully  but  with  sweet  ob- 
livion Lucy  continued,  "But  Jim's  position  at  Baker  &  Co.  was 
precarious.  As  their  trade  expanded  Jim's  work  doubled,  he  was 
really  being  imposed  upon,  and  if  he  complained  he  would  be 
fired.  Anyway,  Baker's  son-in-law  was  qualifying  for  the  place 
and  Jim  knew  it  was  only  a  matter  of  time  until  he  would  be 
hunting  another  job.  The  poor  boy  was  just  sick  to  be  more  inde- 
pendent!  Well,  since  he  had  worked  for  Baker's  eight  years  and 
had  held  every  position  from  delivery  boy  to  head  bookkeeper  he 
felt  that  he  knew  the  grocery  business  pretty  thoroughly  and 
when  he  talked  of  starting  a  store  of  his  own  I  encouraged 
him — I  tell  you,  I  believe  in  Jim.  To  be  sure,  we  hadn't  any 
capital  and  were  in  debt  for  our  home  but  because  he  was  ac- 


210  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

quainted  with  the  methods  of  that  particular  business  and  be- 
cause he's  a  pusher  and  able  to  save,  I  knew  he'd  make  good.  I 
told  him  to  go  ahead  and  borrow  the  money  to  start  on  and  I 
would  not  spend  a  cent  above  necessities  until  it  was  all  paid." 

In  spite  of  the  mother-in-law's  fortified  prejudice  Lucy's  com- 
mon sense  talk  and  earnest  manner  had  mollified  her  consider- 
ably. 

"But  borrowed  capital — "  she  muttered  ominously. 

"Mother  Mackson.  do  you  remember  the  Hudson  boys?"  said 
the  little  wife.  "Emery  Hudson  made  a  fortune  by  understand- 
ing the  economic  exactions  of  a  certain  trade.  Then  not  realiz- 
ing himself  what  was  at  the  bottom  of  his  success  he  spent  his  en- 
tire savings  setting  his  three  sons  up  in  business.  Having  such 
a  good  start  he  expected  they  would  far  exceed  what  he  had 
done.  They  everyone  failed.  Why?  Perhaps,  from  two  pri- 
mary causes.  First,  they  had  not  been  schooled  in  the  various  in- 
tricacies of  the  business  they  elected  ;  second,  the  capital  or  money 
that  comes  easy  goes  easy.  In  other  words  a  'foot  of  climb  is 
worth  a  mile  of  boost.' 

"Jim  and  I  are  working  to  a  plan.  From  what  he  makes  we 
pay  the  $22.C0  on  our  home,  a  certain  amount  of  the  principal  and 
interest  of  our  debt  and  live  on  the  rest,  be  it  much  or  little.  Isn't 
that  a  safe  basis?  I've  been  wanting  to  tell  you  our  intentions 
and  working  management  for  ever  so  long  and  get  your  approval 
and  blessing.  The  fact  is  we  need  you.  We  want  you  to  enter 
with  us  into  our  schemes  and  enjoy  with  us  the  expectations  and 
realizations  of  all  our  hopes.  If  disaster  should  come,  by  some 
evil  chance,  how  much  easier  we  could  all  face  it  with  our  love  and 
confidence  in  each  other  unshaken.  But  of  course  we  expect  to 
succeed.  We  believe  in  ourselves.  We  are  going  to  make  good, 
Mather  Mackson.  now  you  watch  us!"  The  fire,  determination 
and  faith  of  the  youthful  helpmate  penetrated  the  armor  of  the 
mother-in-law.  hope  came  into  her  eyes  and  with  it  good  will  and 
— tears. 

"Well.  I  believe  you  will.  Lucy,"  she  breathed,  startled  at  her 
own  words  but  determined  to  be  game  when  fairly  won. 

When  Jim  returned  he  found  the  two  women  he  loved  best 
on  earth  talking  and  laughing  and  crying  together  and  Jim  Junior 
crowing  happily  over  the  victory. 


SONGS   FOR   RELIEF  SOCIETY  CHOIRS. 

We  have  extra  copies — ten  cents  a  dozen — of  "Spring," 
"Hushed  was  the  Evening  Hymn."  and  the  "Hawaiian  Temple 
Song."     Address  Amy  Brown  Lyman,  General  Secretary. 


April  Entertainment. 

By  Morag. 

FOR  THE  RELIEF   SOCIETY,    FIFTH    TUESDAY   IN    APRIL. 

Now  that  Annual  Day  is  over,  it  would  be  a  good  thing  to 
recruit  some  new  members  for  the  local  Relief  Societies,  and  on 
the  fifth  Tuesday  in  April  an  "Acquaintance  meeting"  might  be 
held.  At  the  Sunday  meetings  during  the  month,  a  committee 
might  greet  all  the  strangers  and  hand  them  an  invitation  to  at- 
tend the  Acquaintance  Social.  Each  member  of  the  Society 
failing  to  bring  a  stranger  or  non-member  to  the  meeting  should 
be  fined  five  cents.  This  feature  will  induce  members  to  hunt  up 
strangers.  A  folded  sheet  of  notepaper  is  handed  to  each  mem- 
ber to  be  filled  with  autographs  of  those  present.  These  may  be 
kept  as  souvenirs.  Have  a  short,  breezy  program  with  demon- 
strations from  the  various  departments  of  Relief  Society,  activi- 
ties, some  music,  and  some  light  refreshments.  Try  this,  and 
see  if  good  will  not  result  from  your  effort. 

This  same  idea  might  be  used  as  a  ward  affair  and  held  in 

the  evening.     At  this  party,  sealed  envelopes  might  be  handed  to 

the  guests.     These  to  contain  the  following,  or  similar  requests : 

"See  that  no  one  near  you  is  left  alone  without  a  word  of 

welcome." 

"See  that  all  are  properly  seated." 
"See  that  each  speaker  is  properly  thanked." 
"Introduce  strangers  to  bishop  and  ward  officers." 
'"'See  that  the  room  is  well  ventilated." 

"If  the  room  is  too  warm  or  too  cold,  speak  to  the  janitor." 
"Talk  to  people  who  seem  timid  and  lonely." 
"Dance  with  the  chaperons  and  wall-flowers." 
Commence  dancing  with  a  Spiral  Hand-shake.     All  present 
form  in  one  spiral  line;  this  may  extend  several  times  around 
the  hall.     The  bishop  may  be  stationed  at  the  inside  end  of  the 
line.     At  a  given  signal  he  starts  to  shake  hands  all  along  the  line. 
The  one  next  to  him  follows,  and  so  on  until  no  one  is  left  in 
line.     When  this  is  over  every  one  present  will  have  shaken  hands 
with  every  one  else,  the  ice  will  be  broken  and  all  will  feel  at 
home.     Try  this,  and  see  if  it  is  not  worth  while. 

A   SEED  EXCHANGE  SOCIAL. 

For  the  rural  communities,  a  seed  exchange  may  prove  a 
good  idea  for  a  social.  Each  guest  is  to  bring  a  bulb,  slip,  root, 
or  seeds,  each  to  be  done  up  in  a  quaint  package  with  full  direc- 


212  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

tions  for  the  growing  of  the  contents  and  the  disposal  of  the  har- 
vest. Curiosity  will  be  aroused  from  this,  first  as  the  people  try 
to  find  what  the  various  packages  contain.  At  a  given  signal 
the  parcels  are  exchanged  and  opened  secretly.  Then  rcwrapped 
and  exchanged  again.  Five  minutes  may  be  allowed  for  each 
transfer. 

The  seed  exchange  social  should  open  and  close  with  singing 
and  prayer,  and  the  following  hymns  from  the  S.  S.  Book  are 
suggested : 

"We  are  Sowing.  Daily  Sowing." 

"What  Shall  the  Harvest  be?" 

"Scatter  Seeds  of  Kindness." 

Refreshments  suggested  are:  Seed  cake  (caraway),  and 
buttermilk. 

The  tenth  exchange  is  to  be  announced  as  the  last  one,  the 
package  then  becomes  the  property  of  the  one  who  has  just  re- 
ceived it.  Packages  of  flower  seeds  may  have  the  direction,  "To 
be  used  to  decorate  the  church  in  August,"  or,  "To  be  used  for 
the  hospital." 

With  vegetable  seeds,  "To  market  and  give  the  proceeds  to 
the  bishop  for  ward  fund." 

With  a  bundle  of  tomato  plants,  "Grow,  sell,  and  use  for  your 
Church  magazine  subscriptions." 

Try  this  seed  social,  and  see  if  it  does  not  create  a  friendly 
feeling  in  your  community. 

Spring  music  for  Relief  Society  meetings: 

"The  Opening  Buds  of  Springtime,"  No.  72,  S.  S.  Book. 

"God  is  Love,"  No.  75,  S.  S.  Book. 

"There  is  Beauty  all  Around,"  No.  46,  S.  S.  Book. 

"The  World  is  Full  of  Beauty,"  No.  123,  S.  S.  Book. 

"Easter  Morning,"  No.  250,  S.  S.  Book. 

"Arbor  Morning  Bright  and  Fair,"  No.  129,  S.  S.  Book. 

"Seeds  of  Kindness,"  No.  195,  S.  S.  Book. 
-"Spring,"  Relief  Society  Magazine,  April,  1915. 

SOME  APRIL  SHOWERS. 

Here  is  a  Kitchen  shower. 

A  merry  crowd  of  young  matrons  made  a  shower  for  one  of 
their  girl  friends  as  follow^  : 

They  made  the  funniest  figure  they  could  think  of  out  of  the 
articles  contributed.  When  all  had  assembled,  the  quaint  figure 
was  divested  of  her  clothes  while  the  following  rhyme  was  read : 


APRIL  ENTERTAINMENT.  213 

"I  am  a  bride,  not  bride  to  be, 

And  that  I'm  useful  you'll  agree. 

Of  kitchen  utensils  I  am  made, 

From  the  ten-cent  store,  the  highest  grade. 

Behold  my  face,  'tis  but  a  fake, 

But  comes  in  fine  for  making  cake. 

My  hair  you'll  think  an  ugly  crop, 

In  fact  'tis  only  a  nice  dish  mop. 

Last  and  not  least,  my  draperies  white 

For  drying  dishes  will  prove  right; 

Therefore,  as  bride  I  come  to  you, 

I'll  prove  your  faithful  servant  too." 

Other  showers  are,  Spoon,  Pin,  Handkerchief,  Basket, 
Hosiery,  Cap,  Bag,  Pansy,  Flower. 

Another  idea  for  the  shower  party  would  be  for  each  guest 
present  to  bring  a  potted  plant,  (pots  of  hyacinths,  daffodils  are 
cheap  at  this  time).  After  spending  a  happy  hour  with  music 
and  floral  games  the  plants  could  be  delivered  by  the  guests  to  the 
shut-ins  of  the  neighborhoods  or  to  the  hospital  wards. 

Missionary  showers  should  be  popular  with  us  when  books, 
handkerchiefs,  bags,  etc.,  might  be  given. 

For  literary  people,  a  Shakespeare  evening  may  be  arranged 
on  April  23,  which  is  the  natal  day  of  the  great  bard  of  Avon. 

The  Easter  time  brings  many  social  affairs,  and  lilies,  rabbits 
and  eggs  are  used  for  decorations. 

FOR  THE  HOME  EVENING. 

The  sixth  of  April  is  an  important  date  in  the  history  of  the 
world.  Many  will  be  at  conference,  but  for  those  who  desire  a 
program  for  home  evening,  the  following  is  suggested : 

Hymn,  "Far,  Far  Away  on  Judea's  Plains." 

Reading  of  Section  20,  Doctrine  and  Covenants. 

Story  of  the  Birth  of  Christ  (Luke  1.  2,  3). 

Important  events  which  occurred  in  April. 

Coming  of  Spring  Typical  of  The  Resurrection. 

The  Gospel  Restored  and  the  Organization  of  the  Church  of 
Christ,  Preparatory  to  the  Second  Coming  of  Christ  and  the 
Great  Resurrection. 

Hymn,  "We  Thank  Thee,  O  God,  for  a  Prophet." 

Remember  and  observe  Arbor  Day.  Plant  trees,  shrubs  and 
flowers,  and  don't  forget  to  make  one  or  two  bird  boxes. 

The  Entertainment  Editor  will  gladly  help  you  with  your 
programs,  social  affairs,  if  you  will  write  her  enclosing  stamped 
addressed  envelope.     Address  care  Relief  Society  Magazine. 


Home  Science  Department. 

By  Janette  A.  Hyde. 
PREPAREDNESS  IN  THE  VEGETABLE  GARDEN. 

Now,  with  war.  food  shortage,  high  prices  and  possible 
famine  staring  us  in  the  face,  let  every  Relief  Society  woman 
plant  a  vegetable  garden  and  grow  potatoes  and  onions  in  every 
available  foot  of  ground.  No  danger  but  what  all  will  be  needed 
and  used.  Altogether  now,  one,  two,  three,  dig!  Dig  early 
and  late  and  all  the  spring.  Aunt  Em  has  been  warning  us  about 
the  times  of  famine — let  us  be  prepared! 

With  stormy  March  just  ushered  in,  and  the  ground  still 
covered  with  snow,  and  badly  frozen,  we  may  still  be  in  order  if 
we  suggest  preparations  for  th:s  season's  kitchen  garden.  Prob- 
ably many  of  you  already  have  your  gardens  laid  out  or  planned 
on  paper — at  least  this  is  what  we  have  been  coaxing  our  sisters 
to  do  for  the  last  three  years.  We  hope  you  have  sent  for  reliable 
catalogues  and  seed  books.  They  are  free  and  contain  a  store  of 
useful  information. 

Just  when  the  gardening  should  begin,  depends  upon  the 
part  of  the  country  in  which  you  live.  The  first  step  in  gardening 
is  to  get  the  ground  in  proper  condition.  If  it  has  been  fertilized 
in  the  fall,  the  fertilizer  should  be  turned  under,  and  the  ground 
thoroughly  spaded  and'  raked.  The  boys  or  men  should  do  this 
heavy  work,  after  which,  the  women  will  be  able  to  plant  the 
?eeds,  and  when  the  time  comes,  transplant  such  slips  as  have 
been  raised  in  the  kitchen  windows,  or  hot  beds,  outside.  That 
women  are  capable  of  even  making  their  own  hot  beds,  was  dem- 
onstrated to  us  at  Shoshone  Idaho  by  one  of  our  sisters,  who 
showed  us  a  fine  bed  of  lettuce,  onions  and  radishes,  produced 
under  a  glass  frame  in  her  back  yard,  during  the  early  spring 
months,  when  it  was  impossible  for  vegetables  to  grow  in  the 
open  ground. 

Now  a  word  as  to  what  to  plant:  Many  of  the  most  useful 
vegetables  are  neglected  and  forgotten  in  the  selection  of  kitchen 
gardening.  A  few  roots  of  English  chives,  okara,  summer  chard, 
Brussels  sprouts,  and  Scotch  kale,  are  little  known,  and  yet  are 
easy  to  grow,  and  these,  with  the  usual  varieties,  furnish  us  a 
great  many  changes  for  salads,  decorations,  and  table  vegetables. 

There  are  the  standard  varieties,  such  as  carrots,  cabbage, 
corn,  potatoes,  tomatoes,  onions,  celery,  peas,  radishes,  turnips, 
beets,  etc.    These  should  find  a  prominent  place  in  every  home 


HOME  SCI E ACE  DEPARTMENT.  215 

garden.  Do  not  confine  yourselves  to  one  or  two  kinds,  because 
they  bring  a  good  price,  but  choose  a  variety,  from  the  fact  that 
a  variety  stands  a  better  chance  of  not  over-doing  the  market  in 
any  one  or  two  kinds  of  food.  Plan  to  raise  more  than  you  can 
use,  thus  creating  a  market,  and  supplying  those  who  are  not  in 
a  position  to  raise  their  own  garden  truck.  Interest  the  boys  and 
girls  so  that  they  will  be  anxious  to  become  producers,  helping 
them  to  earn  enough  to.  begin  a  bank  account  and  buy  clothes 
and  books  to  commence  the  winter's  school.  Call  their  attention  to 
the  price  of  potatoes  and  onions,  this  year,  and  by  so  doing,  they 
may  be  induced  to  plant  a  few  bushels  in  some  of  the  vacant  lots  or 
pieces  of  ground  in  the  cities  and  towns  where  they  live,  thereby 
doing  good  to  themselves,  and  helping  to  clean  up  and  beautify 
the  city,  creating  an  atmosphere  of  thrift  and  industry  among 
their  friends,  besides  starting  a  career  of  usefulness,  which,  after 
all,  is  the  foundation  of  permanent  manhood  and  strength. 

With  all  of  our  Relief  Society  mothers  co-operating  in  this 
one  movement,  alone,  we  will  be  able  to  assist,  in  greatly  reducing 
the  high  cost  of  vegetables  which  should  form  the  greater  portion 
of  our  family  meal. 

For  seed  circular,  ask  the  Utah  Agricultural  College  to  mail 
you  No.  16,  of  1916,  which  is  very  useful  in  helping  you  to  de- 
termine the  best  kind  of  seeds. 

WATER  CRESS,  SALADS  AND  SANDWICHES. 

Nuts  and  Cress  Salad. 
1  tb.  minced  cress. 
1  tb.  minced  nuts. 

3  tb.  creamed  cheese. 

4  tb. French  dressing. 

Moisten  to  a  paste  with  the  French  dressing  and  spread  on 
thin  slices  of  buttered  bread. 

Cress  with  Lemon  Juice. 

Cleanse  thoroughly  freshly  picked  cress  leaves,  put  in  cold 
place,  or  on  the  ice.  When  ready  to  serve,  sprinkle  with  sal;, 
lemon  juice,  a  little  paprika,  and  powdered  sugar.  Very  delicious, 
served  with  chops,  steak,  or  game.  If  the  sprays  are  pulled  apart, 
they  make  an  excellent  nest  for  birds'  nest  salad. 

Cheese  and  Cress  Sandwiches. 
1  cup  rrild  cheese  grated. 
}/2  cup  cream : 
4  tb  :  French  dressing. 
1  cup  shredded  cress  leaves. 


216  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Whip  cream  to  stiff  froth,  add  cheese,  season  with  salt  and 
pepper,  moisten  cress  with  dressing,  put  all  together,  and  spread 
on  thinly  buttered  slices  of  bread.  Crackers  may  be  used  instead 
of  bread,  which,  sometimes,  is  mine  convenient  and  really 
furnishes  a  very  crisp  sandwich. 

Tomato  and  Cress  Salad: 

Select  firm,  ripe  tomatoes,  plunge  into  boiling  hot  water,  and 
then  into  cold,  skin  off  the  outside,  put  on  the  ice  until  ready  to 
use.  Take  a  sharp  knife  and  cut  a  thin  slice  from  the  end  of  each 
tomato,  scoop  out  the  inside,  filling  the  cavity  with  minced  cress, 
cover  with  fluffy  French  dressing,  and  serve  on  beds  of  cress.  All 
ingredients  should  be  thoroughly  chilled. 

Cress  is  about  the  only  product  of  food,  the  price  of  wh;ch 
has  not  been  affected  by  the  war. 

Those  who  live  in  the  country,  may  go  to  the  near-bv  streams 
and  brooks,  and  gather,  free  of  charge,  this  delicious  cress,  which 
furnishes  us  a  foundation  for  many  excellent  salads,  sand- 
wiches, etc.  Those  who  live  in  cities  can  purchase  it  on  the  mark- 
ets at  a  very  reasonable  price,  usually  two  bunches  for  \\\2  cents. 
It  is  a  real  tonic  for  the  liver,  and  very  appetizing  when  properly 
served. 

French  Dressing. 

3  tablespoons  of  weak  vinegar  or  lemon  juice. 

2  tablespoons  of  sugar. 

1  teaspoon  of  salt. 

1  teaspoon  of  paprika  (sweet  red  pepper)  stirred  well  to- 
gether. Add  slowly  5  tablespoons  of  olive  oil,  and  beat  hard. 
1  his  can  be  mixed  at  the  table — it  is  always  offered  in  hotels 
for  table  mixing — and  it  also  keeps  in  a  cool  place  after  mixing; 
beat  hard  before  serving,  if  it  has  stood  over. 


DEMONSTRATIONS. 

The  Home  Science  Department  have  arranged  three  demon- 
strations during  the  Relief  Society  Conference  days  for  the  benefit 
and  interest  of  our  members  and  visitors : 

Fireless  Cooking  by  electric  stove.  Wednesday,  April  4th, 
A  :30  p.  m.     Fourth  Floor,  Bishop's  Building. 

Fireless  Cooking  by  gas  stove:  Thursday,  April  5th,  4:30 
p.  m.    Fourth  Floor,  Bishop's  Building. 

Milk  Demonstration.  Food  for  babes  and  young  children: 
5  :30  p.  m.    Fourth  Floor.  Bishop's  Building. 


Notes  from  the  Field. 

Bx  the  General  Secretary,  Amy  Brown  Lyman. 

Relief  Society  Conference. 

The  Annual  Conference  of  the  Relief  Society  will  be  held 
on  Wednesday  and  Thursday,  April  4th  and  5th,  1917.  Two 
general  session?  will  be  held  in  the  Assembly  Hall,  on  Wednes- 
day, April  4th,  at  10:00  A.  M..  and  2:00  P.  M. 

All  officers  and  Relief  Society  workers  are  invited  to  be  in 
attendance. 

Two  officers'  meetings  will  be  held  on  Thursday  at  10  00 
A.  M.,  and  2:00  P.  M.,  in  the  Auditorium  on  the  fourth  door  of 
the  Bishop's  Building. 

The  officers'  meetings  will  be  limited  to  stake  officers,  stake 
board  members,  and  stake  representatives. 

REORGANIZATIONS. 

Woodruff  Stake.  The  Woodruff  stake  Relief  Society  was 
reorganized  on  January  28th,  1917.  Mrs.  Phebe  A.  Brough  and 
her  counselors  who  have  labored  faithfully  for  so  many  years, 
were  honorably  released,  and  the  following  sisters  were  selected 
to  take  their  places:  President,  Zina  Taggart ;  1st  Counselor, 
Evelyn  Starkey,  2nd  Counselor,  Ida  Fowkes. 

Boise  Stake.  In  a  letter  from  Heber  O.  Hale,  we  learn  of 
the  reorganization  of  the  Boise  stake  Relief  Society.  On  account 
of  the  failing  health  of  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Rawson.  it  was  deemed 
advisable  to  relieve  her  of  her  duties  as  stake  president.  Mrs. 
Rawson  has  labored  zealously  during  the  three  years  that  she  has 
held  this  position,  traveling  on  an  average  of  5,000  miles  a  year 
to  visit  the  numerous  branches  in  this  large  and  scattered  stake. 
From  a  beginning  of  7  societies,  she  had  built  up  17  active  or- 
ganizations in  the  stake.  Mrs.  Rawson  is,  at  present,  in  Cali- 
fornia, where  she  has  gone  in  the  hope  of  regaining  her  health. 

Mrs.  Laura  J.  Adamson,  who  has  been  one  of  the  most 
capable  and  intelligent  stake  secretaries  in  the  Relief  Society, 
has  been  chosen  to  take  the  place  of  Mrs.  Rawson.  Following  is 
a  complete  list  of  the  new  stake  officers :  President,  Laura  J. 
Adamson ;  1st  Counselor,  Mrs.  E.  Pearl  Adamson ;  2nd  Coun- 
selor, Mrs.  Charlottie  B.  Smith;  Secretary.  Jennie  Thomas;  Asst. 
Secretary,  Mrs.  Minnie  Rowe ;  Treasurer,  Mrs.  Elna  L.  Stan- 
ford; Genealogical  Committee,  Mrs.  Bessie  G.  Hale  and  Mrs. 
Ida  Fleming ;  other  Board  members.  Mrs.  Hariette  Sparks,  Mrs. 


218  RELIED  SOi  II-.IY  MAGAZINE. 

Mary  A.  Hellewell,  Mrs.  Helena  Jensen,  and  Mrs.  Matilda  Inge- 
bretsen. 

Bingham  Stake.  At  Idaho  Falls,  Sunday,  February  25th,  a 
reorganization  of  the  stake  Relief  Society  took  place.  Mrs.  El- 
vira C.  Steel  was  honorably  released  as  president  of  the  Relief 
Society  in  this  stake,  and  Mrs.  Mamie  Harris  Laird  of  Idaho 
Falls  was  selected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  The  reports  from  Bingham 
stake,  have  acquainted  us  with  the  splendid  work  done  by  Sister 
Steele  and  her  officers.  They  have  been  always  ready  and  willing 
to  respond  to  any  call  that  has  been  made  upon  the  society.  Dur- 
ing the  year  of  1915,  the  Relief  Society  collected  and  donated 
$513.30  for  electric  light  fixtures  for  the  new  Latter-day  Saint 
Auditorium  at  Idaho  Falls. 

Southern  States.  In  the  report  recently  received  from  the 
Southern  States,  we  learn  that  during  the  year,  five  new  branches 
have  been  organized,  with  the  following  officers  :  Catauba,  S.  C. 
Mrs.  Lucy  J.  Starnes,  President ;  Lamison,  Ala.,  Lila  Sealy, 
President ;  Raytown,  Miss.,  Dora  Ray.  President ;  Society  Hill. 
N.  C,  Evalene  Wenberg.  President ;  Xenia.  Ohio,  Lydia  A. 
Schultz,  President. 

The  Lamanite  sisters  in  Catauba  Indian  nation,  have  been 
organized  into  a  society,  and  are  very  diligent  in  visiting  the  sick 
and  caring  for  the  poor. 

In  many  of  the  branches,  the  Relief  Society  members  have 
raised  funds  through  the  sale  of  quilts  and  other  articles  with 
which  they  have  purchased  sacrament  sets  for  the  Church. 


Western  States  Mission. 

An  interesting  letter  has  come  to  us  from  Mrs.  Jane  W. 
Herrick,  who  was  recently  appointed  President  of  the  Relief 
Society  in  the  Western  States  Mission.  Two  societies  have  lately 
been  organized — one  at  Trinidad,  Colorado,  and  the  other  at 
Omaha,  Nebraska.  This  makes  five  societies,  in  all,  in  this  mis- 
sion, the  other  three  being  located  at  Denver,  Pueblo,  and  Ala- 
mosa. Mrs.  Herrick  has  visited  all  the  branches  during  the  last 
year. 

From  the  size  of  the  subscription  list  sent  in,  we  judge  that 
ojt  Colorado  members  are  very  much  interested  in  the  Magazine. 


In  Memoriam. 

Provo  City,  Utah :  At  the  close  of  the  last  year  Mrs. 
Joanna  Holister  Patten  of  Provo  Cty,  Utah,  was  called  to  the 
great  beyond.  Mrs.  Patten  was  born  March  18,  1833,  in  Caroline, 
Tompkins  Co.,  N.  Y.  Her  life  has  been  full  of  interesting  ex- 
periences as  she  has  been  closely  identified  with  the  Church  since 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD.  219 

her  family  settled  in  Kirtland,  Ohio,  in  1835.  She  attended  the 
dedication  of  the  Kirtland  Temple  as  a  child  with  her  parents 
in  1836.  In  1842  she  removed  with  her  family  to  Nauvoo  where 
si  e  remained  for  ten  years,  witnessing  the  rapid  growth  of  this 
city.  She  was  present  at  the  dedication  of  the  Nauvoo  Temple  in 
1846,  and  in  1852  she  came  to  Utah.  Mrs.  Patten  was  personaUv 
acquainted  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith.  She  was  the  mother 
of  ten  children. 


Providence,  Utah :  In  the  death  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Mat- 
thews of  Providence,  Cache  Co.,  Utah,  we  lose  another  of  the 
sturdy  pioneer  women  who  played  such  an  important  part  in  the 
development  of  the  great  West.  Mrs.  Matthews  was  the  daugh- 
ter of  a  pioneer  and  was  a  pioneer  herself,  crossing  the  plains  as 
a  little  girl  with  the  handcart  company  and  suffering  with  others, 
untold  hardships.  She  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Cache 
Valley  and  understood  from  experience  what  it  means  to  over- 
come the  barren  and  stubborn  soil  of  a  new  country.  These 
hardships  born  of  patience,  courage  and  fortitude  developed  a 
strength  of  character  which  made  Mrs.  Matthews  a  leader  among 
her  associates,  and  because  of  her  perennial  smile,  her  sterling 
honesty,  her  unselfish  devotion  to  friends  and  duty,  she  was  be- 
loved by  all  with  whom  she  came  in  contact. 


Mesa,  Arizona :  Mrs.  Rachel  Noble  of  Mesa,  Arizona,  died 
very  suddenly  on  January  20,  1917.  She  was  63  years  of  age  and 
was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  where  she  was  married  to 
P3enjamin  Noble.  Thirty-two  years  ago  with  her  husband  she 
left  Utah  and  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Arizona,  settling  in 
Mesa  where  she  has  resided  continuously  since  that  time.  She 
was  greatly  beloved  by  all  her  acquaintances  for  her  many  admir- 
able qualities.  She  was  broad-minded  and  sympathetic  and  was 
especially  devoted  to  the  charitable  and  philanthropic  work  of  the 
Relief  Society.  Mrs.  Noble  was  the  mother  of  a  large  family. 
One  of  her  daughters,  Mrs.  Mamie  Clark  is,  at  the  present  time, 
President  of  the  Mesa  Stake  Relief  Society. 


Provo :  Sister  Agnes  Strong  Farrar  passed  from  this  life 
22  Feb.,  1917,  at  her  home  in  Provo.  Her  youthful  spirit,  and 
the  sweet  contagion  of  her  sympathetic  nature  endeared  her  to  all, 
friends  and  strangers  alike.  She  was  a  typical  pioneer,  walking 
across  the  plains  and  wading  every  river  but  one.  She  was  the 
mother  of  eight  children,  eighteen  grandchildren,  and  three 
great-grandchildren.  From  1870  she  was  a  faithful  R.  S.  Worker, 
especially  gifted  in  song  and  choir  leading.  May  her  work  go 
singing  on  its  way  through  the  eternities. 


Current  Topics. 

By  James  H.  Anderson. 

Forty  persons,  mostly  children,  were  killed  by  a  gas  main 
explosion  in  Chicago  in  February. 


Prohibition  by  legislative  enactment  is  now  accomplished 
in  Utah;  the  next  move  is  to  secure  it  by  constitutional  provision. 


A  Cuban  rebellion  in  February  threatened  to  require  Amer- 
ican intervention,  but  finally  was  suppressed  without  this  be- 
coming necessary. 


An  Ogden  Boy,  Leroy  Leishman,  has  invented  a  process  for 
transmitting-  photographic  reproductions  over  telegraph  lines. 


Foodstuffs  continue  to  go  up  in  price,  potatoes  reaching  the 
figure  of  six  cents  a  pound,  in  Salt  Lake  City,  in  March. 


Intermountain  railway  traffic  was  effectually  blocked  for 
several  days  in  February  in  and  around  Salt  Lake  City,  steam  and 
electric  roads  being  tied  up  by  snowdrifts. 


Armenia  has  lost  by  death  one-third  of  its  population  during 
the  present  war,  and  the  remaining  two-thirds  have  been  reduced 
to  the  verge  of  starvation. 


Utah  troopers  near  Arivaca,  Arizona,  were  attacked  by 
Mexican  bandits  in  February,  but  drove  them  off  after  a  sharp 
fight  lasting  several  hours.    None  of  the  troopers  were  injured. 


Two  States  out  of  Idaho  is  a  question  to  be  put  up  to  the 
voters  there  at  the  next  election.  West  Virginia  voters  have  a 
similar  proposition  to  deal  with. 


A  labor  agitator  named  Mooney  has  been  convicted  in  San 
Francisco,  in  connection  with  the  bomb  explosion  at  a  prepared- 
ness parade  there  last  summer,  when  ten  persons  were  killed  and 
forty  injured. 


Munition  factory  explosions  occurred  in  England  and 
Germany  in  February.  The  heaviest  loss  of  life  was  at  a  Ger- 
man factory,  where  over  1.000  women  and  girls  were  killed. 


CURRENT  TOPICS.  221 

German  officials  are  now  denouncing  America  as,  next  to 
England,  the  worst  enemy  of  Germany.  Evidently  there  is  some 
irritation  there  at  the  patience  of  this  country  in  having  its  rights 
trampled  on. 

Neutral  nations  have  been  aroused  to  an  intense  feeling 
against  what  they  unanimously  term  Germany's  barbarism  in  un- 
restricted submarine  war  in  attacking  and  sinking  without  warn- 
ing unarmed  passenger  ships,  and  destroying  the  lives  of  men. 
women  and  children  of  nations  not  at  war  with  the  Teutons. 


Mormon  colonists  in  Mexico  have  chiefly  left  that  coun- 
try, abandoning  their  homes  there  to  Mexican  bandits.  Three 
Mormon  colonists  were  seized  at  Hachita,  New  Mexico,  carried 
over  into  Mexico  and  murdered,  by  Mexicans. 


King  Alfonso  of  Spain  was  the  victim  of  an  attempted  as- 
sasination  in  February,  by  an  effort  to  wreck  the  train  on  which 
he  was  traveling.  The  obstruction  placed  on  the  track  was  dis- 
covered, however,  in  time  to  prevent  disaster. 


Food-riots,  owing  to  high  prices  which  many  people  were 
unable  to  pay,  occurred  in  New  York,  Philadelphia  and  Chicago 
in  February.  This  is  a  beginning  of  troubles,  as  the  food  ques- 
tion in  America  promises  to  overshadow  the  war  problem. 


Turkish  troops  at  Kut-El-Amara,  Mesopotamia,  suffered 
a  disastrous  .defeat  at  the  hands  of  the  British  during  the  last 
days  of  February.  This,  with  the  assembling  of  large  English 
and  French  forces  in  Greece,  foreshadows  an  attempted  grinding 
process  about  to  begin  for  Turkey. 

Three  Hundred  American  sailors,  taken  from  various 
ships  by  German  raiders,  are  held  as  prisoners  in  Germany,  de- 
spite the  requests  of  this  country  for  their  release.  This,  under 
international  law,  is  an  act  of  war  against  the  United  States. 


The  "Laconia,"  one  of  the  largest  ocean-going  steamships, 
was  sunk  without  warning  on  the  night  of  February  26,  while  en 
route  from  New  York  to  Great  Britain,  by  a  German  submarine. 
Thirteen  lives  were  lost,  among  them  being  ten  Americans,  two  of 
these  being  women  passengers.  This  inexcusable  breach  of  in- 
ternational law  is  an  act  of  war  on  the  part  of  Germany  against 
the  United  States,  and  hastened  the  request  of  President  Wilson 
that  Congress  give  him  the  power  to  protect  the  lives  of  Amer- 
icans on  the  high  seas. 


Social  Work. 


DRESS 

To  All  Women  Officers  and  Teachers  in  the  Church. 

Dear  Sisters:  Some  months  ago  the  Presidency  of  the 
Church  addressed  a  letter  to  the  General  Boards  of  the  Relief 
Society,  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association,  and 
Primary  Association,  calling  attention  to  present  conditions  of 
immodesty  in  dress  and  social  conduct,  and  asking  that  these 
organizations  take  up  the  matter  with  the  women  of  the  Church. 
The  communication  of  the  Presidency  on  these  subjects  was  pub- 
lished in  the  editorials  of  the  January  (1917)  issue  of  the  Relief 
Society  Magazine,  the  Young  Woman's  Journal,  and  The  Chil- 
dren's Friend.  We  trust  that  if  you  have  not  already  done  so, 
you  will  give  these  editorials  careful  consideration.  We  call  your 
attention,  also,  to  the  editorial  on  this  subject,  by  President 
Joseph  F.  Smith,  in  the  Improvement  Era  for  December,  1916. 

Acting  in  accordance  with  the  instructions  therein  given  the 
General  Boards  of  the  three  women's  organizations  prepared  and 
adopted  a  resolution  on  dress. 

This  resolution  was  sent  to  the  Priesthood  authorities  in 
each  stake,  and  to  all  women  stake  officers.  The  latter  have  sig- 
nified their  willingness  to  adopt  the  same. 

The  first  part  of  the  resolution  applies  to  our  sisters  who 
have  been  through  the  Temple.  These  sisters  have  •received 
special  instructions  from  those  in  authority ;  therefore,  they 
know  their  duty  in  regard  to  the  proper  wearing  of  their  cloth- 
ing. 

The  last  clause  of  the  resolution  applies  to  those  of  our  girls 
and  women  who  have  not  been  through  the  Temple,  many  of 
whom  feel  that  they  are  under  no  restrictions  in  the  matter  of 
dress.  They  thoughtlessly  follow  the  "fads"  of  fashion.  Many  of 
them  wear  sleeveless  gowns  and  such  extremely  low-cut  bodices 
and  short  skirts  at  evening  parties  as  to  bring  the  blush  of  em- 
barrassment to  the  check  of  the  truly  modest  man  or  woman. 
Whi1e  the  custom  of  wearing  such  gowns  may  be  thought  proper 
in  some  circle*  of  fashionable  society,  it  is  unfitting  that  the  daugh- 
ters of  the  Latter-day  Saints  should  be  thus  attired. 

An  evening*  dress  may  be  beautiful  and  becoming  to  the 
wearer  and  yet  be  free  from  objectionable  features.  The  dress 
should  be  made  to  cover  the  shoulder  and  upper  arm :  the  round 
c:  V  nerk  should  not  be  extreme ;  and  the  skirt  not  immodestly 


SOCIAL  WORK.  223 

short.  Very  sheer  material,  while  beautiful  in  itself,  is  not  in 
good  taste  unless  worn  with  underclothing  which  properly  covers 
the  body. 

Inappropriate  street  and  afternoon  costumes  are  frequently 
worn.  Extremely  short  skirts  and  blouses  with  low-cut  V's  are 
manifestations  of  poor  taste  and  indicate  a  lack  of  modesty  on  the 
part  of  the  wearer.  Blouses  made  of  georgette  crepe  or  other 
transparent  materials  are  not  considered  in  good  form  by  the 
best  authorities  on  dress  unless  worn  with  a  suitable  underslip. 
It  is  pleasing  to  note  that  many  of  the  latest  under  bodices  are 
made  with  a  prettily-designed  short  sleeve. 

The  desired  result  in  these  matters  will  be  difficult  to  accom- 
plish without  the  co-operation  of  the  dress-maker  and  home  seam- 
stress who  have  much  influence  in  determining  the  styles  to  be 
worn  in  any  community.  Their  assistance  should  therefore  be 
sought  in  bringing  about  these  necessary  improvements. 

It  is  surprising  that  many  young  women  adopt  extreme 
methods  of  dressing,  under  the  mistaken  impression  that  such 
will  add  to  their  attractiveness.  Good  men  the  world  over  admire 
the  decently  dressed  girl  or  woman.  At  the  officers'  meeting  of 
the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  June  conference,  1916,  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith  made  the  following  statement:  "I  do  not  think  there  is 
a  decent  man  in  this  city  nor  in  the  world  who  would  not  give 
his  decision  unqualifiedly  in  favor  of  the  lady  who  was  modestly 
and  neatly  dressed  in  apparel  designed  to  shield  rather  than  to 
expose  hereslf  to  public  gaze,  as  against  those  who  go  about  the 
streets  half  clad.  I  give  that  as  my  belief.  I  judge  men  by  my- 
self, to  some  extent,  at  least." 

Thinking  men  and  women  everywhere  are  giving  the  matter 
of  dress  serious  consideration.  Ideals  of  true  modesty  are  being 
revived.  At  a  recent  gathering  of  women  in  New  York  City, 
dress  was  one  of  the  principal  topics  treated.  Among  others 
these  sentiments  were  expressed:  "Are  you — a  woman — willing 
to  go  before  your  Maker  and  be  judged  in  the  clothes  you  have 
on?  Do  the  fathomless  V  of  your  blouse,  and  the  little  girl  skirt, 
most  important  symbol  in  the  shorthand  fashions  of  the  hour,  ex- 
press your  character  ?  Do  the  gown  and  the  hat  you  wear  at  this 
moment  indicate  your  thoughtful  intelligence?  *  *  *  *  * 
Good  women  should  have  fashions  of  their  own.  (We)  don't 
believe  in  appearing  dowdy  or  queer,  but  (we)  do  insist  that  a 
woman's  clothes  should  express  her  character — not  her  lack  of 
character." 

Latter-day  Saint  women  should  be  leaders  in  this  move- 
ment. Officers,  especially,  should  set  the  example.  Upon  each 
officer  and  teacher  rests  an  individual  responsibility  to  manifest 


224  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

her  willingness  to  dress  according;  to  proper  ideals.  Each  one 
should  ask  herself:  Am  I  measuring  up,  in  this  respect,  to  the 
highest  standards  of  modesty  and  to  my  professions  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Church  of  Christ. 

INSTRUCTIONS  ON  SOCIAL  WORK. 

By  request  of  the  General  Authorities  of  the  Church,  the 
General  Boards  of  the  auxiliary  organizations  have  unitedly  pre- 
pared the  following  instructions  on  social  work.  These  have 
been  approved  by  the  hirst  Presidency  and  are  now  submitted 
to  Presidents  of  Stakes,  Bishops  of  Wards,  and  auxiliary  organ- 
izations, with  the  request  that  they  be  adopted  in  the  stakes  and 
wards  throughout  the  Church. 

SOCIAL    COMMITTEES. 

1.  ORGANIZATION. —  In  stakes  and  wards  social  commit- 
tees composed  of  men  and  women  shall  be  appointed  by  presidents 
of  stakes  and  bishops  of  wards  to  take  charge  of  all  social  activ- 
ities. The  members  of  these  committees  should  be  selected  with 
a  view  to  their  particular  fitness  for  social  work,  it  being  sug- 
gested for  the  consideration  of  the  authorities  in  the  appoint- 
ment of  stake  and  ward  committees  that  it  might  be  well  to 
have  the  auxiliary  organizations  represented  on  such  committees. 
These  committee^  should  act  in  harmony  with  the  Priesthood 
and  cany  out  their  wishes.  All  social  gatherings  should  be  un- 
der their  direct  supervision. 

2.  Meetings  and  Order  of  Business. — All  committees 
having  social  work  in  charge  shall  have  definite  times  of  meet- 
in--.  The  following  order  of  business  for  these  meetings  is  sug- 
gested : 

la)     Prayer. 

i  l.i      Roll  call. 

(c)      Reports  of  work  previously  assigned. 

(tl)  Consideration  of  general  regulatory  suggestions  re- 
reived. 

I  e  i  Consideration  of  local  social  problems,  and  determina- 
tion upon  definite  ways  and  means  of  their  solution. 

i  fi  Definite  assignments  of  members  of  the  commith.  to 
the  execution  and  supervision  of  the  plans  agreed  upon. 

(  g )      benediction. 

PRIESTHOOD    APPROVAL    AND    PUBLIC    SENTIMENT. 

All  decisions  reached  by  the  social  committees  should  be  ap- 
proved bv  the  presiding  authorities  in  the  stakes  and  wards.    The 


SOCIAL  WORK.  225 

co-operation  of  all  Priesthood  and  auxiliary  organizations,  and 
of  all  other  helpful  sources,  should  be  earnestly  sought. 

The  decisions  should  then  be  brought  before  the  general 
public  with  a  view  to  creating  sentiment  in  their  favor.  It  must 
always  be  understood  that  no  plan  of  action  can  be  successful 
unless  supported  by  public  sentiment.  Therefore,  opportunity 
must  be  sought  to  present  the  work  of  the  committee  in  the  pub- 
lic gatherings  with  a  view  to  enlisting  support. 

INSTRUCTIONS    ON    DANCING    AND    BALL    ROOM    MANAGEMENT. 

1.  The  Hall. — The  committee  shall  see  that  the  hall  is 
clean,  comfortable,  well  lighted,  and  ventilated.  Where  possible, 
separate  cloak  rooms  for  ladies  and  gentlemen  should  be  pro- 
vided. 

2.  Time  of  Opening  and  Closing. — All  parties  should 
begin  not  later  than  8 :30  and  close  not  later  than  1 1 :30  p.  m. 
The  frequent  practice  of  playing  the  "Home,  Sweet  Home"  med- 
ley should  be  dispensed  with. 

3.  Prayers. — All  parties  should  be  opened  and  closed  by 
brief,  appropriate  prayers.     . 

4.  Director  of  the  Dance. — A  competent  man,  who  is 
tactful,  and  has  influence  among  the  young  people,  shall  be  se- 
lected by  the  committee  as  director  of  the  dance ;  if  not  already 
a  member  of  the  committee,  he  shall  be  made  a  member.  During 
the  dance  the  director  shall  have  supervision  of  the  hall,  orchestra 
and  program,  and  shall  be  the  constituted  judge  as  to  what  is 
proper  and  improper  in  dancing  and  deportment.  When  deemed 
advisable,  he  may  be  compensated  for  his  service,  such  compen- 
sation to  be  charged  as  part  of  the  expense  of  the  dance.  Where 
conditions  require,  the  director  of  the  dance  should  have  such 
assistants  as  may  be  necessary.  It  is  suggested  that  these  assist- 
ants be  young  men  congenial  with  the  young  people,  and  familiar 
with  dances  and  dancing. 

5.  Duties  of  Director. — Among  the  duties  of  the  director 
are  these : 

(a.)  To  consult  with  the  musicians  prior  to  the  evening 
of  the  dance  upon  the  fitness  of  the  music  for  the  dances  deter- 
mined upon,  and  arrange  that  only  proper  music  shall  be  played. 
High  class  music  is  conducive  to  good  deportment  and  refined 
dancing.  Great  care  should  be  exercised  in  the  choice  of  music 
for  the  dance,  and  the  orchestra  should  not  be  permitted  to  play 
objectionable  selections. 

(b)  To  be  on  hand  promptly  in  order  that  the  dance  may 
begin  at  the  appointed  time ;  also  to  see  that  the  musicians  and 
reception  committee  are  present  on  time. 


226  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

(c)     To  follow  the  program,  preserving  the  identity  of  the 
dance.     Dances  should  be  announced  by  placard,  program,  or 
otherwise.     Allowance  should  be  made  for  some  variety  in  moth 
ods  of  dancing,  provided  the  different   interpretations  are  sim- 
ilar enough  not  to  be  objectionable. 

i  (1  i      To  insist  upon  correct  position. 

(e)  To  exclude,  tactfully  but  courageously,  undesirable 
persons,  and  to  see  that  the  use  of  tobacco,  liquor,  and  bad  lan- 
guage is  not  permitted  in  or  about  the  building. 

(f)  To  see  that  all  present  receive  proper  introductions. 
Great  care  should  be  exercised  in  introducing  young  people  to 
strangers.  No  young  man  or  young  woman  should  be  intro- 
duced unless  tlu'  person  making  the  introduction  can  stand 
sponsor  for  his  or  her  worthiness.  Much  harm  has  resulted  from 
indiscriminate  introductions. 

6.  Patrons  and  Ciiaperones. — Patrons  and  chaperones 
lend  "tone"  and  an  atmosphere  of  conservatism  much  to  be  de- 
sired, and  also  add  an  element  of  real  safety.  Young  people 
should  be  instructed  that  chaperonage  is  rather  for  protection 
than  for  restraint. 

Social  committees  should  make  it  their  special  duty  to  see  that 
bishops  and  other  leading  members  of  the  Priesthood,  as  well 
as  parents,  receive  personal  invitations  to,  and  are  encouraged 
to  attend,  the  dances  of  the  young  people.  Arrangements  should 
be  made  to  insure  the  attendance  at  each  dance  of  at  least  three 
parent  couples,  free  of  charge.  Frequent  changes  in  the  per- 
sonnel of  patrons  are  desirable.  Attention  to  these  details  will 
solve  manv  of  the  problems  connected  with  social  life. 

7.  Children  Under  Age. —  Boys  and  girls  under  fourteen 
years  of  age,  unaccompanied  by  parents,  sin  mid  be  discouraged 
from  attending  evening  parties. 

8.  Escorts. — Young  ladies  may  attend  without  gentlemen 
courts,  if  properly  chaoeroned.  but  should  not  accept  company 
h<  me  i  ther  than  that  with  which  they  came. 

9.  PARTNERS. —  Young  men  should  bring  partners,  and  their 
coming  without  should  be  strongly  discouraged  if  not  forbidden. 

10.  Position. — Dancers  should  take  such  free  and  open 
position  as  will  permit  them  to  execute  the  dance  gracefully,  pre- 
senting a  pleasing  appearance.  Most  of  the  recent  criticism  of 
dancing  is  occasioned  by  the  improper  positions  assumed  in  the 
modern  dance.  Any  position  which  encroaches  in  the  slightest 
degree  upon  modesty   and   refinement  should   not  be  permitted.  " 

11.  Square  Dances. — Square  and  line  dances  give  variety 
and  develop  the  spirit  of  sociability.  Manv  have  the  idea  that 
these  dances  are  to  be  engaged  in  with  much  noise  and  stamping 


SOCIAL  WORK.  227 

and  at  a  whirlwind  rate.     This  is  not  so.     As  much  grace  and 
dignity  are  required  in  square  as  in  round  dances. 

12.  No  Special  Dances  Approved. — The  Church  authori- 
ties do  not  express  approval  of  any  particular  dance.  They  expect 
all  dances  to  be  characterized  by  modesty  and  refinement. 

13.  Special  Attention. — In  putting  the  foregoing  instruc- 
tions into  effect,  special  emphasis  should  be  laid  upon  the  follow- 
ing : 

fa)  Organization  of  committees. 

(b)  Appointment  of  director  of  the  dance. 

(c)  Chaperonage. 

(d)  Proper  position. 

Contiguous  stakes  may  unite  in  formulating  plans  for  car- 
rying out  these  regulations,  and  for  perfecting  other  details  to 
suit  local  conditions. 

The  General  Board  of  Relief  Society. 

The  General  Board  Deseret  Sunday  School  Union. 

The  General  Board  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A. 

The  General  Board  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

The  General  Board  Primary  Associations. 

The  General  Board  of  Religion  Classes. 

The  General  Church  Board  of  Education. 


MANTI,   UTAH. 


ON  THE  WAY. 

Spring  is  comin'. 

Think  I  hear  the  bees  a  hummin'  ; 
Caught  a  glimpse  of  bluebird's  wing, 
Heard  a  speckled  med'lark  sing, 
Felt  a  touch  of  balmy  breeze, 
Heard  it  whisperin'  to  the  trees, 
"Spring  is  comin'." 

Spring  is  comin'. 
Hear  the  wood-pecker  drummin' ; 
See  the  green  blades  peepin'  thru, 
And  a  blue-eyed  violet  too ! 
Hark,  I  hear  a  robin's  song! 
Makes  me  happy  all  day  long, 
Spring  is  comin'. 


Mrs.  Parley  Nelson. 

■ 


EDITORIAL 


Entered   as  second  class  matter  at   the  Post  Office,    Salt   Lake   City,    Utah. 

Motto — Charity   Never  Failetli. 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

Mrs.     Emmeline    B.     Wells President 

Mrs.    Clarissa    S.    Williams First    Counselor 

Mrs.   Julina   L.    Smith Second    Counselor 

Mrs.    Amy    Brown    Lyman General    Secretary 

Mrs.   Susa   Young   Gates Corresponding   Secretary 

Mrs.    Emma    A.    Empey Treasurer 

Mrs.  Sarah  Jenne  Cannon  Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  Miss  Edna  May  Davis 

Dr.  Romania  B.  Penrose  Mrs.  Priscilla  P.  Jennings  Miss  Sarah  McLelland 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards  Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Crismon 

Mrs.  Julia  M.  P.  Farnsworth  Mrs.  Rebecca  Niebaur  Nibley  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde 

Mrs.  Phoebe  Y.  Beatie  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune         Miss  Sarah  Eddington 
Mrs.  Ida  S.  Dusenberry  Miss  Lillian  Cameron 

Mrs.  Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,   Music  Director 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Susa    Young    Gates 

Business    Manager Janette    A.    Hyde 

Assistant   Manager    Amy    Brown    Lyman 

Room  29,   Bishop's   Building,   Salt   Lake  City,   Utah. 


Vol.  IV.  APRIL,    1917  No.  4. 


SPIRITUAL  MANIFESTATIONS. 

There  is  a  great  longing  in  the  human  heart 
Getting  Away  to  get  out  and  away  from  the  sordid  and 
From  sorrowful  cares  and  burdens  of  daily  life — 

Daily  Cares.  out  into  the  green  fields  of  nature,  into  the 

halls  of  pleasure  or  into  the  fascinating  vistas 
of  the  imagination.  Worldly  people  seek  diversion  in  thea- 
ters, auto  rides,  or  social  festivities.  Religious  people  reach 
out  rather  for  the  green  fields  of  spiritual  desire,  and  enter 
longingly  into  the  golden  promises  of  the  spirit  as  portrayed 
by  dreams,  visions,  prophecies  and  other  spiritual  gifts. 
This  longing  is  natural,  is  human.  It  is  right  for  us  to  gratify 
it — in  reason  and  sanity.  But — there  is  a  danger  lurking  near 
— always  the  danger  of  excess. 

The  use  of  any  gift,  power  or  force  rests 
The  Law  of  upon   law.       Any   person   who   seeks    after 

Equilibrium.  pleasure — in  excess — pays  the  price  of  that 

excess.  Unless  he  complies  with  the  law 
which  balances  up  his  life-forces,  he  will  be  destroyed  by  the 
law.  So,  too,  people  who  seek  after  spiritual  gifts  and  mani- 
festations— in  excess — will  pay  the  price  of  that  broken  law. 


EDITORIAL.  229 

The  recent  publication  of  a  so-called  vision 
The  Danger  of  of  Washington  in  these  pages — which  was 
Pinning  Faith  printed  solely  as  a  curious  old  document — 
to  Unauthorized  has  brought  forcibly  to  us  the  existence  of 
Sayings.  this  eager  longing  of  the  human  heart  for 

spiritual  dreams  and  visions  with  which  to 
vary  the  usual  monotony  of  life — and  the  attendant  danger  of 
placing  reliance  on  anything  but  the  standard  revelations  and 
visions  contained  in  the  Bible  and  the  other  books  of  the 
Church  and  those  that  may  be  given  as  revelation  by  the  living 
oracles  of  God.  We  have  a  wealth  of  prophecy  and  vision 
given  us  in  the  ancient  and  modern  Scripture,  and  command- 
ments many  by  the  living  servants  of  the  Lord.  Why  not 
search  the  Scriptures  and  the  counsels  of  the  authorized  ser- 
vants of  God  for  our  enlightenment?  Why  put  excessive 
stress  on  the  dreams  and  prophecies  of  unauthorized  indi- 
viduals while  we  neglect  the  study  of  the  revealed  word  and 
the  counsels  of  the  Priesthood?  Even  then,  wisdom  must 
guide  our  course.  One  of  the  brightest  women  of  the  Church 
became  so  carried  away  with  the  prophecies  of  Daniel  and 
St.  John,  with  the  confusing  estimates  of  "times,  times,  and 
half-times,"  that  she  finally  drifted  out  of  the  Church  alto- 
gether, because  people  would  not  sympathize  with  her  and 
partake  of  her  excessive  enthusiasm. 

Balance,  poise — these  are  the  keynotes  of 
Cultivate  Poise,  sanity  and  wisdom.  Our  heads  must  not 
soar  so  far  in  the  clouds  that  we  cannot  find 
our  feet  firmly  fixed  on  the  earth.  While  we  are  here  we  must 
observe  the  laws  of  spiritual  as  well  as  material  gravitation, 
or  we  will  be  destroyed. 

Our  condition,  today,  in  the  nation  and  in  the 
Be  Sane.  world,    is    sufficiently    serious,    and   the    ap- 

proach of  the  world's  end  is  sufficiently  near 
to  demand  our  supreme  effort  at  self-control  and  self-poise. 
Sisters,  do  not  be  deceived  by  over-zealous  people  who  have 
this  direful  dream  to  relate  or  that  hazy  vision  to  whisper 
in  your  ear.  Just  keep  your  eye  on  your  file-leader — be  pru- 
dent— attend  to  your  daily  duty  better  and  more  faithfully 
than  ever  before — read  the  Scriptures,  attend  your  Relief 
Society  and  Sacrament  meetings,  look  well  after  the  children, 
redeem  your  dead,  take  sufficient  time  off  for  regular  recrea- 
tion, don't  be  excited  nor  over-zealous,  but  be  wise,  be  poised, 
be  Relief  Society  women  in  whom  your  husbands,  sons,  and 
the  angels  can  trust  to  all  eternity. 


Guide  Lessons. 

LESSON  I. 

Theology  and  Testimony. 

First  Week  in  May. 

the  days  of  the  judges. 
(Readings:  Judges.  Chapters  4  and  5.) 

Two  periods  are  involved  in  this  lesson — the  sojourn  in  the 
wilderness  and  the  conquest  of  Canaan  by  the  Israelites.  We 
shall  deal  with  each  separately. 

\  i'Ut  the  death  of  Rachel,  and  probably  of  Leah  also,  came 
the  famine  in  the  land  of  Palestine  and  the  relief  of  his  father's 
family  by  Joseph,  who  had  been  sold  to  the  Ishmaelites.  Jacob 
then  went  to  Egypt  with  h:s  household  to  the  number  of  seventy 
persons,  counting  Joseph  and  his  two  sons.     Here  Israel   died. 

Then  his  descendants,  till  a  ruler  arose  "who  knew  not 
Joseph,"  entered  upon  their  four  hundred  years  of  "bondage"  to 
the  Egyptians.  Towards  the  end  of  this  period  their  burdens 
became  unbearable,  so  much  so  that  they  cried  to  the  God  of  their 
fathers  for  deliverance.  Jehovah  heard  their  prayers  and  set 
them  free.  Through  a  rapid  succession  of  events — the  birth  and 
rise  of  Moses,  the  revelations  of  the  Lord  to  him,  the  plagues 
upon  their  oppressors,  and  their  flight  from  the  Nile  banks — the 
children  of  Israel  escaped  beyond  the  power  of  the  enemy  into 
the  wilderness. 

Their  wanderings  in  the  wilderness  continued  till  almost 
every  man  died,  who  had  come  out  of  Egypt,  and  a  new  genera- 
tion had  grown  up.  Moses,  "the  most  exalted  figure  in  the 
ancient  world."  was  their  leader  in  both  temporal  and  spiritual 
matters.  Meantime  they  had  dissensions  within  their  ranks  and 
fierce  battles  with  their  enemies  without.  The  generation  of 
Israelites  that  came  out  of  Egypt  is  often  characterized  in  the 
biblical  narrative  as  "stiff-necked."  And  they  were — if  we  are  to 
judge  by  their  actions.  Even  Moses,  one  of  the  meekest  of  men, 
at  times  became  impatient  with  them,  and  gave  them  the  rebukes 
they  richly  deserved.  This  stiff-neckedness  it  was  that  impelled 
the  Lord  to  "cut  off"  the  generation  that  crossed  the  Red  sea. 
As  for  the  opposition  the  Israelites  encountered  from  the  tribes 
along  the  way,  the  chosen  people  were  generally  successful  in 
battle.     On  the  death  of  Moses,  Joshua  took  command  of  the 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  231 

Israelites,  and  led  them  presently  into  the  land  of  Canaan,  which 
he  conquered  for  their  "inheritance  and  possession"  and  which  he 
divided  off  for  them. 

After  Joshua  had  "taken  the  Promised  Land"  and  given  it 
to  the  children  of  Israel,  there  were  still  many  Canaanites  left 
in  cities  here  and  there  in  the  "inheritance"  of  certain  tribes. 
These  were  "left  by  the  Lord,"  we  are  told,  "to  prove  Israel  by 
them."  The  tribe  of  Benjamin,  for  instance,  "did  not  drive  out 
the  Jebusites,  nor  Manasseh  the  inhabitants  of  Beth-shean  and 
her  towns ;"  and  this  same  statement  is  made  by  the  sacred  his- 
torian concerning  the  tribes  of  Ephraim,  Zebulun,  Asher,  and 
Naphtali.  And  hereby  hangs  a  tale.  For  whenever  the  Israel- 
ites left  off  serving  the  Lord  for  a  time,  as  they  did  at  frequent 
intervals  during  these  years,  these  Canaanitish  people  became  a 
source  of  great  trouble  to  them.  "I  will  not  drive  them  out  from 
before  you,"  said  the  Lord,  referring  to  the  first  inhabitants  of 
the  land,  "but  they  shall  be  as  thorns  in  your  sides,  and  their  gods 
shall  be  a  snare  unto  you." 

During  the  leadership  of  Joshua,  the  Israelites  "served  the 
Lord  all  his  days."  But  when  that  generation  "were  gathered 
unto  their  fathers"  and  when  another  arose  "which  knew  not  the 
Lord  nor  yet  the  works  which  he  had  done  for  Israel,"  they  "did 
evil  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord,  and  served  Baalim.  And  they  for- 
sook the  Lord  God  of  their  fathers,  which  brought  them  out  of 
the  land  of  Egypt,  and  followed  other  gods,  the  gods  of  the 
people  that  were  round  about  them." 

They  were  brought  back  to  the  service  of  the  Lord  only 
through  suffering  and  bondage — as  who  is  not  ?  Sometimes  their 
deliverance  was  wrought  through  the  treachery  of  one  of  their 
number,  as  in  the  case  of  Ehud,  who  "made  him  a  dagger  which 
had  two  edges,  of  a  cubit  length,"  who  "did  gird  it  under  his 
raiment  upon  his  right  thigh,"  who  thereupon  went  on  a  personal 
visit  to  Eglon,  "a  very  fat  man"  and  the  king  of  Israel's  oppres- 
sors, and  who  "put  forth  his  left  hand  and  took  the  dagger  from 
his  right  thigh  and  thrust  it  into  the  king,"  blade  and  haft  and  all, 
till  the  king  was  dead.  Sometimes  this  deliverance  was  wrought 
out  by  means  of  the  direct  valor  of  such  persons  as  Barak  and 
Deborah,  who  with  ten  thousand  men  of  war  wrested  the  freedom 
of  their  people  from  the  hands  of  those  who  oppressed  them. 

Josephus  has  a  passage  concerning  this  very  time  which 
allows  us  to  look  at  the  general  condition  of  the  Israelites  during 
one  of  these  lapses.  "The  Israelites  grew  so  indolent  and  un- 
ready of  taking  pains,"  he  says,  "that  misfortunes  came  heavier 
upon  them,  which  also  proceeded  in  part  from  their  contempt  of 
the  divine  worship ;  for  when  they  had  once  fallen  off  from  the 
regularity  of  their  political  government,  they  indulged  themselves 


232  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

further  in  living  according  to  their  own  pleasure,  and  according 
to  their  own  will,  till  they  were  full  of  the  evil  doings  that  were 
common  among  the  Canaanites.  God  therefore  was  angry  with 
them  and  they  lost  that  happy  state  which  they  had  obtained  by 
their  innumerable  labors,  by  their  luxury ;  for  when  Chusan,  king 
of  the  Assyrians,  had  made  war  against  them,  they  lost  many 
of  their  soldiers  in  the  battle,  and  when  they  were  besieged,  they 
were  taken  by  force ;  nay,  there  were  some  who,  out  of  fear, 
\oluntarily  submitted  to  him,  and  though  the  tribute  laid  upon 
them  was  more  than  they  could  bear,  yet  did  they  pay  it,  and 
underwent  all  sort  of  oppression  for  eight  years." 

The  plain  truth,  however,  is  that  the  temptation  to  forsake 
the  worship  of  the  true  God  for  that  of  the  gods  served  all  around 
them  was  very  great,  considering  that  human  nature  is  as  it  is. 
The  religious  rites  of  the  Israelites  were  extremely  strict,  and 
there  were  many  of  them.  The  command  respecting  the  observ- 
ance of  the  Sabbath,  for  instance,  allowed,  if  not  directed,  the 
.'toning  of  any  one  who  broke  this  law.  Jehovah  was  "a  jealous 
God."  On  the  other  hand,  the  worship  of  the  heathen  nations 
in  Palestine,  although  strict  in  some  of  its  requirements,  made 
a  powerful  appeal  to  the  natural  indolence  of  human  nature. 
And  this  appeal  to  the  Israelites  was  the  greater  because  they 
had  no  king  and  the  splendors  of  kingship,  while  the  heathen 
nations  had  both.  Then,  too,  whereas  the  Israelites  were  appar- 
ently "intolerant,"  these  other  peoples'  worship  permitted  other 
gods  than  their  own. 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  What  two  periods  are  involved  in  this  lesson? 

2.  What  happened  to  Israel  after  the  death  of  Rachel? 

3.  Who  was  Joseph?  What  did  he  do  for  his  father's 
fnmily? 

4.  What  difference  existed  between  the  Israelites  and  their 
neighbors?     What  is  the  significance  of  these? 

5.  What  happened  to  Israel  after  the  death  of  Joshua? 
How  do. you  account  for  the  success  of  Joshua  in  keeping  his 
people  true? 

6.  Why  did  the  Israelites  so  often  fall  away  from  the  true 
worship?  In  this  respect  compare  them  with  the  Nephites  on 
this  continent. 

7.  What  conditions  do  we  have  today,  if  any,  that  are  sim- 
ilar to  those  of  the  Israelites  at  this  time? 

Note :  We  recommend  our  students  to  buy  Smith's  Old 
Testament  History,  $1.50,  Deseret  Sunday  School  Book  Store  or 
Deseret  News. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  233 

LESSON  II. 

Work  and  Business. 

Second  Week  in  May. 


LESSON  III. 

Genealogy  and  Literature 

Third  Week  in  May. 
nick  and  descriptive  names. 

One  of  the  earliest  forms  of  surnames  was  that  known  as  a 
nick  name.  The  custom  of  shortening  a  child's  name  has  re- 
mained to  this  day.  Margaret  as  Maggie,  Mary  as  May,  Eliz- 
abeth as  Betty,  or  Lizzie,  and  Catherine  as  Kate.  William  is 
contracted  to  Bill,  Harry  to  Hal,  Richard  to  Dick,  and  Robert  to 
Bob.  Not  only  are  Christian  names  thus  changed,  but  children 
receive  such  nick  names  as  Tug,  Bud,  Tag,  Punk,  Nab,  Carrots, 
Ginger,  Dot,  Bunchy,  Nosey,  Goggles,  and  Bat.  It  is  almost 
impossible  for  a  child  thus  nick-named  to  lose  the  pretty  or  ugly 
addition ;  and  these  nick  names  sometimes  became  surnames  for 
the  descendants  of  the  individual. 

Baring-Gould  says: 

"Among  the  English  kings  nicknames  were  common,  as 
Ethelred,  'the  Unready,'  Edmund  'Ironside,'  Harold  'Harefoot,' 
Henry  'Beauclerk,'  Richard  'Cceur  de  Lion,'  John  'Lackland,' 
Edward  'Longshanks,'  and  Richard  'Crookback.'  The  Welsh 
princes  sometimes  had  descriptive  epithets  attached  to  their 
names,  as  Calcfynedd  'the  Whitewashes'  Leuhir  'Longhand,' 
Mynfaur  'the  Courteous.'  Sometimes  a  nickname  displaced  a 
baptismal  .name.  Thus,  Brendon  the  Coyager  was  christened 
'Mobi ;'  but,  because  there  was  an  auroral  display  at  his  birth, 
he  was  known  through  life  as  'Brenain.'  St.  Patrick  had  four 
names,  of  which  Succat,  Cothraigh,  and  Magonius  were  the 
others.     Cadoc's  real  name  was  Cathmael. 

"When  and  how  nicknames  as  well  as  other  names  became 
hereditary  is  decided  by  Baring-Gould  to  be  about  1538  but  Lower 
and  Cadman  give  the  date  as  the  twelfth  century.  The  word 
"alias"  was  often  slipped  in  between  the  Christian  name  and  the 
nickname  as — Jones  alias  Ballence,  and  Gilbert  alias  Webber. 


234  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Again  we  quote  from  Baring-Gould : 

"That  the  term  'Bastard'  should  have  been  accepted  without 
demur  as  a  surname  is  not  so  surprising  as  might  appear.  Wil- 
liam the  Conqueror  in  his  charters  did  not  shrink  from  describ- 
ing himself  as  William  'the  Bastard.'  The  name  Bastard  has 
been  borne  by  an  ancient  and  honorable  family  in  the  West  of 
England.  'Liefchild'  is  a  love-child,  a  provincialism  for  one 
that  is  illegitimate.  'Parish'  was  a  name  often  given  to  a  child 
that  was  a  foundling,  and  brought  up  by  the  community  in  a  vil- 
lage. 'Parsons'  may  designate  the  child  of  the  parish  priest  be- 
fore the  marriage  of  the  clergy  was  suffered,  or  even  when  it  was 
a  new  thing,  and  not  relished  by  the  people.  But  in  most  cases 
it  is  a  corruption  of  Pierson,  or  Peter's  son.  The  name  Burrell 
comes  from  the  Old  English  word  employed  by  Chaucer  for  a 
layman.  But  why  one  layman  out  of  all  the  parish  should  assume 
this  title  to  himself  is  due  to  this:  that  Burrell  is  a  contraction 
for  Boreclerk,  a  lay  clerk  in  a  cathedral  or  collegiate  church." 

As  an  instance  of  nicknames,  one  will  find  persons  named 
summer,  winter,  day,  Monday,  Sunday,  Noal,  Paschal,  and 
Easter.  We  have  in  this  state  of  Utah  a  gentleman  by  the  name 
cf  Bytheway ;  another  by  the  name  of  Startup — which  gentleman, 
by-the-way,  married  a  Miss  Startin. 

The  few  nicknames  that  eixst  in  the  Essex  record  are  Coup- 
gorge,  Besta  (that  is  doubtful),  Dieudonne,  Foot,  Fox,  Gambon, 
Kene,  Maidgood,  Maloysel,  Merrey,  Peticrue,  Rake,  Short,  Swift, 
Tryst,  Whitehead,  Wolf,  and  Young. 

Others  were  liarfoot,  Crookshanks,  Sheepshanks,  Half- 
penny, etc. :  but  many  were  French  sobriquets  applied  by  French 
men-at-arms  and  domestics  to  Englishmen  with  whom  they  were 
brought  in  contact,  and  accepted  without  any  comprehension  as 
to  the  meaning.  Thus  we  have  the  surname  of  Bunker  from 
Boncceur,  Bunting  from  Bonnetin,  Petti fer  is  Pied-de-fer,  and 
Firebrace  is  Ferrebras.  Joseph  Centlivre  was  cook  to  Queen 
Anne;  but  the  name,  translated  into  Ilundredpounds,  occurs  in 
1417,  when  a  William  of  that  name  was  Mayor  of  Lynn.  Pos- 
sibly enough  the  original  name  Centlivre  was  a  mistake  for  St. 
Livaire,  who  is  venerated  at  Metz.  We  should  look  to  every 
other  source  for  the  interpretation  of  a  grotesque  surname  be- 
fore accepting  it  as  a  genuine  nickname." 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  What  is  a  nickname? 

2.  What  can  you  say  about  nicknames  in  general? 

3.  How  many  in  this  class  arc  called  by  a  nickname? 

4.  Are  there  any  here  whose  surname  is  a  nickname? 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  235 

LITERATURE. 

Third  Week  in  May. 

true  stories. 

Once  there  was  a  little  boy,  who,  like  all  the  little  boys,  was 
very  fond  of  play.  He  liked  mischief,  too ;  indeed,  he  was  so  full 
of  it  that  his  mother  could  hardly  do  her  work  for  watching  him. 
Finally,  to  keep  him  within  bounds,  she  made  a  long  apron  string 
and  tied  him  to  it. 

Tommy  did  not  mind  this  so  much  at  first.  But  after  a  while 
he  became  very  tired  of  tagging  his  mother  about  the  house 
while  she  did  her  work ;  and  once  when  she  was  not  looking,  he 
seized  the  scissors,  clipped  the  apron  string,  and  slipped  out  of 
doors. 

Oh,  how  good  it  seemed  to  feel  free  again !  He  skipped  and 
chased  about  through  the  lot  and  out  into  the  open  fields.  He 
began  to  pluck  the  flowers  and  chase  the  butterflies.  Away  and 
away  he  went  until  he  came  to  the  hillside.  And  up  the  slope 
he  climbed  after  more  wild  flowers.  Finally  he  came  to  a  cliff. 
On  the  edge  of  it  was  the  most  beautiful  cluster  of  blossoms  he 
had  ever  seen.  He  must  have  them,  so  he  climbed  out  towards 
the  tempting  flowers,  but  just  as  he  got  near  enough  to  reach  and 
pluck  them,  his  foot  slipped  and  he  went  tumbling  down  to  the 
edge  of  the  cliff.  Suddenly  something  caught  and  held  him.  He 
lay  a  moment  on  the  dizzy  brink  and  then  clambered  slowly  back 
to  safety.     He  had  been  saved  by  his  mother's  apron  string. 

Is  this  story  true  ? 

This  question  is  constantly  coming  from  our  children.  With 
respect  to  the  story  just  given,  how  shall  we  answer  them?  It  is 
not  a  true-to-fact  story ;  it  was  created  for  us  by  Laura  E. 
Richards ;  but  is  the  story  not  true  ?  Does  it  not  carry  a  great 
lesson  of  life?  How  many  wayward  boys  and  girls  have  been 
held  from  being  plunged  over  a  precipice  by  some  golden  string 
of  love  tied  to  their  young  lives  by  an  anxious  mother? 

A  story,  as  we  learned  in  our  first  study,  may  be  true  to  life 
a. id  true  to  truth  without  being  true  to  fact.  Such  stories,  if 
they  are  wholesome,  as  this  one  certainly  is,  may  do  great  good 
to  one  who  hears  it.  To  be  limited  to  only  such  tales  as  those 
that  really  happened,  would  be  to  deny  ourselves  some  of  the 
best  literature  the  world  has  produced. 

Hawthorne's  "Great  Stone  Face"  is  another  good  example 
of  a  story  that  is  true  to  truth.  The  little  boy,  Ernest,  in  this 
tale,  sees  a  great  face  of  stone  on  the  mountainside.  His  mother 
tells  him  that  there  will  one  day  come  a  man  who  will  be  like 


236  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

the  Great  Stone  Face.  This  starts  the  thoughtful  boy  wondering 
what  kind  of  man  will  come.  He  studies  the  noble  features  of 
the  face  on  the  mountain.  He  dreams  about  the  splendid  at- 
tributes he  reads  in  it.  He  admires  the  character  that  he  pictures 
the  Great  Stone  Face  to  represent. 

A  great  general  comes  to  live  in  the  town ;  the  people  hail 
this  warrior  as  the  image  of  the  Great  Stone  Face ;  but  Ernest 
can  see  no  likeness  between  this  man  of  blood  and  the  noble  face 
on  the  mountain.  Then  a  great  financier  comes,  and  he  is  wel- 
comed as  the  man  of  prophecy,  but  the  boy  shakes  his  head.  The 
great  one  who  is  to  be  like  the  Great  Stone  Face  must  be  more 
than  a  miserly  money-maker.  Ernest  dreams  on  and  lives  the 
noble  things  he  dreams  until  he  h:mself,  becomes  the  man  that 
the  people  have  said  would  come. 

This  is  a  created  story,  of  course ;  but  it  brings  home  to  the 
reader's  heart  the  great  truth  that  we  unconsciously  acquire  those 
qualities  that  wc  admire — a  life  lesson  that  should  be  impressed 
on  every  soul. 

Another  story  that  carries  a  fine  lesson  is  this:  A  certain 
man  was  about  to  die.  Just  before  he  passed  away  he  called  to 
his  s:de  his  three  sons  and  said  to  them  : 

"My  boys.  I  am  going  to  meet  my  Maker.  I  have  nothing  to 
leave  to  you  but  my  blessing,  my  good  name,  and  the  old  farm. 
The  land  is  not  very  valuable,  but  there  is  hidden  in  it  a  pot  of 
gold.     You  may  have  this  treasure  if  you  can  find  it." 

When  the  father  had  died  and  was  buried  honorably,  his 
sons  began  to  dig  in  the  old  field  to  find  the  pot  of  gold.  They 
upturned  every  bit  of  the  soil  a  foot  deep.  No  gold  was  found. 
Again  they  went  over  the  ground,  this  time  digging  two  feet 
deep;  but  no  money  was  unearthed.  Discouraged,  but  not  dis- 
heartend  they  tried  again,  going  down  three  feet.  And  still  they 
failed  to  find  the  treasure. 

"Father  must  have  deceived  us,"  suggested  one  of  the  boys ; 
"but  it  is  very  unlike  him  to  do  so." 

"Well,  it  is  no  use  to  dig  any  more,"  said  another,  "but  we 
might  plant  the  field  to  corn,  and  not  lose  all  our  labor." 

This  suggestion  was  followed.  The  result  was  that  they 
raised  three  times  as  much  corn  as  ever  they  had  produced. 

"I  see  now,"  remarked  one  of  the  brothers,  "what  father 
meant  by  the  'pot  of  gold.'  " 

Stories  of  this  kind  are  certainly  worth  while  even  though 
they  may  not  be  true  to  fact. 

Fairy  tales  often  symbolize  life.  They  may  be  compared 
with  a  trellis  of  blossoming  roses.  The  flowers  running  over  the 
latticework  are  in  themselves  beautiful ;  but  they  get  an  added 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  237 

beauty  as  one  looks  through  the  openings  in  the  bushes  and  sees 
(he  sky  beyond. 

Our  effort  should  be  to  find  stories  that  are  true  and  whole- 
some, stories  that  carry  sweet  lessons  of  life,  that  give  not  only 
pleasure,  but  a  spiritual  viewpoint.  Such  stories  may  be  true  to  fact 
like  those  of  Nephi  and  Alma,  of  David  and  Moses,  of  the  child 
Jesus  and  his  cousin  John.  Also  of  Washington,  of  Lincoln,  of 
our  own  Pioneers ;  or  they  may  be  only  true  to  life  and  truth  as 
those  herein  suggested,  and  many  others  that  have  been  created 
for  us.  If  they  leave  us  nobler  and  better  for  having  read  them, 
if  they  make  us  love  the  good  and  beautiful  and  the  true,  they 
are  surely  worth  while.  We  can  hardly  give  ourselves  and  our 
children  too  much  of  such  wholesome  mental  and  spiritual  food. 
Yet  let  Latter-day  Saint  mothers  spend  most  of  their  story-telling 
time  in  relating  the  beautiful  and  inspiring  stories  from  the  Bible, 
tne  Book  of  Mormon,  and  the  faith-promoting  books  of  our 
Church.  Other  stories  will  do  occasionally,  but  true  stories  are 
always  the  best  and  most  .desirable. 


LESSON  OUTLINE. 

1.  In  what  three  senses  may  a  story  be  true  ?     Explain. 

2.  What  story,  not  true-to-fact  but  true-to-truth,  has  im- 
pressed you?     Be  ready  to  give  some  such  good  short  story. 

3.  What  was  the  chief  purpose  of  the  Savior  in  creating 
hi?  wonderful  parables?  What  truth  has  one  of  these  brought 
strongly  to  your  life?    Relate  a  parable. 

4.  What  fairy  tale  have  you  read  that  teaches  some  great 
lesson? 

5.  The  following  created  stories  are  suggested  as  good  ex- 
amples of  true  and  wholesome  stories  to  supplement  occasionally 
the  sacred  stories  for  the  home  library.  It  will  be  well  to  have 
one  appointed  to  read  one  or  more  of  them  and  give  a  brief  sketch 
of  the  story: 

Moni  the  Great  Boy  (Spyri),  Ginn  &  Company. 

Birds'  Christmas  Carol  (Wiggin),  Houghton,  Mifflin  Co. 

Little  Women  (Alcott),  Little,  Brown  Co. 

King  of  Golden  River. 

Pilgrim's  Progress. 

The  Other  Wise  man. 

6.  Give  some  good  true-to-fact  story  about  one  of  our  pio- 
neers or  some  other  of  the  heroes  of  our  country. 


238  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

LESSON  IV. 

Home  Economics. 
Fourth  Week  in  May. 

FOOD  FOB  SCHOOL  BOYS  AND  GIRLS. 

Care  of  the  diet  should  not  cease  with  the  first  few  years  of 
a  child's  life.  The  hoys  and  girls  trooping  off  to  school  every 
mcrning  have  not  progressed  so  very  far  along  the  path  of 
physical  development  which  extends  through  a  period  of  nearly  a 
quarter  of  a  century.  It  is  true  that  the  years  when  the  rate  of 
growth  is  most  rapid  and  the  digestive  tract  most  sensitive  have 
passed,  hut  it  is  a  grave  mistake  to  relax  the  vigilant  caVe  of  the 
chdd's  food,  leaving  him  more  or  less  to  his  own  devices  in  regard 
to  the  food  he  selects. 

Building  materials  of  many  kinds  are  needed,  the  most  im- 
portant elements  being  nitrogen,  phosphorus,  iron  and  calcium. 
Nitrogen  is  obtained  exclusively  from  protein,  a  kind  of  foodstuff 
found  in  large  amounts  in  milk,  eggs,  meat,  fish,  dried  peas,  beans, 
and  lentils.  Milk  is  rich  in  all  kinds  of  building  material  but 
iron,  and  contains  these  substances  for  growth  in  the  most  readily 
used  form.  It  should  constitute  the  chief  part  of  the  diet 
throughout  childhood,  and  in  the  later  years  of  growth  should 
still  be  freely  supplied.  Egg  yolks  are  rich  in  iron  which  milk 
lacks,  and  also  in  nitrogen  and  phosphorus.  Green  vegetables, 
dried  peas  and  beans,  cereals  fespec;ally  from  the  whole  grain) 
are  very  valuable  for  their  building  materials  and  some  of  these 
foods  should  be  included  in  every  day's  menu. 

The  first  consideration  in  the  school  child's  program  is  his 
Ireakfast.  He  should  never  be  permitted  to  go  off  without  it  as 
no  reserve  of  fuel  is  carried  in  the  tissues  as  we  find  in  the  case 
of  adults.  A  grown  man  can  go  three  or  four  days  without  food 
and  no  important  tissue  or  organ  will  suffer  harm,  but  a  growing 
child  needs  his  proper  amount  of  food  at  proper  intervals  every 
day  or  he  runs  the  risk  of  malnutrition.  Too  much  emphasis 
cannot  be  put  upon  the  importance  of  establishing  a  regular  meal 
schedule.  Irregularity  is  one  of  the  commonest  errors  in  child 
feeding.  The  precise  form  of  this  meal  will  depend  somewhat 
upon  the  age  of  the  child,  for  those  from  five  to  eight  years  of 
age  it  will  consist  of  the  following  in  the  homes  of  the  well-to-do : 

A  mild  fruit,  as  orange,  baked  apple,  stewed  prunes. 

A  well  cooked  cereal  (oatmeal  and  cornmeal  having  the  pref- 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  239 

crence).  Wheatena,  cream  of  wheat  to  give  variety,  a  ready  to 
cat  cereal  occasionally.  All  of  these  served  with  a  liberal  supply 
of  milk  but  not  with  rich  cream  or  sugar,  will  satisfy  and  not 
satiate  the  children. 

Some  form  of  dry,  hard  bread.  This  helps  to  develop  chew- 
ing habits  and  also  to  bring  blood  and  exercise  to  the  jaws  and 
lay  the  foundation  for  strong  teeth. 

Milk  to  drink,  either  whole  or  skimmed. 

A  certain  amount  of  native  fat,  butter  and  cream. 

For  the  older  children  there  may  be  more  variety  in  fruits, 
choosing  the  more  mildly  acid  ones.  To  increase  the  amount  of 
fuel,  an  egg  or  some  meat  may  be  added.  The  main  changes  in 
the  meal  will  be  in  amount,  not  in  kind. 

Dinners,  served  at  noon  rather  than  at  night,  for  children 
from  five  to  eight  years  will  serve  with  little  modification  as 
luncheon  or  dinner  for  the  older  ones.  It  may  consist  of:  1.  A 
soup,  made  with  milk,  a  vegetable  juice  or  pulp.  2.  An  egg, 
dropped  or  poached,  made  into  an  omelet,  or  scrambled,  never 
fried.  3.  A  green  vegetable.  4.  Baked  potatoes  or  boiled  rice. 
5.  A  very  simple  dessert,  as  junket,  baked  custard,  blanc  mange, 
rice,  or  other  cereal  pudding. 

Milk  to  drink.     This  may  be  omitted  if  a  milk  soup  is  served. 

When  the  noon  meal  cannot  be  taken  at  home  the  problem 
of  a  suitable  school  lunch  must  be  met.  If  the  lunch  is  carried 
from  home  the  advantages  of  warm  food  in  promoting  easy 
digestion  is  lost  and  their  minds  are  not  so  clear  for  the  afternoon 
work.  They  are  also  more  likely  to  bolt  their  food  when  not 
eating  at  a  table  with  other  people.  Consequently  special  care 
needs  to  be  taken  that  the  foods  are  suitable  in  kind  and  amount 
and  appetizing  when  the  box  is  opened.  Three  or  four  foods  are 
enough  to  provide  at  a  time. 

1.  Sandwiches,  which  form  the  best  staple,  made  of  bread 
twenty-four  hours  old  and  filled  with  finely  chopped  boiled  eggs ; 
a  nut  paste ;  chopped  dates  or  figs ;  for  the  older  children,  chopped 
meats,  cheese,  jellies,  and  jams. 

2.  Fruit,  is  appetizing  and  carries  well.  Not  only  fresh 
fruit  but  apple  sauce,  sliced  peaches,  pears.  Tomatoes  may  take 
the  place  of  other  fruit  when  liked. 

3.  A  sweet,  baked  custard,  plain  cookies,  dates  rolled  in 
sugar. 

4.  Milk  or  fruit  juice,  if  it  can  be  carried. 

The  evening  meal  should  be  simple  for  the  younger  children 
and  not  taken  later  than  six  o'clock.  Bread  and  milk,  milk  toast, 
cereals  with  milk,  or  thick  soup  with  bread,  and  stewed  fruit  ac- 
companied by  a  plain  cookie  or  sponge  cake  will  make  an  adequate 


240  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

meal.  For  the  older  children,  the  evening  meal  should  be  about 
as  substantial  as  the  noon  meal  including  a  small  serving  of  meat 
and  simple  salad,  fresh  fruit  or  vegetable,  preferably  with  French 
dressing.  There  should  be  plenty  of  bread  and  butter ;  a  variety 
of  breadstuff  will  increase  the  attractiveness  of  the  modest  menus 
of  the  period  of  growth.  There  may  be  changes  in  shape  as  in 
bread  sticks  and  twists ;  of  flavoring,  as  in  sprinkling  cinnamon 
and  sugar  on  top  of  the  loaf;  or  baking  nuts,  dates  or  raisins  in 
it :  and  by  the  use  of  different  kinds  of  flour.  No  fried  food, 
pastries,  tea  or  coffee,  rich  sauces  and  gravies,  should  be  per- 
mitted. Always  remember  that  only  a  free  out-of-door  life  can 
tone  up  the  system  so  as  to  enable  it  to  dispose  of  food  without 
harm. 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  What  can  you  say  about  food  for  growing  children? 

2.  When  can  children  be  permitted  to  eat  meat? 

3.  What  may  be  a  wise  breakfast  menu  for  children  under 
ten  years  of  age? 

4.  What  do  your  children  eat  for  dinner? 

5.  What  about  school  lunches? 


IN  REMEMBRANCE. 

Salt  Lake  City.  We  are  pained  to  record  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Laura  Hyde  Merrill,  :i  very  active  member  of  the  Granite  Stake 
Relief  Society.  Mrs.  Merrill  was  the  daughter  of  the  late  Alonzo 
E.  and  Annie  Taylor  Hyde,  the  latter  serving  for  many  years  as 
First  Counselor  to  our  late  beloved  President,  Bathsheba  W. 
Smith.  Mrs.  Merrill  was  the  grand-daughter  of  President  John 
Taylor  and  also  the  grand-daughter  of  Apostle  Orson  Hyde 
I  ighteen  years  ago  she  was  married  to  Dr.  Joseph  F.  Merrill, 
Director  of  the  School  of  Mines  of  the  University  of  Utah,  and 
son  of  the  late  Apostle  Mariner  W.  Merrill.  Seven  beautiful 
children  have  blessed  this  union. 

Mrs.  Merrill  was  a  woman  of  broad  education  and  rare  gifts 
and  was  always  ready  and  willing  to  use  her  knowledge  for  the 
benefit  of  others.  She  has  been  an  active  worker  in  the  Sunday 
School,  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  Relief  Society,  and  in  the  Society  of  the 
Daughters  of  the  Pioneers,  serving  the  latter  organization  very 
abiy  as  President.  She  has  also  been  interested  in  civic  work  and 
in  organizations  which  have  for  their  object,  the  betterment  of 
mankind. 

Mrs.  Merrill  was  optimistic  and  courageous  throughout  her 
long  illness  and  her  sweet  resignation  to  God's  will  was  a  lesson 
in  faith  to  all  of  her  associates. 


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COmpany     Salt  Lake  Cty,  Utah 
W.  N.   WILLIAMS,  Supt. 


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WE  NOTE:— 

The  Pioneer  Journey  across  the  plains 
was  not  without  its  modes!  romance. 

Death  is  often  the  open  door  for  labor 
among  imprisoned  spirits. 

Rice  is  the  only  valuable  food  stuff 
not  raised  in  price. 

War  with  Germany  means  greater 
economy, increased  patriotism,  and  deep- 
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Our  Annual  Report  shows  the  won- 
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The  Relief  Society  Magazine 

Owned  and  Published  by  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 


CONTENTS. 

MAY,    1917. 

My  Masterpiece   Elsie  C.  Carroll  241 

Council  Bluffs  Ferry,  1853 Frontispiece 

Mothers   in   Israel    243 

Departed  Spirits Laura  Moench  Jenkins  255 

Children's  Problems Lucy  Wright  Snow  259 

May  Entertainments   Morag.  262 

A  Brave  Friend   266 

Current  Topics James  H.  Anderson  268 

Home  Science  Department Janette  A.  Hyde  271 

Notes  from  the  Field \my  Brown  Lyman  274 

Editorial :     War  is  Upon  Us 284 

Guide  Lessons    286 


ADVERTISERS'    DIRECTORY. 

Patronize  those  who  advertise  with  us. 

BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  CO.,  Vermont  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE  MUSIC  CO.,  45  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 

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Temple  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
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KEELEY  ICE  CREAM  CO.,  55  Main,  260  State  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
MERCHANTS'  BANK,  Third  South  and  Main  Streets,  Salt  Lake  City. 
McCONAHAY,  THE  JEWELER,  64  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
RELIEF  SOCIETY  BURIAL  CLOTHES,  Beehive  House,  Salt  Like  City. 
GENEALOGICAL  SOCIETY,  60  East  South  Temple. 
OREGON  SHORT  LINE  RAILWAY,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SALT  LAKE  KNITTING  STORE,  70  S.  Main. 
STAR  PRINTING  CO.,  30  P.  O.  Place,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SANDERS,  MRS.  EMMA  J.,  Florist,  278  So.  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
SOUTHERN  PACIFIC  RY.,  Second  Floor,  Walker  Bk.  Bldg.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
THOMAS  STUDIO,  Photographs,  44  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City. 
TAYLOR,  S.  M.  &  CO.,  Undertakers,  251-257  E.  First  So.  St.,  Salt  Lake  City. 
UTAH-IDAHO  SUGAR  COMPANY,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 
UTAH  STATE  NATIONAL  BANK,  Salt  Lake  City. 
"WOMEN  OF  THE  BIBLE,"  by  Willard  Done. 
Z.  C.  M.  I.,  Salt  Lake  City. 


"N 


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ARE  WE  OF  ISRAEL? 

By  GEO.    REYNOLDS 

A  NEW  EDITION 
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SALT  LAKE'S 
LADY  FLORIST 

Mrs.  Emma  J.  Sanders 

2  78  South  Main  Street 

Schramtm-Johnion  No.  5 

Phona  Waaatch    2815 
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BURIAL  INSURANCE 
IN   THE  BENEFICIAL  LIFE   INSURANCE   COMPANY 

The  women  of  the  Relief  Society  have  now  the  opportunity  of  securing 
a  sufficient  6um  for  proper  burial  by  the  payment  of  a  small  monthly  amount. 
The  moment  you  sign  you  policy  your  burial  expenses  are  assured  without 
burdening    your    children.        Talk    to    us    about    this.  RELIEF    SOCIETY 

HEADQUARTERS,   or 

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Established  1860        Incorporated  1908 

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Fifty-three  years  in  one  location — 
251-257  East  First  South  Street 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Efficient   Service,   Modern   Methods 

Complete  Equipment 


MY  MASTERPIECE. 
By  Elsie  C.  Carroll. 

0  oft  through  my  soul  there  comes  fleeting 
Dreamy  visions  of  consummate  art ; 

A  statue,  a  picture,  a  poem, — 

And  there  wakes  somewhere  in  my  heart 
A  longing  to  carve  the  fair  image, 

To  color  the  picture  sublime, 
To  sing  for  the  world  the  sweet  poem, 

To  create  a  great  masterpiece,  mine. 

But  e'en  as  I  reach  for  my  chisel 

Or  palette  and  brush,  or  my  pen, 
And  open  the  .door  to  fancy, 

I'm  brought  to  the  present  again. 
An  echoing  laugh  may  recall  me ; 

A  shrill  cry  of  pain  or  of  fear  ; 
A  small  grimy  hand  on  my  elbow ; 

A  sweet  lisped  word  in  my  ear. 

And  away  go  my  visions  awinging 

Back  to  the  fount  whence  they  sprung; 

Before  me  untouched  is  my  marble ; 

My  canvas  is  white ;  my  song  is  unsung. 

And  I  turn  to  the  needs  of  my  baby ; 
And,  gazing  into  his  dear  eyes, 

1  sense  with  a  sweet  thrill  of  wonder : 
In  his  future,  my  masterpiece  lies. 


COUNCIL  BLUFFS  FERRY 
1853 


THE 


Relief  Society  Magazine 


Vol.  IV. 


MAY,   1917. 


No.  5. 


Mothers  in  Israel. 

(Continuation  of  M.  A.  Stearns- Winters  Narrative.) 

Mother  had  hired  a  boy  with  a  steady  yoke  of  oxen  to  hitch 
on  the  lead  of  our  team  to  help  us  up  to  the  ferry' on  the  Missouri 
river,  about  eight  miles  distant,  so  just  before  two  o'clock  on 
the  5th  of  June,  1852,  we  started  on  our  long  journey  toward  the 
new  Zion  of  the  Saints.  The  wagon  with  four  yoke  of  cattle  and 
two  drivers — the  little  boy  on  the  lead,  and  Brother  Murie,  with 
a  long  rope  attached  to  the  wheel  team,  gave  an  appearance  of 
strength  suitable  to  any  occasion.  Then  came  the  passengers — 
foot  passengers,  of  course — -mother,  Olivia,  Roney  and  Jimmie 
Murie,  with  myself  bringing  up  the  rear,  thus  our  outfit  making 
quite  a  long  train  of  itself.  Mother  kept  as  near  to  the  wagon 
as  safety  would  permit,  to  look  after  the  numerous  things  that 
were  tied  to  the  outside. 


CAMP  AT   KEOKUK,    1853. 


244  RELIEF  S0(  IETV  MAGAZINE. 

We  were  all  the  travelers  on  the  road  at  that  time,  as  the 
others  had  started  out  earlier  in  the  day,  so  we  had  the  right  of 
way  all  to  ourselves.  When  we  had  gone  two  or  three  miles  we 
came  to  Pigeon  Hollow  where  some  of  the  Saints  had  built  houses 
and  were  striving  to  get  means  to  take  them  the  rest  of  their 
journey.  They  all  came  out  to  see  who  the  travelers  were,  and 
among  them  was  grandma  Johnson,  Sister  Babbitt's  mother.  She 
had  been  our  next  door  neighbor  at  Kanesville,  but  was  up  here 
visiting  some  of  her  children.  They  had  been  gathering  wild 
strawberries  that  day  and  she  brought  out  a  few  for  us  to  taste, 
with  some  bread  and  butter  and  a  drink  of  milk  and  said,  "You 
will  need  it  before  you  get  to  the  camp  ground  ;"  and  she  also 
said,  "I  have  been  drying  some  of  the  seeds  to  plant,  and  I  will 
give  you  some  to  take  with  you.  If  you  will  plant  them  when 
you  get  to  the  Valley  you  will  have  all  the  strawberries  you  need." 
Here  was  another  friendly  surprise  to  cheer  us  on  our  way. 

Some  of  the  experienced  brethren  of  the  settlement  gave  an 
opinion  that  our  load  was  too  heavy  and  that  we  would  hardly 
be  able  to  get  through  without  lightening  it  up  a  little,  but  Brother 
Mnrie  was  more  optimistic,  and  thought  we  could  go  on  all  right. 
As  we  proceeded  on  our  way,  however,  we  all  began  to  take 
notice,  and  by  the  time  we  reached  the  first  camp  ground  five  miles 
from  Kanesville  we  were  all  fully  convinced  that  our  load  was 
too  heavy — and  visions  of  breaking  down  on  the  way  or  losing 
our  cattle  were  anything  but  encouraging.  Something  must  be 
left  and  what  would  it  be.  Brother  Murie  had  just  needful  cloth- 
ing, a  light  feather  bed  and  his  provisions — nothing  could  be 
spared  from  these.  Our  clothing  we  must  have,  our  provisions 
must  go,  and  our  bedding  we  could  not  do  without.  There  was 
a  stove,  a  nice  No.  2  step  stove  that  mother  had  brought  from 
St.  Louis  on  purpose  to  take  with  us  to  the  Valley — we  could  live 
without  that,  and  that  must  be  the  sacrifice ;  but  to  leave  it  by 
the  roadside  when  we  would  need  it  so  much  at  the  end  of  our 
journey  was  not  very  pleasant  to  think  of.  If  we  had  only  sold 
it  before  we  started  it  wouldn't  have  seemed  so  bad.  There  was  a 
company  of  Welsh  Saints,  of  fifty  wagons,  camped  near  us.  They 
were  an  independent  company  and  reported  to  be  quite  well  off. 
so  mother  went  over  there  to  see  if  any  of  them  wanted  to  buy 
a  stove.  She  found  a  young  family  that  were  not  heavily  loaded, 
and  were  just  regretting  that  they  had  not  taken  a  stove  along 
with  them,  and  they  bought  our  stove  with  all  the  furniture,  and 
paid  ten  dollars  in  money  for  it.  Tt  would  be  worth  one  hundred 
dollars  to  them  when  they  arrived  in  the  Valley  with  it.  Then 
we  were  left  without  anything  to  cook  in  or  a  boiler  to  do  wash- 
ing with. 

The  next  dav  1  went  hark  to  Kanesville,  with  a  buggy  that 


sp  *  k  I  ii 


246  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

was  going  that  way — to  get  us  a  sheet  iron  camp  stove,  and  a 
big  brass  kettle  to  do  our  washing  with.  At  the  tin  shop  they 
had  been  so  busy  filling  orders  that  they  didn't  have  a  stove  fin- 
ished, but  thought  they  would  have  one  ready  by  the  next  day, 
and  as  the  buggy  was  going  back  again,  I  had  the  opportunity 
of  going  back  the  second  time,  and  oh,  how  I  did  appreciate  the 
privilege  of  seeing  our  neighbors  and  friends  once  again  after 
bidding  them  goodby  for  the  second  time.  The  stove  was  ready, 
bat  the  brass  kettles  had  not  arrived  and  I  was  under  the  neces- 
sity of  going  back  the  third  time  before  I  could  get  all  we  were 
in  need  of.  As  those  three  journeys  to  Kanesville  were  in  the 
company  of  Brother  Oscar  Winters  and  were  the  beginning  of 
the  friendship  and  love  that  lasted  through  life  and  to  be  renewed 
in  Eternity,  I  cannot  pass  it  by  unmentioned. 

We  had  joined  Bishop  Cutler's  fifty  and  were  the  twelfth 
company  organized  for  that  year's  journey.  Part  of  them  had 
crossed  the  river — some  of  them  were  at  the  ferry — and  our  ten 
still  at  the  first  camp  ground,  but  all  ready  to  start  on  the  next 
morning.  Our  team  was  considered  too  light  for  the  journey, 
and  another  yoke  of  oxen  was  furnished  us  from  the  company's 
cattle,  but  they  were  young  and  had  not  been  worked  much  and 
there  was  still  the  problem  of  managing  an  unruly  team.  Brother 
Murie  proposed  that  we  get  a  very  early  start  the  next  morning, 
and  trust  to  those  following  us  for  any  help  we  might  be  in  need 
of — and  we  did  not  fail  to  be  ready.  He  let  three  teams  lead 
out  to  be  encouragement  for  ours,  and  then  he  drove  into  line 
and  the  team  walked  up  quite  straight  and  lively  and  our  hopes 
rose  accordingly  till  we  could  seem  to  hear  the  greetings  of  our 
friends  at  the  other  end  of  the  journey,  but  presently  they  stoppe<l 
still  in  the  road  as  if  their  eyes  plainly  told  that  they  didn't  want 
to  go  any  farther.  The  team  behind  had  to  stop  too,  and  the 
driver,  a  stranger,  enquired  what  was  the  matter;  his  team  was 
quiet  and  gentle.  His  wife  and  children  sat  in  the  front  of  the 
wagon  looking  contented  and  happy,  but  all  anxious  to  continue 
on   their  way. 

Soon  our  team  gave  a  start,  went  a  few  rods  and  turned 
clear  out  of  the  road.  This  was  a  good  chance — and  three  teams 
passed  us  without  comment,  but  the  fourth  man  came  and  helped 
us  drive  back  into  the  road  again  and  the  team  went  on  for  a  longer 
distance  than  at  any  time  previous.  We  were  now  coming  to 
the  open  ground  and  the  cattle  saw  the  opportunity,  started  on  the 
run  and  made  a  b:g  circle  like  a  race  track  and  looked  as  though 
they  were  bound  to  take  the  prize.  Rrother  Murie  was  still 
holding  on  to  the  long  rope  and  running  to  keep  up  with  them, 
with  mother  /olio wing  as  best  she  could  to  look  after  the  things 
that  kept  dropping  from  the  wagon  in  its  wild  flight,  and  I  fol- 


MOTHERS  IN  ISRAEL.  247 

lowing  her,  for  fear  she  would  be  hurt  or  that  she  would  get  sick 
from  her  long-  walk,  and  the  hot  rays  of  the  sun.  O,  the  agony 
of  those  hours,  words  would  fail  me  to  depict.  Sometimes  mother 
would  hold  the  rope  and  Brother  Murie  try  to  get  the  oxen  back 
into  the  road  again,  and  once  in  wheeling,  they  wheeled  around 
and  came  near  crushing  her  between  their  bodies  and  the  wagon, 
Brother  Murie  all  the  while  trying  to  send  us  far  away  from  the 
dangers  of  the  situation.  But  which  way  should  we  turn?  We 
had  left  the  place  we  called  home,  and  were  adrift  with  strong 
head  winds  to  encounter,  but  I  will  not  say  we  were  blown  back, 
for  with  every  lunge  of  the  cattle  we  made  a  little  progress  and 
the  next  move  they  wheeled  into  the  road  as  if  by  magic  and  just 
missed  by  a  hair's  breadth,  running  off  a  little  bridge  over  a 
ravine.  After  going  a  few  lengths  they  stopped  stock  still  right 
in  the  middle  of  the  road,  and  refused  to  stir  another  foot.  Mother 
advised  that  we  stop  right  where  we  were  till  some  one  should 
come  along  and  we  would  hire  them  to  help  us  into  camp,  and  then 
we  would  have  to  make  some  other  arrangements  before  we  tried 
to  go  any  further.  It  was  then  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
— we  had  been  on  the  move  since  early  morning,  were  very  tired, 
arid  glad  of  a  little  relaxation  from  our  strenuous  exertions. 
Bi  other  Murie  still  stood  at  his  post  of  duty  near  the  head  of  the 
team  while  the  rest  of  us  sought  a  little  shelter  from  the  sun  at 
the  back  of  the  wagon,  all  watching  the  road  in  both  directions, 
for  signs  of  the  help  we  were  so  much  in  need  of. 

After  a  time  mother  decried  a  horseman  coming  toward  us — 
and  while  this  did  not  portend  very  promising  help,  still  we  waited 
hopefully  to  see.  The  traveler  proved  to  he  Brother  Winters, 
and  after  enquiring-  what  the  difficulty  was,  he  .dismounted,  asked 
Brother  Murie  for  the  whip,  and  with  a  gentle  whoa-haw.  the 
team  started  up,  and  with  a  little  toss  of  the  horns  bent  their 
necks  to  the  yoke  and  walked  off  in  quite  a  respectable  manner. 
This  last  stop  was  about  a  mile  and  a  quarter  from  the  river,  and 
ffter  the  team  had  gone  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in  this 
peaceful  manner,  mother  said  to  Brother  Winters,  "I  believe  we 
can  get  to  the  camp  now.  and  will  not  detain  you  from  vour 
journey  any  lon,ger."  He  replied,  "I  am  not  going  any  farther 
today,  and  can  just  as  well  drive  as  not."  We  were  soon  at  the 
ex]ge  of  camp,  when  he  returned  the  whip  to  Brother  Murie  and 
said,  "Now,  I  think  they  will  go  all  right,  and  you  can  drive  your 
wagon  to  a  place  that  suits  you  best  for  camping."  It  was  four 
o'clock  p.  m.  when  we  halted  on  the  bank.  Of  course,  being  so 
late  we  had  to  take  our  place  at  the  foot  of  the  line  and  be  the 
last  to  cross  the  ferry,  but  we  were  glad  to  reach  there  at  all.  and 
thankful  for  the  needful  rest  we  could  now  have. 

It  was  the  afternoon  of  the  next  day  when  it  came  our  turn 


MOTHERS  IN  ISRAEL.  249 

to  cross  the  river,  and  as  they  had  gentle  teams  to  place  the 
wagons  on  the  boat  we  got  along  as  well  as  other  people  at  the 
ferry  and  we  camped  a  few  rods  from  the  landing,  that  night, 
on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi  river.  The  next  day  was 
Saturday  and  all  were  counseled  to  move  to  the  higher  land  a 
few  miles  west,  to  camp  over  Sunday.  It  was  cholera  times  and 
great  caution  was  needed  to  protect  the  health  of  the  emigrants. 
Our  company  moved  onto  a  beautiful  grassy  bluff  with  trees 
sufficient  for  shade,  and  there  passed  a  peaceful,  quiet,  restful 
Sabbath  day.  Here  was  to  take  place  the  final  organization  of 
the  company,  and  after  we  left  this  point  it  would  not  be  safe 
to  travel  except  in  large  companies.  Mother's  strength  was  fail- 
ing, she  felt  that  she  could  not  go  on  as  we  were  doing.  Our 
team  had  sobered  down  a  little,  and  with  the  help  of  those  back 
and  in  front  of  us,  managed  to  get  the  road  some  way,  but  mother 
could  not  ride  and  she  was  not  able  to  walk  and,  therefore,  de- 
cided to  hire  a  team  to  take  us  back  and  try  and  make  a  new 
start  under  more  favorable  circumstances.  There  were  several 
buggies,  one  horse,  and  light  wagons  in  the  company,  and  mother 
tried  to  hire  one  to  ride  in  till  our  team  would  become  steady  so 
she  could  ride  in  the  wagons,  but  all  were  needed  by  the  people 
who  owned  them,  and  could  not  be  spared  upon  any  consideration, 
but  just  at  the  last  minute  before  the  start  Monday  morning, 
through  the  intercession  of  a  friend,  we  obtained  the  hire  of  a 
horse  and  buggy  to  take  us  on  the  way.  We  had  walked  thus  far, 
some  of  the  time  in  a  steady  rain,  but  now  the  sun  was  shining, 
the  day  was  fair  and  bright,  and  the  thought  of  going  onward 
filled  our  hearts  with  joy  supreme,  and  our  souls  with  gratitude 
to  the  Father  who  had  again  opened  the  way  before  us,  and 
smoothed  our  pathway.  Our  team  behaved  a  little  better  every 
day,  following  in  the  train,  and  we  will  not  condemn  them,  nor 
yet  find  fault  with  the  driver,  for  all  were  unused  to  the  labor 
they  had  to  perform.  Brother  Murie  being  a  native  of  Scotland, 
was  not  used  to  oxen  from  his  boyhood  up  as  were  most  of  the 
other  men  in  our  company,  and  as  the  team  were  to  be  our  com- 
panions on  the  journey,  perhaps  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  to 
introduce  them  by  name.  Die  and  Darby  were  their  names  when 
they  were  purchased — Buck  and  Bright  were  handed  over  with 
their  love  for  the  journey.  And  Brother  Murie  called  the  cows 
Lady  Blackie,  Lady  Milky,  and  Cherry,  and  the  one  that  was  so 
very  vicious  he  said  Lady  Lucifer  was  the  proper  name  for  her, 
and  those  were  the  names  they  were  called  by  everybody  all  the 
way  over.  It  took  us  two  days  to  reach  the  ferry  at  the  Elk  Horn 
river,  and  as  we  were  going  up  the  bank  on  the  west  side  we  saw 
two  graves,  one  was  little  Henry  Beers  about  five  years  old  who 
was  drowned  on  the  pioneer  journey  three  years  previous,  and 


250  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

the  other  a  young:  man  of  19  who  lost  his  life  trying  to  save  the 
little  boy. 

We  had  been  intimately  acquainted  with  Sister  Beers  in 
Nauvoo  and  Winter  Quarters,  and  the  sight  of  the  graves  cause<l 
a  wave  of  sadness  in  our  hearts,  and  also  caused  us  to  keep  watch 
over  my  little  brother  Moroni.  We  made  a  nice  camp  that  night 
— pitched  the  tent  which  Brother  Murie  and  James  had  all  to 
themselves  and  we  retired  with  the  prospect  of  a  good  night's 
rest,  but  in  the  night  a  thunderstorm  arose  and  it  rained  and  light- 
ning and  blew  a  small  hurricane,  and  as  the  storm  increase<l 


i 


LOUP  FORK  FEI 


mother  proposed  that  we  should  be  ready  for  any  emergency. 
Our  wagon  stood  broadside  to  the  wind  and  with  every  fresh 
gust  it  seemed  as  if  the  bows  would  snap  in  spite  of  us. 
We  tried  to  hold  against  the  wind,  but  our  strength  was  puny. 
Brother  Murie  had  taken  the  same  precaution  that  we  had — was 
up  and  dressed  and  holding  on  to  the  tent  to  keep  it  to  its  fas- 
tenings. Jimmie,  covered  up  in  bed,  was  still  asleep  as  were  our 
children  in  the  wagon.  As  the  ground  was  sandy  some  of  the 
pins  pulled  loose,  and  the  tent  collapsed  and  buried  them  in  its 
wet  folds.  This  aroused  Jimmie  and  he  scrambled  round  but 
could  not  find  his  clothes,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  they  could 
get  out  from  under  the  heavy,  wet  tent.  Mother  handed  out  a 
big  shawl  to  wrap  Jimmie  in  and  they  climbed  into  the  wagon, 
and  with  our  united  efforts  we  pressed  against  the  bows  till  the 
storm  subsided.     Mother  fixed  a  place  on  the  foot  of  the  bed  for 


MOTHERS  IN  ISRAEL.  251 

Jimmie  and  covered  him  with  some  extra  bedding-  and  the  rest 
of  us  sat  and  nodded  until  daylight,  thankful  that  the  Lord  had 
preserved  us  from  the  destroying  power  of  the  elements.  The 
sun  came  out  warm  and  smiling  as  if  nothing  had  ever  hap- 
pened to  disturb  our  peace.  The  things  in  the  wagon  were  com- 
paratively dry,  and  the  dripping  tent  and  bedding  were  ready  for 
the  next  night's  use,  not  much  the  worse  for  their  drenching. 
We  moved  on  up  to  the  Loup  Fork  and  crossed  with  the  rope 
ferry.  In  the  afternoon  we  had  a  chance  to  straighten  and  ar- 
range our  things  a  little  better,  and  do  some  cooking.  It  took  all 
the  next  day  for  the  wagons  to  cross  over  and  as  there  were  not 
many  in  camp  that  were  used  to  working  a  rope  ferry,  those  who 
did  know  had  to  work  very  hard.  Brother  Robison  and  Brother 
Winters  had  worked  all  day  and  drank  freely  of  the  warm  river 
water,  and  at  night  Brother  Robison  became  very  sick  with 
cholera,  and  Brother  Winters  was  the  first  to  call  for  a  dose  of 
the  medicine.  Before  leaving  Kanesville,  Brother  Winters  had 
gone  to  the  drug  store  and  handed  the  druggist  five  dollars  and 
told  him  he  wanted  some  of  his  best  cholera  remedies  to  take 
with  him  on  the  plains — all  had  been  advised  to  provide  them- 
selves with  cholera  medicine,  and  mother  had  a  good  portion 
along  with  her,  among  other  things  a  quantity  of  pulverized, 
sifted  charcoal.  The  day"  before  we  arrived  at  Loup  Fork, 
Brother  Winters  brought  his  box  of  medicine  to  mother  and  said 
she  would  know  mow  to  use  it  better  than  he  did.  She  told  him 
we  had  brought  plenty  with  us  and  he  had  better  keep  it  himself, 
but  he  said,  "No,  you  take  it  and  deal  it  out  to  whoever  needs  it 
first  as  long  as  it  lasts."  And  that  night  Brother  Winters  was 
the  first  to  call  for  a  dose  of  the  medicine  he  had  so  recently 
handed  to  mother.  He  knocked  at  our  wagon  in  the  early  part 
of  the  night  and  in  response  to  the  question,  what  is  wanted,  said, 
"Brother  Robison  is  very  sick  with  cholera,  and  if  you  will  pre- 
pare something  I  will  take  it  to  him  for  he  is  in  great  need  and 
I  am  going  to  stay  with  him  through  the  night."  Mother's  prep- 
aration consisted  of  charcoal  and  molasses,  laudanum  or  pare- 
goric, camphor  and  a  little  cayenne  pepper,  with  as  much  raw 
Hour  as  charcoal — and  it  proved  to  be  a  good  remedy,  for  all  that 
took  it  recovered  except  Brother  Robison,  and  he  passed  away 
after  two  days'  suffering,  and  was  buried  near  the  banks  of  the 
Loup  Fork  where  he  had  so  faithfully  labored  to  help  assist  his 
brethren  and  sisters  to  cross  that  river.  Soon  after  the  first  call 
for  medicine  we  heard  groaning  in  a  wagon  near  by,  and  as  there 
were  voices  on  the  outside,  mother  called  to  them  to  know  what 
was  the  matter  and  if  she  could  be  of  any  help  to  them.  A  young 
man  came  over  and  said,  "Sister  Pratt,  for  God's  sake,  if  you 
have  got  anything  that  will  help  my  mother  I   wish  you  would 


252  REL1EE  S0CIET\    MAGAZINE. 

let  me  have  it — she  is  very  sick  and  I  am  afraid  she  will  die." 
She  was  a  widow  and  he  her  only  child.     The  medicine  was  soon 
1  eady  and  it  had  good  effect  on  her,  for  she  got  easy  before  morn- 
ing and  soon  recovered.       Just  after  midnight  two  more  calls 
came,  they  were  strangers,  but  soon  found  out  where  there  was 
a  prospect  of  help  for  their  sick  ones.     All  were  supplied  and 
got  well.     Just  before  daylight   Brother  Winters  made  another 
call  for  medicine  and  said,  "This  time  it  is  for  myself.     I  have 
been  sick  for  several  hours  and  keep  getting  worse  all  the  time." 
He  took  his  portion  to  his  wagon,  and  by  afternoon  was  much 
better.     There  had  been  quite  a  scare  at  the  sudden  breaking  out 
of  the  disease  in  camp  but  we  were  relieved  that  it  was  checked 
up  so  favorably,  with  all  but  Brother  Rob'son.      The  heavy  rains 
had  made  it  very  wet  and   swampy   near  the   river,   and   many 
thought  that  the  cause  of  the  sickness  and  were  anxious  to  move 
on  to  higher  ground,  so  twenty  wagons  including  ours  started  on 
that  afternoon,  and  camped  in  a  beautiful  place  to  wait  for  the 
rest  to  come  up.     About  two  o'clock  the  next  day  some  of  the 
horses  broke  from  the  herd  and  ran  off  and  the  herdsman  could 
not  get  them,  and  Brother  Winters  and  some  others  whose  horses 
were  still  there  took  them  and  started  after  the  others.     Brother 
Winters  was  repeatedly  cautioned  not  to  go,  but  thought  they 
would   soon   overtake   the   horses,   but   instead  they   went   many 
miles  and  did  not  get  back  till  dark  with  the  runaways.     The 
exertion  caused  a  relapse  and  Brother  Winters  was  much  worse 
than  when  he  had  the  first  attack.     A  number  of  others  in  camp 
were  ailing,  but  not  so  severe  as  the  first  that  were  stricken,  and 
many  predicted  that  if  we  did  not  move  on  all  would  be  sick. 
Brother  Murie  was  of  that  opinion,  so  we  with  the  twenty  wagons 
proceeded  on  the  next  day,  and  at  night  camped  where  there  was 
sufficient  water,  bounteous  grass,  but  no  fuel.     Mother  had  a  few 
pieces  of  kindling  in  the  wagon  and  a  piece  or  two  of  wood  she 
had  picked  up  on  the  road  and  when  we  stopped  she  told  me  to 
look  around  and  see  if  I  could  find  anything  to  help  make  a  fire 
and  she  would  make  a  large  kettle  of  porridge — we  could  have- 
some  for  our  supper  and  there  would  be  enough  for  all  the  sick 
folks  at  night  and  morning  to  have  a  warm  drink.     I  searched 
faithfully,  but  could  not  find  even  a  twig  or  a  straw  or  a  dry 
blade  of  grass,  and  from  that  day  to  this  if  there  is  anything 
burnable  to  be  had  I  can  find  it,  no  matter  how  small  it  is.     This 
was  a  very  discouraging  time.       The  prospect  was  for  the  whole 
camp  to  go  to  bed  with  a  cold  supper  if  they  were  so  fortunate  as 
to  have  anything  cooked.      But  the  sick  folks — it  was  too  bad  for 
them  not  to  have  something  warm  after  the  long  drive,  so  we 
brought  out  the  sheet  iron  camp  stove,  determined  to  do  what 
we  could  in  the  cause.     Just  then  a  sister  came  along  and  ques- 


254  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

tioned,  "Where  did  you  find  anything  to  make  a  fire  of  in  this 
barren  place?'*  And  when  mother  told  her  she  replied,  "Well. 
T've  got  a  few  pieces  in  my  wagon — not  enough  to  do  anything 
with,  but  added  to  yours  will  help  some."  This  was  quite  en- 
couraging, so  we  got  everything  ready,  the  thickening  stirred  and 
placed  on  the  back  of  the  stove  to  warm  a  l'ttle,  set  the  kettle  of 
water  on  the  stove,  hung  something  around  to  save  the  heat,  and 
touched  a  match  to  the  kindlings,  then  oh.  how  we  watched  and 
w.-.ited  and  prayed  that  the  kettle  would  boil,  and  there  would  be 
heat  enough  to  cook  the  porridge.  As  soon  as  a  drop  or  two  of 
the  thickening  woul  1  swim  around  in  the  water  we  put  it  all  in, 
stirred  it  up  good,  put  the  cover  on,  threw  something  over  it  to 
keep  the  heat  in  and  left  it  for  a  few  minutes,  with  a  hope  that 
it  would  cook  "done."  Mother  called  round  to  speak  to  the  sick- 
ones,  and  see  how  many  there  were,  and  found  many  of  them 
very  *veak  and  dejected  and  discouraged.  When  we  opened  up 
the  porridge  it  had  stopped  boiling,  but  proved  to  be  well  done, 
was  piping  hot,  and  after  adding  sufficient  milk  we  started  on  our 
lounds  of  distribution.  There  were  seven  that  accepted  it  joy- 
fully, and  I  believe  the  surprise,  under  the  discouraging  circum- 
stances, did  them  as  much  good  as  the  refreshment.  And  others 
that  we  took  it  to  said,  "Oh.  ('on't  give  it  to  us  for  I  guess  there 
i<  some  in  camp  that  need  it  more  than  we  do,"  but  mother  as- 
sured them  there  was  plenty  for  all  of  them  that  were  ailing.  We 
had  a  little  of  the  porridge  or  gruel  and  with  bread  and  butter 
made  us  a  very  comfortable  supper.  And  right  here  I  will  say 
that  the  little  sheet  iron  stove  proved  the  greatest  blessing  to  us 
on  this  night  of  any  time  on  the  journey. 

The  next  morning  mother  was  awake  early — she  had  saved  a 
portion  of  the  gruel  an  1  covered  it  away  carefully,  but  now  it 
was  cold  so  she  took  our  l'ttle  fish  oil  lamp  and  began  the  task  of 
warming  it  for  the  sick  ones.  She  had  taken  a  table  cloth  folded 
inside  a  larger  one  and  place  1  it  on  the  projection^  of  the  wagon 
and  placed  the  cups  of  gruel  in  the  folds,  not  in  cold  storage,  but 
in  warm  storage  as  it  were,  as  fast  as  she  got  them  warm  till 
they  were  all  ready.  Then  she  roused  me  up  to  take  them  to 
the  people — these  were  mostly  sisters — only  two  of  the  men  folks 
of  this  camp  had  been  taken  sick.  This  was  a  greater  surprise 
than  the  night  before,  and  tears  filled  some  of  their  eyes  as  they 
enquired  how  it  had  happened,  and  some  of  them  afterwards  told 
mother  that  they  believed  that  those  warm  drinks  were  the  means 
of  helping  to  save  their  lives.  Now  this  had  been  a  sick,  a  sad 
and  a  sorry  time  in  our  little  camp,  but  T  am  glad  to  say  that  all 
recovered,  and  after  that  there  was  not  a  day's  sickness  of  that 
kind  during  the  rest  of  the  journey. 

( To  be  concluded. ) 

(Note:  The  illustrations  used  are  taken  from  The  Route 
from  Liverpool  to  Salt  Lake  City,  printed  in  1853.) 


Departed  Spirits. 

By  Laura  Moench  Jenkins. 

Softly  the  vesper  bells,  ringing  at  eve, 
Call'd  the  fair  spirit  daughters  to  prayer. 

Silently  glided  each  form  to  its  place, 
Joining  sweetly  the  requiem  there. 

"Stay  daughter  Magdalena !  Why  art  thou  downcast?"  in- 
quired Mother  Barbara  as  they  two  followed  the  retiring  throng 
from  the  vesper  hall.  Tears  sprang  to  Magdalena's  eyes  at  the 
sympathetic  words  of  the  aged  matron. 

"Nay,  speak  out,  daughter.  Dost  thou  yearn  for  freedom 
from  this  prison  home,  or  cravest  thou  the  companionship  of  thy 
husband  and  sons?" 

"O  Mother  Barbara!"  sighed  the  unhappy  woman.  "How 
many  many  years  we  have  been  incarcerated  here;  waiting, 
watching,  and  pleading  with  our  heavenly  Father  for  deliverance. 
While  upon  earth,  observed  we  not  the  laws  of  God  to  the  best 
of  the  knowledge  we  had  received? 

"At  my  knee,  my  little  ones  I  taught  to  lisp  their  tiny  prayers. 
They  grew  up  to  be  Christian  men  and  women,  devout  and  just. 
One  of  my  descendants,  I  have  been  told,  has  entered  into  the 
waters  of  baptism  and  become  a  member  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  which  is  now  established  upon  the 
earth.  He  is  a  learned  man  and  has  accomplished  a  great  work 
among  that  people.  He  has  also  labored  in  the  holy  Temples  of 
earth  for  his  departed  kindred,  and  now  that  he  has  been  gathered 
to  his  fathers,  he  is  teaching  them  the  gospel  of  Christ.  Many 
have  accepted  his  teachings  and,  as  the  work  is  .done  for  them 
by  proxy  in  the  temples  of  earth,  they  were  liberated  from  their 
prisons  and  are  waiting  for  their  wives  and  daughters  to  join 
them.  Oh,  when  shall  this  opportunity  come  to  us,  Mother  Bar- 
bara? I  long  to  be  clasped  to  the  bosom  of  my  husband  and 
meet  my  noble  sons  and  have  my  family  reunited." 

In  her  hands,  Magdalena  buried  her  face  and  wept. 
"Weep  not,  daughter,"  comfortingly  spoke  the  motherly 
voice  at  her  side.  "Today,  I  have  received  good  tidings  for  our 
race.  This  night,  a  woman  is  to  be  called  from  the  World  of 
Mortality,  to  teach  this  same  gospel  to  her  kindred  womenfolk  in 
this  prison  home. 

"I,  too,  have  heard  of  the  descendant  of  whom  you  have  been 
speaking.  His  earthly  name  is  Louis  Frederick  Hess  and  he  is 
a   Patriarch  to  our  race.       This  woman   is  his   daughter.     Her 


256  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

earthly  career  has  prepared  her  for  the  mission  she  is  to  fill  in 
the  World  of  Spirits.  Tonight  thou  mayst  join  the  party  earth- 
ward bound  to  meet  our  returning  kinswoman.  Make  ready 
quickly,  the  hour  of  departure  draws  nigh. 

"Patriarch  Hess,  by  authority  of  the  holy  Priesthood  which 
he  holds,  is  commissioned  to  release  the  spirit  of  his  daughter  and 
guide  her  safely  to  the  land  of  Paradise. 

"Louise  Hess  Arlvn  is  the  name  by  which  this  woman  has 
been  known  on  earth. 

"The  western  gate  leading  earthward  is  appointed  as  the 
place  of  meeting,  and  the  time,  the  third  bell  of  the  night." 

Then  softly  whispering  pass  words  in  her  ear,  she  bade  her 
Godspeed  and  the  two  women  separated. 

Down  the  long  corridor  slowly  glided  Mother  Barbara  until 
she  stood  at  the  door  of  her  own  chamber ;  silently  she  passed 
within  and  closed  the  door  behind  her.  That  she  also  carried  a 
grief  she  would  fain  conceal,  her  tightly  pressed  lips  and  hands 
clasped  over  her  heart  gave  evidence. 

Long  years  she  had  spent  in  this  prison  home  breathing 
comfort  to  the  daughters  of  her  race,  but  hiding  ever  from  all  the 
gi  ief  of  her  own  heart. 

A  tale  was  sometimes  told,  among  the  more  confidential 
spirits,  of  how.  in  the  far*  back  ages  of  the  dimly  remembered 
past,  her  faithful  husband — while  in  the  prime  of  his  early  man- 
hood— had  died  a  martyr  for  Christianity. 

Alone  she  had  struggled  through  these  terrible  days  to  rear 
tiieir  family  and  train  them  to  be  God-fearing  men  and  women. 
When  her  life  on  earth  was  finished  she  had  come  to  dwell  in 
this  haven  of  spirits.  In  time  her  daughters  had  followed  her, 
but  from  the  husband  of  her  choice  she  was  separated ;  death  had 
annulled  their  marriage  vows  and  "they  neither  marry  nor  are 
given  in  marriage"  in  the  Land  of  Spirits. 

A  moment  she  stood  lost  in  meditation.  Through  the  long 
period  of  her  waiting  she  had  learned,  when  her  burden  of  sorrow 
became  greater  than  she  could  bear,  to  carry  it  to  the  Mercy  Seat. 
Slowly  she  bowed  her  knees  and  silently  appealed  to  her  Creator. 
When  she  arose  a  calm  tranquility  o'erspread  her  patient  coun- 
tenance— she  had  received  the  comfort  she  desired. 

Magdalena  hastened  to  her  apartments  and  prepared  herself 
for  her  journey.  At  the  gate  she  was  joined  by  Patriarch  Hess 
and  his  wife  Esther,  the  faithful  parents  of  the  woman  whose 
spirit  they  were  permitted  to  guide  to  the  land  of  Paradise. 

Traveling  at  a  velocity  incomprehensible  to  mortality,  they 
quickly  arrived  at  their  place  of  destination.  Silently  they  hov- 
ered over  the  bed  on  which  Louise  Hess  Arlvn  lav,  racked  with 


DEPARTED  SPIRITS.  257 

pain  and  burning  with  fever.  By  her  bedside  sat  her  husband, 
worn  with  sorrow  and  anxiety.  Her  husband  bent  above  her 
and  a  nurse  gently  smoothed  her  pillow,  then  both  drew  back  to 
permit  two  elders  to  place  their  hands  upon  her  head  and  plead 
with  God  in  her  behalf.  Her  husband  joined  in  the  ordinance. 
But  their  mortal  eyes  beheld  not  the  personages  in  that  room  and 
they  saw  not  the  hands  of  the  departed  Patriarch  placed  also  on. 
his  daughter's  head.  They  only  knew  they  could  not  ask  God 
to  give  her  life,  and  they  prayed  that  her  spirit  might  depart  in 
peace. 

Their  prayers  were  quickly  answered.  The  flushed  face  of 
the  sufferer  became  pale  and  still  and  the  calmness  of  death  fell 
over  her. 

Around  her  lifeless  form  gathered  the  grief-stricken  family. 

Not  theirs  to  behold  her  beautiful  spirit  take  its  natural  form, 
freed  from  all  bodily  pains ;  not  theirs  to  behold  the  loved  ones 
and  the  happy  meeting  taking  place  so  near  them.  Could  their 
eyes  for  one  moment  have  penetrated  the  veil — death  would  have 
lost  its  victory. 

"O  my  father  and  mother !  Am  I  really  with  you  ?  How 
happy  I  am !  My  suffering  is  gone  and  I  am  as  free  as  the 
zephyrs  of  a  gladsome  day." 

Fondly  both  parents  embraced  their  daughter  and  with  the 
joy  brought  only  by  long  separation,  she  returned  their  caresses. 

"This  is  a  grandmother  in  our  ancestral  line,  my  daughter," 
explained  the  father  as  the  wondering  eyes  of  Louise  fell  on 
Magdalena.  "She,  too,  has  come  to  welcome  you  to  your  home 
in  Paradise." 

Lovingiy  the  two  women  greeted  each  other. 

"Our  time  is  limited  and  our  stay  must  be  short,"  cautioned 
the  Patriarch. 

The  words  caused  Louise  to  turn  a  farewell  glance  at  her 
body  lying  quiet  and  motionless  on  her  bed.  Her  gaze  was  in- 
stantly riveted  on  the  group  of  loved  ones  gathered  around  it. 

"O  my  husband  and  my  precious  children !"  she  cried.  "They 
are  grieving  for  me.  Stay,  father !  I  cannot  leave  them — I  must 
return  to  life — I  am  needed  on  the  earth." 

Gently  Esther  placed  her  arm  around  her  daughter.  "We 
must  all  pass  through  such  scenes  as  this,"  she  whispered. 

"Louise,  thy  mission  on  earth  is  finished  and  the  Father  hath 
called  thy  spirit  home,"  calmly  spoke  the  voice  of  Patriarch  Hess. 
"The  God  who  heareth  the  raven's  cry  will  provide  for  those  you 
are  leaving  behind ;  He  will  bind  up  their  wounds  and  comfort 
their  hearts. 

"Thy  going  before  shall  be  as  a  light  set  afar  in  the  darkness, 
guiding  their  wandering  feet  to  the  land  in  which  you  await  their 


258  KtL/tF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

coming.  This  parting  will  be  of  short  duration.  Thou  wert 
given  to  thy  husband  by  one  having  authority  to  bind  on  earth 
and  in  heaven.  Death  doth  not  annul  thy  marriage  vows  and 
thy  children  will  be  thine  throughout  the  countless  ages  of 
eternity.  Thy  sudden  demise  will  arouse  other  members  of  our 
family  to  greater  diligence  in  this  work  of  redemption  of  our 
departed  kindred.  It  is  necessary  that  they  be  awakened  from 
their  lethargy,  they  are  spending  too  much  time  at  that  which 
pertains  to  mortality  only.  Any  house  whose  duty  to  its  dead 
remains  undone  shall  be  smitten  with  a  curse,  for  God  will  not 
accept  us  without  our  dead. 

"Thou  art  called  to  teach  the  gospel  of  Christ  to  the  women 
of  thy  race,  who,  for  centuries  past,  have  been  praying  for  deliv- 
erance. Their  families  are  separated  and  they  cannot  advance, 
until  they  receive  the  gospel  in  the  spirit  and  the  work  is  done 
for  them  by  proxy  in  the  holy  temples  of  earth. 

"The  dead,  must  be  judged  according  to  men  in  the  flesh,  but 
live  according  to  God  in  the  spirit.  In  their  prison  home  thou- 
sands are  awaiting  thy  coming  with  joyful  anticipation." 

Louise  turned  from  the  weeping  group  beneath  her  and  met 
the  silent,  appealing  look  in  Magdalena's  wistful  countenance. 
A  longing  filled  her  heart  for  power  to  speak  and  explain  to  her 
loved  ones  why  she  was  leaving  them,  but  she  found  herself  no 
longer  able  to  commune  with  those  of  the  material  world.  Her 
mother's  voice  aroused  her  from  her  reverie. 

"Daughter,  we  can  no  longer  delay.  The  family  are  already 
leaving  this  room  and  the  sisters  of  the  Relief  Society  are  here 
to  care  for  your  body." 

Louise  saw  the  door  of  the  death  chamber  close  on  those 
she  loved  most  on  earth.  Then  she  turned  for  one  last  look  at 
the  body  which  the  years  of  mortality  had  so  endeared  to  her, 
with  a  sigh — almost  a  sob — she  whispered:    "I  am  ready.-' 

I'nobserved  by  mortal  eyes,  the  little  party  had  entered  the 
room  and  unobserved  they  took  their  departure. 

Onward  they  sped  o'er  waves  of  ethereal  blue  until  once 
more  they  stood  before  the  ancient  gates  of  Paradise. 

Passwords  were  exchanged  with  its  aged  keeper,  and  the 
Great  White  Gates  swung  open  to  admit  them  to  the  Land  of 
Departed  Spirits. 


Little  three-year-old  Lucy  sat  upon  her  grandfather's  knee 
in  the  late  spring  twilight. 

"Po  you  hear  the  crickets,  Lucy?"  said  grandfather.  "They 
say,  go  to  bed,  Lucy,  go  to  bed,  go  to  bed." 

"Let  them  talk,"  calmly  replied  Lucy. 


Children's  Problems. 

WHAT  TO  SAY  IN  TELLING  THE  STORY  OF  LIFE'S  RENEWAL. 

By  Lucy  Wright  Snow. 

The  subject  of  what  to  say  to  children  in  telling  the  story  of 
life's  renewal,  is  so  big  and  of  such  vast  importance,  that  the  only 
way  to  do  justice  to  it,  is  to  treat  it  religiously.  Let  the  eternal 
Father  of  all  our  spirits  be  as  he  is  the  great  Cause,  and  this 
mortal  body,  one  of  the  effects  of  that  great  Cause. 

A  noted  educator  once  said :  "If  you  have  a  big  problem  in 
mathematics  that  you  can't  work  out,  think  of  a  little  one  just 
like  it.  The  principle  of  the  greater  will  be  made  plain  by  the 
solving  of  the  lesser  problem."  By  this  method,  great  principles 
may  be  brought  before  even  a  child  mind,  and  his  reasoning  power 
gradually  developed. 

There  can  be  no  definite  time  given  as  to  when  the  story  of 
life  should  be  told.  The  mother  must  consider  conditions  and  be 
guided  by  the  child's  degree  of  intelligence  and  needs;  his  ques- 
tions are  the  best  guide  to  his  mental  capacity.  There  probably 
will  be  no  two  children  that  can  be  approached  on  this  subject  in 
just  the  same  manner,  or  at  a  given  age.  A  very  opportune  time 
for  the  mother  to  tell  the  story  of  life  is  just  previous  to  the 
birth  of  another  child,  as  the  final  consummation  of  her  prophetic 
words  will  inspire  a  lasting  confidence  in  the  child  to  whom  this 
great  truth  is  being  unfolded,  and  also  impress  him  with  the 
sacredness  of  the  subject,  for  sacred  indeed  it  is.  The  study  of 
the  origin  of  our  mortal  body  leads  us  to  the  very  foundation  of 
the  plan  of  salvation,  and  if  parents  have  a  proper  knowledge  of 
the  subject,  Jesus'  great  plan  can  be  presented  in  a  simple  way 
to  a  child  of  tender  years  and  be  understood  by  him.  It  requires 
a  clear  knowledge  of  the  subject,  to  tell  it  in  simple  story  form, 
but  the  child  will  be  so  impressed  with  its  truth  that  there  will 
be  no  place  in  his  mind  for  untruths  or  imperfect  guidance,  and 
his  whole  after-life  will  be  infused  with  the  joy  of  living. 

Many  mothers  shrink  from  talking  on  this  subject,  fearing 
to  fill  the  child's  mind  with  substance  unfit  for  him.  The  truth 
is  the  child's  inheritance :  lie  came  here  with  God-given  craving 
for  it,  and  he  had  better  be  told  life's  origin  truthfully  by  his 
mother  who  knows  something  of  it,  and  who  has  the  privilege 
of  being  inspired  by  God.  than  to  be  told  shocking  or  distorted 
things  by  one  who  knows  neither  the  truth  nor  the  child. 


260  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Mothers  fear  to  reveal  something  shocking  to  the  child  that 
he  should  not  know,  but  in  reality,  he  should  know  the  story  of 
his  existence  at  the  earliest  age  that  he  is  able  to  understand  it. 
The  danger  lies,  not  in  telling,  but  in  withholding,  this  important 
truth   from  him. 

Of  course,  there  arc-  as  many  ways  to  tell  the  story  of  life 
as  there  are  mothers  to  tell  it.  It  would  not  be  wise  to  tell  this 
story  in  glaring,  ordinary  language.  The  Savior  offered  some 
of  his  most  important  teachings  in  parable,  but  remember,  a 
parable  embraces  a  truth  and  in  this  subject  as  in  all  other  sub- 
jects pertaining  to  proper  guidance  of  children,  truth  should  be 
our  motto ;  avoid  such  stories  as  the  stork  or  the  doctor  stories. 
You  will  later  be  called  to  account  for  telling  an  untruth,  and  your 
child  w:ll  have  lost  some  of  bis  confidence  in  you.  Tt  must  be 
remembered  that  a  child  just  approaching  the  age  of  reasoning 
(about  four  years)  can  not  receive  whole  truths,  no  matter  how 
plainly  they  may  be  told  ;  he  must,  at  this  age.  call  upon  his  im- 
agination to  complete  bis  stories,  therefore,  this  story  should  be 
told  at  first  not  as  a  glaring  fact,  but  as  a  truth  veiled. 

To  the  mothers  who  ask,  "How  shall  T  begin?"  here  follows 
one  pretty  way  based  on  Andrea  Puoudfoot's  story  of  life,  bul 
it  may  be  revised  as  the  mother  may  see  fit. 

Choose  a  quiet  time  when  you  are  not  likely  to  be  inter- 
rupted, preferably  when  the  child  has  asked  for  a  story.  Lead 
him  to  ask  for  a  true  story  and  then  introduce  the  subject  by 
raying: 

"I  will  tell  you  the  story  of  YOU,  but  before  I  tell  it,  you 
must  know  that  every  mother  loves  to  tell  this  story  to  her  own 
children.  Therefore,  you  must  never  repeat  it  to  any  other  child  ; 
besides,  it  is  sacred,  and  even  when  you  speak  about  it  to  your 
own  mother,  just  whisper." 

Then  begin  : 

"A  few  months  before  you  were  born,  I  dreamed  a  won- 
derful dream;  I  dreamed  that  you  were  coming.  1  awoke  and 
told  your  father  and  we  together  knew  that  the  dream  was  true 
and  that  you  were  coming.  Soon  I  could  feel  you  under  my 
heart  and  you  began  to  grow,  and  as  you  grew  my  mother  heart 
leaped  for  joy  in  the  knowledge  that  you  were  coming.  And  so, 
you  lived  and  grew  under  my  heart,  just  as  we  all  live  and  grow 
in  the  hearts  of  our  Heavenly  Parents. 

"How  your  father  loved  me!  And  how  T  longed  for  the 
time  to  come  when  I  might  see  you  and  hold  you  in  my  arms; 
and  how  he  longed  to  see  and  to  hold  you. 

"The  Father  in  heaven  knew  that  at  last  the  time  had  come 
when  I  was  able  to  take  care  of  you,  and  so  you  were  born,  and 
I  cried  tears  of  iov  as  1  held  you  in  my  arms  the  first  time  on  that 


CHILDREN'S  PROBLEMS.  261 

beautiful  June  morning,  and  your  father  gave  us  both  a  blessing. 
You  had  no  teeth  and  could  not  eat  such  food  as  you  need  now, 
and  so  the  Lord  in  his  wisdom,  caused  sweet  mother  milk  to  come 
into  my  breasts  for  you,  and  you  grew  and  grew ;  and  the  most 
wonderful  thing  of  it  all  is,  that  while  I  now  have  you  in  my 
arms,  you  are  still  in  my  heart  too." 

A  five-year-old  boy  once  asked  his  mother,  "How  did  the 
bones  come  inside  of  me?" 

The  mother  took  him  to  the  door  and  showed  him  the  work- 
men building  a  house,  opposite  their  home. 

"The  Lord  made  a  little  chamber  in  a  mother's  body,  where 
her  children  grow.  The  blood  carries  little  tiny,  tiny  bricks  or 
bone-bits  or  atoms,  we  call  them,  and  the  bone  atoms  are  laid 
one  on  top  of  another,  by  the  blood,  which  is  the  master-work- 
man ;  and  then  the  eyes  are  made,  like  those  windows  over  there ; 
and  the  mouth  is  like  the  door,  and  the  bones  are  covered  with 
flesh,  and  finally  God  says  the  word,  and  the  chamber  door  opens 
and  out  you  came — right  out  into  the  world.  And  that's  our 
sacred  secret,  son.     See?" 

The  story  will  make  a  life-long  impression  upon  the  child,  if 
told  in  this  way,  for  the  mother  will,  before  the  end,  be  shedding 
glorious  tears  that  will  add  to  the  sacredness  of  the  moment. 
And  when  it  is  finished,  let  the  child  understand  that  it  is  finished, 
and  that  it  is  so  sacred  as  to  be  not  a  subject  for  common  con- 
versation. 

If  this  story  be  told  with  earnestness  and  the  sacredness  that 
belongs  to  it,  there  need  be  no  fear  that  it  will  ever  be  counter- 
acted or  discounted  by  distorted  or  incorrect  stories  on  the  subject, 
that  might  later  be  brought  to  the  child's  attention,  therefore,  we 
cnnnot  emphasize  too  strongly  the  importance  of  the  mother  or 
guardian  telling  it  early  enough,  before  any  other  person  might 
plant  seeds  of  doubt  or  distrust  in  the  innocent  mind  of  the  child. 

The  implanting  of  a  truth  has  already  taken  place  ;  the  child's 
mind  is  content  on  the  greatest  subject  in  the  world  and  mis- 
information will  find  no  place  in  his  mind. 

Books  to  read  on  the  subject : 

Learn  and  be  able  to  tell  in  pretty  words,  the,  story  of  the 
Council  in  Heaven;  Book  of  Moses,  Pearl  of  Great  Price. 

Elias,  an  Epic  of  the  Ages,  by  O.  F.  Whitney. 

Sermon  on  the  Origin  of  Woman,  by  John  Taylor,  found  in 
Sacredness  of  Parenthood. 

Mothers'  Ideals,  by  Andrea  Proudfoot. 

Story  of  Life's  Rencival,  by  Margaret  Morely. 


May  Entertainments. 

By  Morag. 

MAY   DAY. 

In  most  of  the  countries  of  the  world  the  first  day  of  May  is 
celebrated  as  a  holiday,  to  welcome  the  returning  spring,  and  is 
especially  enjoyed  by  the  children.  The  feature  of  the  day  is  the 
wreathing  of  the  Maypole,  and  the  choosing  of  the  May  Queen. 
Some  of  our  towns  observe  this  as  a  community  holiday,  and 
when  the  weather  permits,  it  is  a  practice  to  be  commended.  The 
spring  hostess  may  use  this  as  a  suggestion  for  a  children's  party, 
and  a  Maypole  may  be  set  up  on  the  lawn. 

Have  Tennyson's  poem,  "The  May  Queen."  rea  I. 

Outdoor  games  and  dances  are  in  order,  and  for  refreshments 
serve  sandwiches,  lemonade,  cookies,  fruit,  and  stick  candy, 

Another  of  our  holidays  is  Decoration  Day.  At  one  of  your 
home  evenings,  talk  over  the  significance  of  the  day,  and  how  it 
originated.  Take  every  opportunity  to  instil  into  the  hearts  of 
the  youth  the  lessons  of  patriotism.  On  the  day  itself  visit  the 
cemeteries,  decorate  the  graves  of  the  loved  ones,  attend  the 
patriotic  exercises  whenever  it  is  possible  :  display  ''Old  Glorv" 
and  hold  family  reunions. 

PROGRAMS    FOR    MOTHER'S    DAY. 

Opening  hymn,  "Love  at  Home." 
Prayer. 

Sing  or  read  hymn,  page  -117  L.  D.  S.  Hymn  Book. 
Song,  "The  White  Carnation." 

Recitation,  "Give  Them  the  Flowers  Now,"  Heart  Throbs. 
page  40. 

Address,  "Motherhood." 

Lullaby,  "Sweet  and  Low"   (Tennyson),  Ladies'  Quartette 

Reading,  "Mother's  Boys."  Heart  Throbs,  page  243. 

Song,  "Mother  Machree." 

Read,  "My  Mother's  Bible."  Heart  Throbs,  page  136  or  102. 

Song,  "Songs  My  Mother  Used  to  S'ng." 

Song,  "The  White  Carnation."     (Tune.  258  Psalmody.) 

Oh  white  carnation  chosen 

For  purity,  for  light. 
For  sweetness,  for  endurance 

Of  love  bevond  our  sight. 


\ 

MAY  ENTERTAINMENTS.  263 

Oh  white  carnation  blessed, 
When  worn  on  loyal  breast 

Of  son  or  daughter  telling 
Of  love  the  highest,  best. 

FOR   SUNDAY    MEETING. 

Song,  "Come  Dearest  Lord,  Descend  and  Dwell,"  Psalmody 
No.  22. 

Prayer. 

Hymn,  "  'Mid  Scenes  of  Confusion." 

Scripture  Reading,  I  Samuel  2:1-10;  3:1-21. 

Solo,  "Hushed  was  the  Evening  Hymn." 

Address,  "Mothers  in  Israel."  '  (Ancient  Days.) 

Read  Story,  "Mother's  Day,"  July,  1916,  R.  S.  Magazine. 

Organ  Solo,  "Andantino,"  (to  my  wife),  Lemare. 

Song,  "Mother  o'  Mine." 

Address,  "Modern  Mothers  in  Israel." 

Collection  of  flowers. 

Doxology. 

It  may  be  requested  that  all  bring  bouquets  of  flowers  to  the 
service.  These  may  later  be  sent  to  the  hospital  or  infirmaries,  or 
to  the  shut-ins. 

SENTIMENTS. 

To  Mother,  at  Set  of  Sun. 

As  once  you  stroked  my  thin  and  silver  hair, 
So  I  stroke  yours  now  at  the  set  of  sun. 
I  watch  your  tottering  mind,  its  day's  work  done, 

As  once  you  watched,  with  forward  looking  care, 

My  tottering  feet.    I  love  you  as  I  should, 
Stay  with  me,  lean  on  me,  I'll  make  no  sign 
I  was  your  child,  now  time  makes  you  mine, 

Stay  with  me  yet  a  while  at  home  and  do  me  good. 

L.  J.  Dickenson. 

I  love  old  mothers — mothers  with  white  hair 
And  kindly  eyes,  and  lips  grown  softly  sweet 
With  murmured  blessings  over  sleeping  babes. 
There  is  something  in  their  quiet  grace 
That  speaks  the  calm  of  Sabbath  afternoons ; 
A  knowledge  in  their  deep,  unfaltering  eyes 
That  far  outreaches  all  philosophy. 
Time,  with  caressing  touch,  about  them  weaves 
The  silver-threaded  fairy  shawl  of  age, 
While  all  the  echoes  of  forgotten  songs 


264  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Seem  joined  to  lend  a  sweetness  to  their  speech. 
Old  mothers!    As  they  pass  with  slow-timed  step, 
Their  trembling  hands  cling-  gently  to  youth's  strength. 
Sweet  mothers !    As  they  pass,  one  sees  again 
Old  garden  walks,  old  roses  and  old  loves. 

Charles  S.  Ross. 

A  NEW  CHARACTER  DANCE  FOR   MAY. 

Let  each  lady  costume  as  a  flower,  looking  her  prettiest, 
while  each  partner  on  the  evening  of  the  entertainment  pays 
twenty-five  cents  to  purchase  a  posy.  This  entitles  him  to  the 
first  and  tenth  dances  with  his  chosen  flower.  Or,  if  a  comic 
plan  is  preferred,  let  each  lady  represent  a  different  item  from 
the  seedman's  catalogue.  Each  man  buys  a  packet  of  seed  (an 
envelope  with  name  of  seed  enclosed).  He  then  must  search  for 
his  flower  or  vegetable,  and  recognize  her  by  her  costume ;  the 
vegetables  inspire  very  novel  and  pretty  dresses,  by  the  way.  To 
further  add  to  the  proceeds  of  the  evening  appetizing  suppers 
packed  in  new  flower  pots  or  May  baskets  may  be  sold  for 
twenty-five  cents  each. 

Sentiment  (for  odd  corner)  :  "Mine  own  happiness  is  some- 
thing to  desire,  and  yet  I  know  that  I  must  win  it,  by  forgetting 
it  in  ministry  to  others." 

mother's  day  in  arborvtlle. 

An  air  of  mystery  had  pervaded  the  little  town  all  the  week, 
following  the  announcement  of  "Mother's  Day"  exercises  for  the 
following  Sunday  afternoon.  It  had  been  rumored  that  there 
would  be  something  special  this  year,  and  it  was  well  known  that 
the  local  florist  had  received  a  large  order  for  crimson  carna- 
tions, a  departure  from  the  usual  custom.  None  of  the  men  were 
anxious  to  go  to  the  meeting,  but  deep  in  his  heart  every  one 
of  them  knew  that  they  would  be  present.  The  Sabbath  dawned 
bright  and  sunny,  and  a  large  congregation  wended  their  way  to 
the  little  church.  A  surprise  awaited  the  men,  for  as  they  en- 
tered the  vestibule  they  were  received  by  a  group  of  happy  ma- 
trons, each  wearing  the  white  carnation  badge  of  motherhood, 
who  pinned  on  each  black  coat  a  beautiful  crimson  carna- 
tion and  escorted  the  wearer  to  a  seat  of  honor  in  the  center  of 
the  building.  The  meeting  commenced  with  "Home,  Sweet 
Home,"  sung  by  the  congregation.  After  the  usual  opening  ex- 
ercises the  presiding  officer  introduced  the  speaker  of  the  day,  a 
charming  elderly  woman  whose  earnest  efforts  in  the  cause  of 


MA  J '  EN  TER  TAINMEN  TS.  265 

charitable  work  were  well  known  throughout  the  country.  She 
commenced  her  address  with  the  following  sentiment  from  Kate 
Douglass  Wiggin,  "Most  of  the  beautiful  things  in  life  come  by 
twos  and  threes,  by  dozens  and  hundreds,  plenty  of  roses,  stars, 
sunsets,  rainbows,  brothers  and  sisters,  aunts  and  cousins,  but 
only  one  mother  in  all  the  world."  Stepping  over  to  a  large  flag- 
draped  easel,  and  pulling  a  cord  she  revealed  to  view  the  benign 
features  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith. 

"Everybody  named  but  father,"  she  continued.  Then  the 
audience  knew.  The  mothers  had  turned  the  tables  and  were 
keeping  Father's  Day.  In  an  earnest,  forceful  address  the  speaker 
reverently  spoke  of  the  Fatherhood  of  God  and  the  brotherhood 
of  man,  and  related  incidents  from  the  lives  of  many  of  the  great 
fathers  who  have  lived  in  the  various  ages  of  the  world,  closing 
her  address  with  an  eloquent  tribute  to  the  Pioneer  fathers  of  our 
State  who  had  conquered  the  desert  and  made  possible  the  many 
blessings  enjoyed  today. 

This  was  followed  by  the  anthem,  "Praise  ye  the  Father," 
r.nd  the  inspired  hymn,  "O  My  Father,"  after  which  the  beautiful 
story  of  the  Father  love  was  read,  "The  Prodigal  Son,"  Luke  15. 

A  recitation  followed,  "Tell  Her  so,"  Heart  Throbs. 

In  a  few  concluding  remarks  the  presiding  officer  paid  an 
eloquent  tribute  to  the  loving,  faithful  devotion  of  the  fathers  and 
mothers  of  this  people  and  urged  the  congregation  to  unite  as 
one  in  raising  the  standard  of  higher  ideals  of  parenthood  and 
home  life. 

The  congregation  then  repeated  the  Lord's  prayer,  and  the 
singing  of  the  Doxology  brought  to  an  end  one  of  the  most 
memorable  gatherings  ever  held  in  Arborville. 

AN  APPLE  BLOSSOM  WEDDING. 

For  an  Apple  Blossom  wedding  party,  decorate  the  rooms 
with  a  profusion  of  the  lovely  pink  and  white  blossoms.  The 
bride  in  her  soft  plain  silk  gown  can  carry  a  shower  bouquet  of 
ferns  and  cherry  blossoms.  Her  bridesmaids  may  wear  white 
rnulle  or  organdy  over  pink  slips,  and  carry  bouquets  of  peach  or 
crabapple  blossoms. 

The  refreshments  may  be  served  from  a  table  with  white 
lace  cloth  over  pink,  and  may  consist  of  chicken  sandwiches  or  tiny 
chicken  pies,  a  fruit  salad,  small  cakes  iced  pink  and  white,  with 
strawberry  ice  cream.  Pink  lemonade  or  sherbet  may  be  served 
during  the  evening. 

Try  this  if  you  would  like  a  very  beautiful  and  inexpensive 
affair. 


A  Brave  Friend 

It  is  not  often  that  a  distinguished  puhlicist,  an  international 
educator  and  an  editor  of  a  powerful  publication  takes  his  life 
and  reputation  in  hand  to  speak  up  in  meeting  in  defense  of  Utah's 
misunderstood  and  often  maligned  people.  When  such  a  famous 
man  does  speak,  all  "Mormondom"  owes  him  a  debt  of  gratitude 
and  reverence. 

Read  what  Dr.  A.  E.  Winship,  editor  of  the  Journal  of  Edu- 
cation, of  Boston,  one  of  America's  most  popular  writers  and 
lecturers,  has  to  say — not  only  of  Utah's  people  a^  a  whole,  but 
of  our  beloved  Relief  Society  in  particular. 

(From  October  26,  ion.  Journal  of  Education.) 
"indecent  exploitation. 

"Any  one  who  knows  Utah,  even  though  he  has  no  disposi- 
tion to  regard  the  Saints  as  uniformly  saintly,  can  but  feel  out- 
raged at  the  style  of  treatment  of  this  people  in  magazines  that 
should  have  some  regard  for  decency.  We  have  known  Utah 
for  thirty-six  years ;  we  knew  it  in  the  days  of  Brigham  Young 
and  Orson  Pratt.  We  knew  it  when  the  Gentile  element  was  of 
no  account,  and  we  knew  it  when  the  Federal  government  was 
enforcing  its  laws.  We  have  known  Salt  Lake  City  and  Provo, 
and  a  score  of  lesser  places,  far  and  near.  We  knew  Utah  and  its 
people  when  there  was  no  fear  of  outside  interference,  and  we 
know  the  state  as  it  is  today,  and  we  know  how  outrageous  it  is 
to  hold  up  to  the  present  generation  the  people  of  that  section  in 
such  a  way  as  to  have  the  truth  lie,  and  to  have  lies  pass  for  truth. 
We  hold  no  brief  from  them,  but  we  believe  that  the  way  in  which 
this  people  is  sensationally  exploited  in  the  magazines  is  as  inde- 
fensible as  anything  that  has  ever  been  launched  upon  the  public." 

(Journal  of  Education,  March  1st.) 

"women's  noble  work  for  women. 

"One  of  the  most  brilliant  achievements  in  women's  work 
for  women  has,  strangely  enough,  had  all  too  little  recognition. 
We  refer  to  a  women's  organization  known  as  the  General  Relief 
Society,  with  headquarters  in  Salt  Lake  City,  organized  seventy- 
five  years  ago  in  Illinois.  There  are  a  thousand  local  branches 
scattered  over  various  states  and  countries  with  a  total  member- 
ship of  40,000,  each  member  paying  the  slight  membership  fee 
of  twenty-five  cents  a  year.  The  members  are  classified  in  small 
groups  of  about  twelve  families  each.  Two  members  in  each 
district  are  designated  as  visitors  and  every  month  of  the  year 
these  two  women  make  a  call  together  upon  each  of  the  families 
of  the  group.  The  special  object  of  these  falls  is  to  make  sure 
that  no  family  is  in  need  of  any  aid  in  case  of  sickness  or  adver- 
sitv  or  is  in  anv  trouble  that  cheer  and  ri^i^tance  will  relieve. 


A  BRAVE  FRIEND.  267 

"The  second  object  is  to  receive  from  them  in  case  of  pros- 
perity any  contribution  for  those  in  need  among  the  40,000  mem- 
bers. One  of  the  weekly  meetings  each  month  is  devoted  to  hear- 
ing reports  of  each  family  from  the  visitors.  Absolute  want  is 
thus  impossible,  as  is  neglect  in  case  of  sickness,  and  no  one  can 
feel  that  she  personally  is  friendless  in  the  world.  Relief  is  al- 
ways at  hand. 

"All  collections  are  local,  all  relief  is  local,  and  the  collections 
are  retained  locally,  and  not  one  penny  of  these  contributions  is 
used  in  the  distribution.  Every  penny  given  in  charity  goes  to 
charity. 

"An  exact  and  audited  account  is  kept  of  all  receipts  and 
reliefs.  An  annual  report  is  made  in  detail  to  the  general  office 
in  Salt  Lake  City,  and  when  surpluses  are  created  locally  they 
may  be,  and  frequently  are,  sent  to  the  general  office  for  emer- 
gencies on  a  large  scale  which  may  arise. 

"This  Women's  Relief  Society  is  always  among  the  first 
organizations  to  come  to  the  relief  of  the  needy  in  case  of  a  great 
catastrophe  of  any  kind.  They  have  money  in  abundance,  and 
there  is  no  annoying  red  tape  to  hinder  prompt  action.  In  the  case 
of  San  Francisco  in  1906.  of  the  Galveston  flood,  of  the  Indian- 
apolis flood,  the  Belgian  sufferers,  et  al.,  this  society  was  the  first, 
or  near  the  first,  in  supplying  urgent  needs.  The  aid  is  as  abund- 
ant as  it  is  prompt.  In  the  case  of  the  San  Francisco  conflagration 
their  aid  was  literally  the  first,  and  in  the  case  of  Belgium  one 
little  branch  of  thirty  members  at  Bear  Lake  promptly  raised  $137 
for  the  relief  fund. 

"Last  year  the  'Women's  Mites'  collected  from  40.000  mem- 
bers, without  a  pennv  being  taken  therefrom  for  expenses, 
$70,125.  Of  this.  $56,967  was  paid  out  for  genuine  local  relief, 
and  $13,158  was  the  surplus.  This  relief  went  to  6.516  different 
families,  and  was  always  paid  out  locally  upon  the  recommenda- 
tion of  the  local  visitors  and  was  reported  upon  each  month  and 
reported  also  to  the  general  office  at  the  end  of  the  year,  so  that 
both  the  local  books  and  headquarters  show  the  exact  status. 

"The  local  branches,  in  looking  after  their  own  sick  last  year 
made  78,500  calls,  of  which  22,797  were  full  days  or  nights  in  at- 
tendance, watching  by  night  or  nursing  by  day. 

"All  administration  expense  is  borne  from  the  twenty-five 
cent  membership  fee  and  much  of  this  fee-fund  goes  to  the  charitv 
fund  or  its  surplus,  which  in  the  seventv-five  years,  mostly  from 
recent  years,  is  now  half  a  million  dollars.  What  other  Women's 
Relief  Society  has  any  such  record,  either  of  service  or  of  accumu- 
lated surplus  ? 

"Such  an  achievement  of  women  for  women  would  ordinarlv 
be  heralded  far  and  wide  by  a  publicity  agency  of  great  efficiency, 
lint  so  far  as  we  know  this  is  the  first  general  recognition  it  has 
received." 


Current  Topics. 

By  James  H.  Anderson. 

Count  Zeppelin,  German  inventor  of  the  dirigible  airship, 
died  in  March,  in  Germany. 


The  American  navy,  by  call  of  President  Wilson,  is  to  be 
recruited  to  its  full  strength,  for  war. 


FRANCISCO    Villa,    Mexican    bandit    and    revolutionist,   has 
begun  a  new  campaign  for  1917.     More  trouble  for  Americans. 


A  snow  avalanche  near  Hailey,  Idaho,  in  the  latter  part  of 
February,  killed  15  men  and  injured  15  others. 


The  Jews  in  Russia  have  been  granted  the  privilege  of  free 
speech  and  other  reforms,  by  the  new  government  there. 


China  has  broken  diplomatic  relations  with  Germany,  and 
is  arrayed  on  the  side  of  the  Entente  Allies,  so  far  as  sympathy 
is  concerned. 


On.  Fields  in  Wyoming  are  reported  to  have  yielded  60,- 
000,000  barrels  of  oil  during  the  past  twelve  months. 


Winter,  long  and  severe,  has  exacted  a  heavy  toll  in  losses 
of  animals  in  the  intermountain  region,  this  year,  through  lack 
of  food. 


The  "MoEWE,"a  German  auxiliary  cruiser.has  made  another 
successful  raid  in  the  Atlantic,  returning  home  after  destroying 
27  merchant  ships. 


Germ  \n  SUBMARINES  sank  368  ships  at  sea  during  February. 
Tn  March  they  were  less  successful,  and  a  number  of  the  sub- 
mersibjes  were  sunk  or  captured. 


INFANTILE  PARALYSIS  is  said  to  be  checked  materially  by 
washing  the  throat  and  nostrils  with  warm  water  in  which  a  lit- 
tle table  salt  has  been  dissolved,  according  to  a  recent  discovery. 


Poisonous  belladonna  plant,  rooked  and  eaten  in  mistake 
with  spinach,  caused  the  death  of  Samuel  P.  Richards,  his  wife 
and  three  children,  and  a  hired  man.  at  Carey,  Tdaho.  in  March 


CURRENT  EVENTS.  269 

Cuba  suffers  by  the  recent  revolution  there  to  the  extent 
that  the  sugar  production  of  the  island  for  1917  will  be  less  than 
two-thirds  of  that  for  1916. 


Wheat  found  in  the  cliff  dwellings  in  Utah  and  planted  at 
Hagerman,  Idaho,  is  said  to  have  been  grown  successfully,  and 
to  produce  kernels  about  double  the  size  of  the  ordinary  grain. 

Russia  changed  its  form  of  government  in  a  single  day,  in 
March,  and  with  the  loss  of  only  a  few  hundred  lives.  Emperor 
Nicholas  was  deposed,  the  Grand  Duke  Michael  appointed  a 
regent,  and  a  republic  put  under  way. 

Carranza,  the  Mexican  president,  sent  a  note  to  the  United 
States,  advising  this  government  how  to  stop  the  war  in  Europe. 
The  advice  was  declined  with  thanks— a  suggestion  that  the  Mex- 
ican president  might  try  his  hand  at  home. 

Submarine  chasers,  light  and  swiftly-moving  craft,  are  be- 
ing used  with  good  effect  against  the  heretofore  successful  sub- 
mersibles,  and  the  United  States  has  ordered  the  building  of  a 
large  fleet  of  those  little  vessels,  for  defense. 

The  United  States'  is  at  war  with  Germany  by  the  latter's 
action  in  killing  American  citizens  on  the  high  seas.  The  Teu- 
tonic operations  caused  President  Wilson  to  change  the  date  of 
the  special  session  of  Congress  from  April  16  to  April  2. 

A  disastrous  storm  at  Newcastle,  Ind.,  on  March  10,  caused 
the  death  of  23  persons  and  injured  more  than  150  others.  A  sim- 
ilar storm  at  New  Albany,  in  the  same  State,  on  March  23,  re- 
sulted in  the  death  of  33  persons  and  the  injury  of  100  others. 

*  A  rah  road  strike  of  the  four  brotherhoods  of  trainmen  was 
called  for  March  17,  then  deferred  to  March  19.  On  the  latter 
date  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  declared  the  Adamson  law 
valid,  giving  the  trainmen  all  they  asked,  hence  there  was  no 
strike. 

Mexico  at  war  with  the  United  States  is  rendered  possible 
in  the  near  future  by  the  presence  in  that  nation  of  more  than 
10  000  Germans  who  have  seen  military  service,  and  who  are  said 
to  have  been  connected  with  the  German  spy  system  m  the  United 
States  for  two  years  past. 

Veterans  of  Indian  wars  in  Utah  have  been  recognized  by 

the  United  States  government,  in  being  granted  pensions.     The 


270  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Utah  delegation  in  Congress  has  worked  dilgently   for  this  the 
past  twelve  years,  at  last  being  rewarded  with  success. 


Mecca  and  Medina  having  been  taken  from  Turkey  by  the 
new  kingdom  of  Arabia,  and  Bagdad  having  been  captured  bv 
the  British  army,  all  the  great  cities  of  Islam  in  Asia,  except 
Constantinople,  have  been  wrested  from  Turkey. 


Danger  to  industrial  plants,  railway  tunnels  and  bridges,  etc., 
in  the  United  States,  from  German  plots  and  spies,  was  consid- 
ered by  President  Wilson  with  being  so  great  that  on  March  24 
and  26  he  called  out  the  national  guards  of  the  several  states  to 
afford  necessary  protection. 

The  European  war  lines  underwent  considerable  change  in 
March,  the  Germans  being  compelled  to  retire  from  about  1,000 
square  miles  of  French  territory  on  the  west  front,  which  they  had 
occupied  for  two  and  a  half  years ;  while  in  Asia  the  Turks  were 
defeated  and  driven  back  long  distances  by  both  British  and 
Russian  forces. 


Abdication  of  Kaiser  Wh  helm  as  a  possibility  has  brought 
out,  in  discussion,  the  statement  from  German  sources  that  the 
crown  prince  of  Germany,  and  not  the  kaiser,  actually  is  responsi- 
ble for  Germany  engaging  in  the  great  war,  and  is  especially 
chargeable  with  having  caused  the  adoption  of  the  ruthless  sub- 
marine warfare  which  brought  the  break  with  the  United  States. 


A  British  army  captured  the  citv  of  Bagdad  from  the 
Turks  in  March,  and  made  a  considerable  advance  northward  in 
Mesopotamia,  while  in  Western  Palestine  another  British  army 
advanced  to  within  40  miles  of  Jerusalem.  There  now  remains 
to  be  made  a  connection  between  these  two  forces  ami  the  Eng- 
lish naval  and  land  forces  at  Cyprus,  and  the  Turkish  coast  there, 
upon  the  accomplishment  of  which  the  Turk  will  be  no  longer  in 
control  of  any  part  of  the  Holy  Land  or  country  adjacent  thereto ; 
while  Britain  will  have  a  great  overland  route  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean coast  to  India,  as  well  as  the  route  via  the  Suez  canal — 
which  seems  to  be  the  object  of  the  Mesopotamia!!  and  Syrian 
expeditions,  and  may  have  still  other  and  more  far-reaching  con- 
sequences. 


Home  Science  Department. 

By  Janette  A.  Hyde. 

Rice. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  use  rice 
as  their  staple  food.  The  Chinese  and  Japanese  use  no  other  grain 
for  ordinary  diet  purposes.  They  use  rice  with  fish  or  with  a  little 
meat  and  bamboo  shoots  made  into  chop  suey  or  as  a  straight 
vegetable.  It  is  incredible  to  witness  the  feats  performed  by 
husky  rice-eating  Chinese  laborers.  Chinamen  can  lift  four  times 
the  weight  that  the  ordinary  white  man  could  lift  and  run  for 
miles  with  such  weights  on  their  shoulders.  The  Chinese  acrobats, 
and  the  Japanese  soldiers  acquire  a  wonderful  physique  through 
their  simple  rice  diet  and  rigid  physical  culture  methods.  It  is 
true,  however,  that  the  grains  which  are  indigenous  to  the  coun- 
try in  which  people  live  usually  form  the  best  and  most  logical 
food  stuffs  for  the  inhabitants.  Rice  is  an  ideal  food  for  tropical 
countries  and  it  is  a  very  fine  substitute  for  bread  and  vegetables 
in  temperate  climates  under  certain  conditions ;  while  it  is  de- 
licious as  a  varient  of  the  ordinary  diet.  Just  now  rice  is  cheaper 
in  proportion  to  its  nutritive  qualities  than  potatoes  and  many 
other  vegetables.  As  a  summer  substitute  for  breakfast  mushes  it 
is  invaluable.  Children  soon  love  rice  which  should  be  served 
without  sugar  and  with  the  whole  milk  only. 

Grocers  offer  rice  at  different  prices,  but  housekeepers  should 
beware  of  rice  that  has  been  too  vigorously  cleansed  from  the 
outer  coating  for  much  of  the  nutriment  lies  next  to  the  covering 
as  it  does  in  wheat.  The  cheaper  grades  of  rice  are,  therefore, 
more  desirable  for  ordinary  use  than  the  more  highly  cleansed 
varieties. 

It  is  better  where  possible  to  purchase  rice  in  quantities  as 
there  is  very  little  deterioration  and  the  difference  in  price  is 
worth  while. 

Rice  keeps  well  indefinitely,  if  closely  covered  so  that  insects 
cannot  reach  it.  Rice  has  the  least  fat  in  it  of  any  of  the  grains. 
It  is  good  as  a  heat  giver  and,  therefore,  can  be  used  by  working 
people  advantageously. 

Preparation. 

Much  of  the  unpopularity  of  rice  is  the  result  of  extremely 
poor  methods  of  cooking.  Where  rice  is  put  on  the  stove  in  warm 
water  and  stirred  all  the  time  it  is  boiling,  it  comes  out  a  sticky 
mass  that  is  unpleasant  to  the  eye  and  to  the  taste.  There  are  two 
ways  of  cooking  rice  perfectly : 


271  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Chinese  method  :  Wash  rice  thoroughly  ;  put  one  pint  of  rice 
into  one  gallon  of  boiling  salted  water;  boil  vigorously  one-half 
an  hour  without  stirring;  pour  the  rice  in  a  colander  and  rinse  it 
thoroughly  in  the  colander  from  the  hot-water  tap ;  put  the  rice  in 
the  colander  hack  over  boiling  water;  cover  the  colaiv'er  and  let 
it  dry  and  steam  a  little. 

Second  method  :  To  one  pint  of  washed  rice  add  two  pints 
of  cold  water ;  set  in  a  covered  vessel  on  a  moderate  heat  and 
leave  it  there  for  one  hour  and  a. half,  being  careful  that  the  last 
half  hour  the  r:ce  does  not  stick  and  burn  from  too  hot  a  stove. 

Ways  of  Serving. 

Rice  may  be  served  as  a  vegetable — plain — and  when  cov- 
ered with  meat  gravy  it  is  very  delicious. 

Rice  or  Hominy  Drop  Cakes. 

One  cup  of  boiling  hominy  or  rice,  and  one  c^p;.  If  the 
honrny  be  cold,  heat  in  a  farina  kettle  with  one  tablespoonful  of 
water,  and  stir  till  it  is  softened.  Beat  yolk  and  white  separately  : 
add  one  saltspoonful  of  salt.  Drop  in  tablespoon fuls  on  a  well- 
buttered  pan,  and  bake  brown  in  a  hot  oven. 

Plain  Rice  Pudding. 

Half  a  cup  of  well-washed  rice,  half  a  cup  of  sugar,  a  little 
salt,  and  one  quart  of  milk.  Soak  half  an  hour.  Bake  about  two 
hours,  slowly  at  first  till  the  rice  has  softened  and  thickened  the 
milk  ;  then  let  it  brown  slightly.  This  is  creamy  and  delicious, 
though  it  is  often  called  Poor  Man's  Pudding.    Serve  hot  or  cold. 

No.  2.  Three  tablespoonfuls  of  rice,  a  little  salt,  three  table- 
spoonfuls  of  sugar,  one  quart  of  milk,  and  three  sour  apples, 
pared  and  quartered,  or  one  cup  of  small,  whole  raisins.  Put  all 
.nto  a  deep  pudding-dish,  well  buttered.  Cover,  and  bake  slowly 
four  or  five  hours,  till  the  milk  is  all  absorbed  and  the  rice  is  red 
or  colored.     Serve  hot  with  butter. 

Rice  and  Fruit  Pudding. 

Steam  one  scant  cup  of  rice  in  two  cups  of  boiling  water,  in 
the  double  boiler,  thirty  minutes.  Add,  while  hot,  one  tablespoon- 
ful of  butter,  one  scant  teaspoon ful  of  salt,  one  beaten  e^q;,  and 
half  a  cup  of  sugar.  Cook  five  minutes.  Butter  a  plain  pudding- 
mould,  sprinkle  it  with  bread  crumbs,  or  line  with  macaroons. 
Put  in  a  laver  of  rice  half  an  inch  thick,  then  a  layer  of  apricots  or 
peaches  or  pineapple,  then  rice,  fruit,  etc..  till  the  mould  is  full, 
having  crumbs  on  the  top.  Bake  twenty  minutes  in  a  moderate 
even.  Turn  out  on  a  platter  and  serve  with  boiled  custard  flavored 
with  vanilla,  or  with  an  apricot  sauce. 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT.  273 

Rice  Custard. 

Soak  half  a  cup  of  cold  cooked  rice  in  one  pint  of  hot  milk 
till  every  grain  is  distinct.  Add  the  yolks  of  two  eggs,  beaten  with 
a  quarter  of  a  cup  of  sugar  and  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  cook  like 
soft  custard.  While  still  hot,  stir  in  the  whites,  beaten  stiff,  and 
set  away  to  cool.  Or  turn  the  hot  custard  into  a  dish,  and  when 
cool  cover  with  a  meringue  of  the  whites.  Brown  slightly,  and 
serve  cold. 

Curry  Sauce  (for  Curried  Eggs,  Chicken,  etc). 

Cook  one  tablespoonful  of  chopped  onion  in  one  tablespoonful 
of  butter  five  minutes.  Be  careful  not  to  burn  it.  Mix  one  table- 
spoonful of  curry  powder  with  two  tablespoonfuls  of  flour  and 
stir  it  into  the  butter.  Add  one  pint  of  hot  milk  gradually,  or  one 
pint  of  gravy  from  meat  or  chicken.  Bits  of  cold  chicken  or  of 
cold  veal  may  be  cut  up  and  added  to  this  gravy.  This  is  served 
over  rice  and  with  the  addition  of  a  teaspoonful  of  paprika  forms 
the  East  Indian  favorite  dish,  Curried  Rice. 

Rice  as  a  Diet  for  Pregnant  Women. 

Dr.  Alice  B.  Stockham.  in  Tokology,  recommends  strongly 
aw  exclusive  diet  ot  rice,  vegetables  and  fruits  with  a  little  lean 
meat  for  pregnant  women.  No  bread,  no  grain  food  of  any  kind 
is  allowed  in  this  dietry.  The  results  of  this  diet  have  been  most 
remarkable.  Women  who  have  suffered  with  varicose  veins  and 
other  billions  affections  have  found  almost  instant  relief  from  this 
rice  diet.  Babies  born,  after  the  rice  diet,  have  been  vigorous, 
healthy  and  large  of  frame. 

Rice  for  Reducing  Flesh. 

It  is  absurd  in  this  day  of  enlightened  dietries  for  fat  women 
to  remain  over-fat.  There  are  many  healthy  ways  of  reducing 
flesh.  A  certain  woman  in  this  city  who  weighed  over  200  pounds 
and  was  given  but  six  months  to  live  by  the  doctors  because  of 
heart  trouble  and  other  serious  ailments,  tried  the  rice  diet.  She 
ate  all  the  rice  and  skim  milk  she  wanted  for  three  months,  eating 
a  little  fruit  occasionally.  At  the  end  of  that  time  her  figure  was 
trim  and  her  diseases  had  practically  left  her.  That  is  five  years 
ago,  and  she  is  still  healthy  and  happv. 

Rice  Crusts.     (Miss  Ward.) 

Cook  one  cup  of  cold  boiled  rice  in  the  double  boiler  in  milk 
enough  to  make  a  thin  mixture,  and  until  the  rice  is  very  soft. 
Add  one  tablespoonful  of  sugar,  a  little  salt,  one  egg,  and  flour 
enough  to  make  it  hold  together.  Spread  on  the  pan,  having  the 
mixture  one-third  of  an  inch  thick.  Bake  in  a  hot  oven.  Split 
and  eat  with  syrup. 


Notes  from  the  Field. 

By  General  Secretary  Amy  Brozvn  Lyman. 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  STAKE  CONFERENCE  FOR  1917. 

The  Relief  Society  stake  conferences  appointed  for  May, 
June  and  July  will  be  held  in  connection  with  the  stake  quarterly 
conferences;  those  appointed  for  November  will  be  held  inde- 
pendently. 

Conference  Dates. 

May  5th  and  6th — Curlew,  Alberta,  San  Luis,  Boise,  St. 
Johns,  South  Sanpete,  Wayne. 

May  12th  and  13th — Emery,  Millard,  Juab,  Taylor,  Snow- 
flake. 

May  19th  and  20th — Young,  Shelley,  Bannock,  Teton,  Big- 
horn, Maricopa,  Malad.  Blackfoot. 

May  26th  and  27th — Bingham,  Portneuf,  St.  Joseph,  Poca- 
tello,  Rigby,  Panguitch. 

June  2nd  and  3rd — Uintah,  Kanab.  Morgan,  Oneida,  San 
Juan. 

June  16th  and  17th — St.  George.  North  Sanpete,  Moapa, 
Star  Valley,  Union,  Parowan. 

June  23rd  and  24th — Sevier,  Fremont,  Bear  Lake,  Deseret. 
Duchesne. 

June  30th  and  July  1st — Tooele. 

July  21st  and  22nd — Benson,  Beaver,  Hyrum,  Raft  River. 

July  28th  and  29th— Wasatch,  Woodruff,  Idaho,  Cassia,  Yel- 
lowstone. 

November  (dates  to  be  arranged  later) — Alpine,  Bear  River. 
Box  Elder,  Cache,  Carbon,  Cottonwood,  South  Davis,  Ensign, 
Granite,  Jordan,  Liberty,  Nebo,  North  Davis,  North  Weber. 
Ogden.  Pioneer,  Salt  Lake,  Summit,  Utah.  Weber 

PROGRAM 

For  stakes  holding  conferences  in  connection  with  quarterh  con 
ferences : 

First  Session.    Officers'  Meeting.    Saturday,  4:00  p.m. 
Report  bv  Stake  President. 
Guide  Work.     Member  of  the  General  Board. 

Second  Session.     Officers'  Meeting.    Sunday,  9  to  10:30  a.m. 
Relief  Society  Activities — Member  of  General  Board 

Third  Session.    Public  Session.    Sunday,  10:30  a.m. 
1  Fnder  direction  of  Stake  Authorities. 
Remarks  hy  Member  of  General  Board. 


XOTES   FROM    THE   FIELD.  275 

ITEMS   FROM    RELIEF  SOCIETY   ANNUAL   REPORT   FOR  THE   YEAR   CLOS- 
ING   DECEMBER,    1916. 

The  annual  report  shows  a  growth  in  all  departments  and 
an  increase  in  the  resources  of  the  Society.  With  the  exception 
of  the  membership  dues,  all  the  funds  and  property  of  the  Society 
are  held  and  controlled  in  the  various  local  or  ward  branches. 
The  means  are  collected  and  distributed  without  commission  or 
salary.  Every  cent  donated  is  used  for  the  purpose  for  which  it 
was  given.  The  membership  dues  are  sent  to  the  general  offices 
for  the  maintenance  of  Relief  Society  headquarters,  for  traveling 
expenses,  and  for  printing  and  clerical  hire. 

RESOURCES    AND    LIABILITIES. 

Resources: 
Balance  on  hand  Dec.  31.  1916,  all  funds  $119,129.83 

Value  of  wheat  on  hand 216,397.81 

Value  of  real  estate,  buildings,  furniture  241,452.84 

Value  of  invested  funds  23,407.67 

Other  resources   8,361.97 

Total $608,750.12 

Liabilities: 

Indebtedness $     2,722.53 

Balance  net  resources 606,027.59 

Total $608,750.12 

WHEAT  RECEIVED  AND  DISBURSED. 

Receipts: 

Wheat  on  hand  Jan.  1,  1916.  .  .  .  12,201,004  lbs. 

Wheat  donated  during  1916.  .  .  .      218,774  " 

Wheat  purchased   309,932  " 

Other  wheat  receipts 193,887  " 

Total ~~  12,923,597  lbs. 

Or 215.3931760bus. 

Disbursements: 
Wheat  on  deposit  with  Presiding 

Bishop's  Office    5,532,292  lbs. 

Wheat  in  local  R.  S.  granaries.  .  4.616,216  •" 

Wheat  in  other  granaries 1,385,817  " 

Other  wheat  deposits 279,704  " 

Wheat  sold   1.045,652  " 

Shrinkage,  waste  and  loss 63,916  " 

Total 12.923,597  lbs. 

Or 215.39317„nbus. 


276  RELIEF  S0(  IETY  MAGAZINE. 

STATISTICAL   REPORT. 

Membership  January  1.  1916: 

Officers  ' 6.436 

Teachers   12,706 

Members   .    . : 23.150 

Admitted  to  membership  5,816 

Total 48,108 

Removed   or   resigned 3,670 

Died 544 

Membership  December  31.  1916: 

Officers   6,430 

Teachers   13,392 

Members  24,072 

(Present  Membership)    (43,894) 


Total 48,108 

Number  of  meetings  held   35,375 

Average  attendance  at  meetings 13.786 

Nnumber  of  Relief  Society  organizations 1,191 

Number  of  Relief  Society  Magazines  taken 0.026 

Number  of  Relief  Society  ward  organizations  taking  Mag- 
azine             42 

Number  of  books  in  libraries 5,456 

ACTIVITIES. 

Paid  for  charitable  purposes $56,162.25 

Days  spent  with  sick 21,985 

Special  visits  to  sick  88,140 

Families  helped    6,803 

Bodies  prepared  for  burial  2,193 

Burial  clothing  prepared 1,516 

Number  of  visits  by  stake  officers 9,682 

Number  of  days  spent  in  temple  work 26,201 

Assistance  to  missionaries  or  their  families $  2,735.35 

Funds  raised  for  special  work $15,041.04 

COMPARATIVE  ITEMS  FOR  1  'M4,  1915  AND  1916. 

1914  1915  1916 

Balance  net  resources $510,536.05  $534,04 r.88  $606,027.59 

Wheat  on  hand  (bushels).    193,805  210,050y3  215,393,7/O0 

Paid  for  charitable  purposes    48,482.12  56,967.31  56,162.25 

Membership    37,S2C>  41,274  43,894 

Days  spent  with  sick 22,797  21,985 

Special  visits  to  sick 78,500  88,140 

No.  of  visits  by  stake  officers 4,722  9,682 

No.  of  days  spent  in  Temple  work.  .  .  .  16.889  26,201 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD.  277 

Tahiti  an  Mission. 

The  following  very  unique  and  interesting  report  and  letter 
with  the  accompanying  picture  has  just  been  received  by  the 
General  Board  from  the  distant  Society  Islands: 

REPORT  OF  THE  RELIEF  SOCIETIES  OF  THE  TAHI- 
TTAN  MISSION  FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDING  DEC.  31,  1916. 

Paid  for  charitable  purposes $  78.37 

Days  spent  with  the  sick 135 

Special   visits   to    the    sick 217 

Families  helped    2 

Bodies  prepared   for  burial 2 

Burial  clothes   prepared 4 

Number  of  visits  of  Mission  Officers 40 

Assistance  to  Missionaries $  36.00 

Funds  raised  for  special  work $  102.37 

Membership : 

Officers    14 

Members     • •....• 71 

Total     85 

Admitted  to  membership  during  the  year 18 

Died    1 

Number  of  meetings  held 173 

Average   attendance    '. 67 

Percentage  attendance    80 

Number  of  Relief  Society  organizations 4 

Papeete,  Tahiti,  Jan.  3,  1917. 

Dear  Sisters  :  A  report  of  the  Relief  Society  work  done 
in  the  Tahitian  M:ssion  has  never  before  been  compiled,  but  after 
reading  the  annual  report  for  the  year  1915,  in  the  Relief  Society 
Magazine,  I  determined  I  would  collect  what  material  I  could, 
so  that  the  small  part  of  the  work  done  by  us  would  help  swell 
the  report  for  the  year  1916. 

It  is  a  very  difficult  matter  to  get  a  report  of  the  work  done 
by  the  organizations  in  this  field,  due  to  the  fact  that  many  of 
the  members  are  unable  to  keep  a  record  and  also  on  account  of 
the  scattered  condition  of  the  people  of  the  islands  and  the  very 
uncertain  boat  service  here.  A  boat  calls  at  some  of  these  islands 
perhaps  once  or  twice  during  the  year. 

The  lady  missionaries  of  this  field  have  never  before  visited 
the  islands  of  the  Tuamotu  Group,  where  most  of  our  branches 
are,  on  account  of  these  conditions,  and  consequently  have  never 
really  become  acquainted  with  the  work  being  done  there,  except- 
ing" what  thev  have  learned  from  the  Elders. 


Mrs.  I  'cutis  R.  Rossiter  and  the  Relief  Society  members  in  attend- 
ance at  October  Conference  in  Hikuere,  S.  I. 

I  have  made  it  a  point  since  coming  to  this  mission  to  at- 
tend all  of  the  semi-annual  conferences  in  order  that  I  might 
meet  all  of  the  sisters  personally  and  instruct  them  in  the.  nature 
of  their  work.  And  I  assure  you  it  has  been  with  no  small  effort 
and  personal  discomfort.  However,  the  experiences  I  have  had 
besides  being  unique  and  intensely  interesting  which  could  not 
have  been  gained  in  any  other  way,  have  been  extremely  beneficial 
to  me  and  are  such  that  I  shall  never  forget  them.  For  instance, 
in  going  a  distance  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  miles  to  our  last 
April  conference,  we  were  twenty  days  at  sea  on  a  tiny  trading 
schooner  that  had  no  accommodations  for  passengers,  and  we 
were  obliged  to  lie  .on  the  deck  floor,  night  and  day  unsheltered 
either  from  the  burning  tropical  sun  or  downpour  of  rain  ;  we  had 
the  alternative  of  crowding  down  in  the  small,  dark,  ill-smelling 
hold  with  as  many  natives  and  Chinese  as  the  place  could  contain. 
Many  times  Sister  Margaret  Compton,  the  only  other  lady  mis- 
sionary in  this  field,  and  I  have  lain  all  night  on  the  deck  floor 
unsheltered  in  a  downpour  of  rain,  and  in  several  inches  of 
water.  We  also  ate  the  coarse  ship  food  we  were  able  to  get  with 
our  fingers  from  the  tin  plates  off  the  dirty  deck  floor. 

Although  the  accompanying  report  is  small  and  not  entirely 
complete  it  will  give  you  an  idea  of  the  work  being  done  in  the 
Tahitian  mission  and  the  difficult  circumstances  under  which  we 
have  to  labor. 

At  Papeete  which  is  our  headquarters  we  have  no  organized 
Society  as  there  are  very  few  Saints  here,  but  Sister  Compton 


NOTES  FROM   THE  FIELD.  279 

and  I  have  become  members  of  a  sewing  circle  conducted  by  the 
chief  Mayor's  wife,  and  we  devote  one  day  a  week  sewing  articles 
of  clothing  for  the  Tahitian  soldiers'  families. 

I  am  sending  you  a  picture  of  myself  and  part  of  our  Relief 
Society  sisters,  taken  at  our  October  conference  in  Hikuere, 
thinking  perhaps  it  would  interest  you. 

Thanking  you  kindly  for  remembering  us  each  month  with 
a  copy  of  the  Relief  Society  Magazine, 

I  remain  sincerely. 

Your  sister  in  the  Gospel, 

Venus  R.  Rossiter. 
Hawaiian  Mission. 

We  are  delighted  to  receive  the  following  information  from 
President  Samuel  E.  Wooley,  regarding  the  work  of  the  Rekef 
Society  in  the  Hawaiian  Mission  : 

"1  hope  that  you  will  pardon  me  for  not  writing  to  you  before 
as  I-  promised  I  would,  but  I  have  had  so  many  things  on  hand 
that  I  have  not  had  time  to  write  to  my  own  folks  as  I  ought  to 
have  done.  This  has  been  a  very  busy  year  and  there  have  been 
so  many  things  that  have  required  my  personal  attention,  that  I 
have  just  about  run  down  at  times,  but  I  have  not  forgotten  that 
I  ought  to  tell  you  that  we  are  alive  here  in  the  mission  and  that 
the  Relief  Societies  are  doing  something.  I  have  not  been  able 
to  get  out  in  the  conferences  as  I  hoped  that  I  would,  neither  have 
1  been  able  to  write  to  them  ;  we  have  been  so  short-handed  in  the 
office.  I  have  to  plug  along  with  my  writng  in  the  old  fashioned 
way,  and  do  the  most  of  it  after  others  have  finished  for  the  day. 
No  one  can  quite  appreciate  this  unless  he  has  been  in  the  same 
position  or  has  been  here  and  has  seen  things  as  they  are.  I  may 
be  slow  and  incompetent,  but  I  am  at  it  for  all  that  is  in  me. 
Now,  dear  sister,  I  will  call  your  attention  to  a  few  items  from 
our  report  ending  1916: 

Number  of  branches  in  Hawaiian  Mission 28 

Membership , 964 

Donations.  1916   $1,095.45 

Paid  for  charitable  purposes . 642.33 

Resources 2,818.32 

No  indebtedness. 

Days  spent  with  sick 439 

Special  visits  to  sick 396 

"To  raise  the  funds  they  have  donated,  the  Relief  Society 
members  have  made  qudts  and  mats,  fans,  and  all  kinds  of  handy 
work,  and  have  taken  up  a  subscription  among  their  own  mem- 
bers.    Besides  what  they  are  doing  in  a  financial  way.  they  are 


280 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


doing  a  lot  of  good  for  the  cause,  and  they  look  after  the  sick 
and  the  poor,  as  well  as  take  an  active  part  in  the  general  work 
of  the  Church.  They  are  interested  in  Temple  work  now  that 
it  is  at  their  very  door.  They  are  studying  the  principles  of  the 
gospel  and  what  it  takes  to  become  good  Latter-day  Saints.  We 
are  getting  along  very  well  with  the  building,  but  have  been  held 
up  of  late  on  account  of  the  strike  at  the  coast  cities,  and  now 
that  it  is  settled  there  is  so  much  freight  piled  up  on  the  wharfs 
at  San  Francisco  that  the  steamers  take  that  most  needed  for  food 
and  feed  for  animals,  so  that  we  may  be  delayed  a  little  from  time 
to  time  on  things  that  we  cannot  help.  We  feel  happy  in  our 
work  and  hope  to  go  on  faithfully  to  the  end. 

"Oh  yes,  by  the  way,  it  is  twenty-one  years  since  I  landed  at 
Honolulu  with  my  wife  and  four  children  to  take  charge  of  this 
Mission  under  the  direction  of  the  First  Presidency.  I  am  just  as 
willing  and  happy  over  it  as  1  was  then  ;  true.  I  wish  conditions 
were  so"  that  I  could  have  my  family  with  me,  but  that  seems  out 


Relief  Society  of  Honolulu  Marching  in  Parade  on  Katnahaha 

Day. 

of  the  question  at  present.  I  have  never  asked,  nor  do  I  want  to, 
"How  much  longer,  oh  Lord?"  for  I  know  that  the  Lord  does 
things  well  if  we  are  willing- — we  have  been  that  so  far.  thank  the 
Lord.  What  little  has  been  accomplished  during  these  twenty- 
one  years  I  give  the  praise  to  the  Lord  in  whose  hands  we 
all  are. 


NOTES  FROM   THE  FIELD. 


281 


"May  the  Lord  bless  Zion,  for  we  on  Hawaii  are  a  part  of  it. 
I  feel  that  the  next  great  step  will  be  to  make  this  one  of  the 
Stakes  of  Zion.     Truly  Zion  is  growing. 

"Peace  be  with  you  in  your  good  work,  I  am, 
"Your  brother  in  the  gospel, 

"Samuel  E.  Wooley." 


Honolulu  Relief  Society  Laying  Floral  Wreaths  or  Leis  on  Kama- 
haha's  Monument. 


Sunday  School  Nursery  Department. 

The  Sunday  School  of  the  Second  ward  of  the  Liberty  stake, 
vSalt  Lake  City,  has  introduced  an  innovation  in  the  form  of  a 
Nursery  Department. 

The  object  of  this  department  is  to  care  for  babies  in  arms 
and  to  furnish  entertainment  for  children  up  to  the  time  they  are 
able  to  enter  the  Kindergarten  Department,  thus  leaving  the 
parents  free  to  attend  the  Parents'  Class  and  to  take  an  active 
part  in  the  Sunday  School  in  general. 

These  babies  and  young  children  are  cared  for  by  competent 
nurses  and  assistants  and  they  enjoy  the  hours  spent  in  their  own 
comfortable  little  department  as  much  as  their  parents  enjoy  the 
profitable  discussions  in  the  Parents'  Class. 

It  will  be  seen  by  the  illustrations  accompanying  that  the 
nursery  room  is  large  and  airy  and  well  equipped  for  the  enter- 
tainment and  amusement  of  children. 


Sunday  School  Nursery  I^cpartmcnt  of  the  Second  Ward,  Liberty 
Stake.  Sunday  School 


NOTES  FROM    THE   FIELD.      '  283 

The  equipment  consists  of  small  beds  and  cradles,  walking- 
chairs,  swings,  dolls,  balls,  story  books,  small  rocking-  and  straight 
back  chairs,  etc.  Pillow  slips  and  bed  linen  are  changed  weekly, 
and  everything  is  kept  strictly  sanitary.  All  furniture  is  painted 
with  white  enamel  and  a  suitable  carpet  covers  the  floor — all  ap- 
pointments tending  to  make  it  an  inviting  playroom  where  the 
children  feel  at  home. 

The  Superintendency  of  the  Sunday  School  make  it  a  special 
point  to  invite  the  mothers  of  babes  and  young  children  to  attend 
the  Parents'  Class  and  to  place  their  children  for  care  in  this  cozy 
nursery — and  it  must  be  gratifying  to  these  officers  to  see  how 
many  there  are  who  take  advantage  of  this  opportunity. 

The  Bishop  of  this  enterprising  ward  is  Elder  Heber  C. 
Iverson  and  the  members  of  the  Sunday  School  Superintendency 
are:  Charles  E.  Rose,  Superintendent;  David  Athay,  First  As- 
sistant ;  H.  B.  Elder,  Second  Assistant. 

This  original  and  progressive  idea,  we  feel  sure,  will  appeal 
to  the  officers  of  our  ward  Relief  Societies  and  to  the  members 
who  are  mothers  of  small  children,  as  very  practical,  and  it  opens 
to  view  a  new  field  of  possibilities  in  the  way  of  increasing  our 
Relief  Society  membership.  We  need  the  young  women  in  the 
Relief  Society  work  and  the  young  women  need  the  Relief  So- 
ciety work.  Is  it  not  possible  that  this  plan,  which  works  so  suc- 
cessfully in  a  Sunday  School  might  be  introduced  into  ward 
Relief  Societies? 

In  the  event  of  this  or  a  similar  scheme  being  adopted  in  a 
ward  organization,  and  in  case  young  girls  could  not  be  procured 
to  care  for  the  children,  the  mothers  themselves  might,  with  profit 
to  all  concerned,  alternate  in  performing  this  service.  Two  mem- 
bers could  easily  attend  to  a  dozen  or  more  children  and  leave  the 
rest  of  the  members  free  to  enjoy  the  meeting. 

Think  this  over,  ward  workers. 

Change  of  Address. 

The  mission  headquarters  of  the  Eastern  States  Mission  has 
been  removed  from  33  West  126th  Street,  New  York  City,  to  1140 
Bedford  Avenue,  Brooklyn,  New  York. 

All  correspondence  and  Relief  Society  matters  connected  with 
this  mission  will  please  take  notice  of  this  change. 

Miss  Margaret  Edward, 

President  Eastern  States  Mission 
Relief  Society. 


EDITORIAL 


Entered   as  second  class  matter   at  the  Post   Office,   Salt   Lake   City,    Utah. 

Motto — Charity   Never   Faileth. 

THE  GENERAL   BOARD 

Mrs.     Emmeline    B.    Wells President 

Mas.    Clarissa   S.    Williams First   Counselor 

Mrs.  Julina   L.   Smith Second   Counselor 

Mrs.   Amy   Brown    Lyman General    Secretary 

Mrs.    Susa   Young    Gates Corresponding    Secretary 

Mrs.   Emma   A.    Empey Treasurer 

Mrs.  Sarah  Jenne  Cannon  Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  Miss  Edna  May  Davis 

Dr.  Romania  B.  Penrose  Mrs.  Priscilla  P.  Jennings         Miss  Sarah  McLelland 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards  Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Crismon 

Mrs.  Julia  M.  P.  Farnsworth  Mrs.  Rebecca  Niebaur  Nibley  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde 

Mrs.  Phoebe  Y.  Beatie  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune        Miss  Sarah  Eddington 
Mrs.  Ida  S.  Dusenberry  Miss  Lillian  Cameron 

Mrs.  Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,   Music  Director 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Susa    Young    Gates 

Business    Manager Janette    A.    Hyde 

Assistant   Manager    • Amy   Brown   Lyman 

Room  29,   Bishop's  Building,   Salt   Lake  City,   Utah. 


& 


Vol.  IV.  MAY,   1917.  No.  5. 


WAR  IS   UPON  US. 

*  Out  of  the  East  came  a  cloud  and  spread  up- 
War,  ward  and  noonward.     We  were  all  so  busy 

with  eating  and  drinking,  marrying  and  giv- 
ing in  marriage  that  we  did  not  remember  that  as  it  was  in 
the  days  of  Noah  so  shall  it  be  in  the  days  of  the  coming  of 
the  Son  of  Man.  We  knew  there  were  fierce  storms  raging 
over  there  in  the  far  eastern  horizon  beyond  the  waters  of  the 
great  deep,  but  the  sun  had  shone  for  us  from  childhood  and 
clouds  were  but  temporary  matters.  So  the  cloud  spread.  Out 
there  in  the  far-away  lands  darkness  is  covering  the  earth,  but 
having  the  Light  we  are  inclined  to  waste  our  hours  in  play. 
Men  have  been  wasting  life  and  treasure  out  there  in  pungent 
streams — who  can  tell,  women  may  yet  join  in  active  conflict 
side  by  side,  with  these  blood-crazed,  blind-folded  men,  as  they 
did  in  the  days  of  Mormon  and  Moroni.  Why  not?  Life  is 
counted  cheap,  parenthood  is  scorned,  virtue  a  weakness  of 
the  poor,  and  faith  a  superstition.  How  naturally  the  war 
clouds  have  settled — spread — and  are  even  now  covering  the 
whole  earth. 

Here  we  face  war's  indirect  problems.  This 
In  Utah.  time  next  year  we  may  be  too  war-stricken 

to  talk  about  it.  Twisted  heartstrings  give 
forth  no  sound.     Death  is  dumb.     Our  present  problems — yes 


EDITORIAL.  285 

— just  the  same  old  questions  of  daily  duties.  Add  a  pinch  of 
economy,  a  fresh  sprinkling  of  prayer,  a  dash  of  humor,  and 
there  you  are. 

Have  you  a  bit  of  ground  around  your  house, 
War  -  five    hundred    or    not  more  than  fifty    feet? 

Preparation  Plant  it  into  vegetables.     Put  in   succulent 

For  Women.  roots,  all  kinds  of  growing  things  that  will 
contribute  life  to  yourselves  and  your  fam- 
ilies. No  spot  of  ground  which  can  be  made  to  yield  should 
be  left  vacant  this  war-year.  Not  an  hour  of  time,  an  ounce  of 
strength,  or  a  crust  of  bread  should  be  wasted  during  this 
critical  period. 

The  clouds  are  gathering — have  we  a  right 
The  Laws  to  shelter  in  the  pavilion    of    Infinite    Love 

of  God.  and    Divine    Law?       God    loves    His    war- 

ring sons  under  the  European  war  clouds ; 
but  even  He  must  let  them  reap  the  harvest  of  hate,  dis- 
obedience and  corruption  which  most  of  them  have  sown. 
If  we  would  be  protected  by  the  Divine  Law  we  must  set 
our  lives  in  tune  with  its  mandates.  And  as  the  strength 
of  a  chain  is  its  weakest  link,  so  do  this  people  rise 
and  fall  together — each  lifted  a  little  by  the  law-keepers  or 
pulled  down  a  little  by  the  law-breakers. 

War  may  exact  its  toll  from  your  household 
We  Shall  and  mine — but  when  this  Government  calls 

Be  Loyal.  on    Utah    mothers   and   daughters,    we    shall 

know  no  allegiance  except  to  God  and  the 
United  States  of  America,  and  we  will  fling  our  starry  banners 
to  the  breeze,  and  if  need  be  fashion  and  clothe  our  sons  for 
war,  and  with  our  last  kiss  whisper  the  trenchant  words  of 
Brigham  Young  to  the  boys  he  sent  out  into  the  borderland 
of  conflict  in  pioneer  days, — "Say  your  prayes,  and  keep  your 
powder  dry."  Come,  sisters,  let  us  get  our  own  powder  in 
readiness. 

We  are  all  Latter-day  Saints,  we  wives  and 
All  Are  mothers  of  the  Relief  Society,  all  American 

Americans.  citizens.    We  know  no  English,  Dutch,  Scan- 

dinavian, nor  German — we  are  voting  units 
of  Utah  and  of  the  United  States  of  America.  Therefore,  we 
will  work  together,  we  English — Dutch — Scandinavian — Ger- 
man women  patriots,  born  or  adopted  American,  as  we  will 
all  kneel  together,  whispering  prayers  for  our  loved  ones,  and 
yet  asking  God  to  abolish  autocracy  all  over  this  sad  earth, 
giving  liberty  to  the  people  and  hastening  the  day  when  He 
shall  come  to  rule  whose  right  it  is  to  reign  over  the  whole  earth. 


Guide  Lessons. 

LESSON  I. 

Theology  and  Testimony. 

First  Week  in  April. 
GLEANING  IN  ALIEN  FIELDS. 

Reading  :  The  Book  of  Ruth.  References  :  Kitta's  Pales- 
tine. Part  III,  and  McCurdy's  History,  Prophecy,  and  the  Monu- 
ments, Chapter  II,  Smith's  Old  Testament  History,  Geikie's  Hours 
With  the  Bible. 

The  general  conditions  that  prevailed  in  Palestine  at  the 
time  of  Ruth,  the  Moabitish  maiden,  are  what  we  shall  be  con- 
cerned with  in  this  lesson. 

Israel  was  then  ruled  by  judges.  There  was  therefore  no 
centralized  political  government,  with  a  single  recognized  head. 
If  we  may  accept  the  statement  of  Josephus  on  this  point,  Eli  was 
the  religious  head  of  the  Israelites  at  the  time  of  Ruth.  Later, 
this  part  of  their  being  kingless  whereas  all  the  surrounding  na- 
tions had  kings,  was  a  source  of  an  unworthy  embarrassment  to 
the  people,  and  as  Samuel,  who  came  after  Eli,  gave  them  a  king. 
But  in  the  prophet,  who  constituted  their  religious  head,  the  de- 
scendants of  Jacob  had  a  strong  centralized  religious  power  to 
which  they  all  looked  for  guidance.  We  have  something  like  this 
in  our  day  in  the  fact  that,  looking  at  the  matter  in  a  religious  light 
merely,  Latter-day  Saints  who  live  in  the  various  states  of  the 
I'nion,  the  European  countries,  and  the  ocean  isles  all  look  to 
President  Joseph  F.  Smith  for  spiritual  direction. 

The  Children  of  Israel  were  not  alone  in  Palestine.  It  is 
true  that  on  the  west  of  the  Jordan  river  they  occupied  the  greater 
[•art  of  the  country  from  Dan  on  the  north  to  Beersheba  on  the 
south— a  territory  of  about  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  miles 
olng  by  about  fifty  miles  wide.  Even  here,  however,  there  were 
Canaanitish  towns  the  inhabitants  of  which  they  either  could  not  or 
did  not  expel.  But  on  the  east  of  Jordan  were  the  Moabites  and 
the  Ammonites,  descendants  of  Lot  and  his  two  daughters.  Before 
and  after  the  time  of  Ruth,  it  seems,  there  existed  considerable 
bitterness  of  feeling  between  these  peoples  and  the  Jews.  But 
at  the  time  of  which  we  are  now  speaking  it  would  appear  that 
the  two  were  on  friendly  relations. 

Palestinean  towns  do  not  appear  to  have  been  large  during 
this  period,  although  they  are  called  "cities.     "Cities"  in   those 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  287 

days  were  like  the  early  Bible  "kings" — small  and  of  little  conse- 
quence. Canaanitish  towns,  which  were  later  occupied  by  the 
conquering  Israelites,  were  walled,  and  this  fact  accounts  for  the 
difficulty  the  latter  had  in  taking  them.  These  walled  towns  alone 
were  secure  in  those  troubulous  times  of  war.  "The  streets  of 
Eastern  towns  are  always  exceedingly  narrow,  that  the  shadow  of 
the  houses  may  keep  them  cool ;  and  the  appearance  of  these 
streets  is  dull  and  uninviting,  as  the  houses  do  not  front  the  road." 
None  of  the  streets  in  Jewish  towns  at  this  time  were  paved. 
The  towns  of  this  period,  from  an  absence  of  public  buildings, 
must  have  been  rather  mean  in  appearance.  Public  transactions 
often  took  place  at  the  gates  of  towns. 

In  Abrahamic  times  tents  were  the  only  habitations  we  read 
of  as  permanent  dwellings.  There  is  an  occasional  refernce,  how- 
ever, to  huts,  or  booths,  "small  dwellings  made  of  green  or  dry 
branches  of  trees  intertwined,  and  sometimes  plastered  with  mud." 
On  entering  the  Land  of  Canaan,  the  Israelites  almost  of  necessity 
occupied  the  houses  from  which  they  had  .driven  out  their  inhabit- 
ants. "These  appear  for  a  long  time  to  have  been  poor  and  low, 
and  built  either  of  sun-dried  mud  or  unhewn  stones ;  timber  for 
building  being  scarce  in  that  country ;  and  hence  the  employment 
of  it  in  large  quantities,  as  in  some  of  Solomon's  buildings,  was  a 
sign  of  costliness  and  magnificence."  There  was  no  glass  in  the 
windows ;  they  were  latticed  to  give  free  passage  to  air  and  a  de- 
gree of  light,  at  the  same  time  excluding  birds  and  bats.  "In 
winter  the  cold  was  kept  out  by  thin  veils  over  the  windows,  or  by 
shutters  with  holes  in  them  sufficient  to  admit  the  light.  No 
ancient  houses  had  chimneys."  Articles  of  furniture  were  few  and 
simple,  because  of  the  fact  that  the  people  in  Palestine  spent  much 
of  their  time  out  of  .doors.  They  sat  mainly  on  mats,  crosslegged, 
although  raised  seats  were  not  unknown.  "The  beds  consisted  of 
mattresses  and  quilted  coverlets,  laid  upon  the  floor  at  night,  and 
stowed  away  in  a  recess  by  day.  Sheets,  blankets,  and  bedsteads 
are  not  known  in  the  East."  Every  family  ground  its  own  corn, 
using  for  this  purpose  two  stones,  the  upper  of  which  was  turned 
round  and  had  a  hold  to  allow  the  grain  to  be  put  through. 

Like  most  Eastern  people,  the  Israelites  were  plain  and 
simple  in  their  food,  which  consisted  chefly  of  bread,  vegetables, 
fruits  (green  and  preserved),  honey,  milk,  curds,  cream,  butter, 
and  cheese.  Meat  could  hardly  be  called  an  ordinary  article  of 
food,  except  among  the  higher  classes  of  the  people  dwelling  in 
towns.  The  use  of  animal  food  was,  indeed,  restricted  in  some 
degree  by  the  law,  which  allowed  the  flesh  of  no  beasts  to  be 
eaten  but  such  as  chewed  the  cud  and  parted  the  hoof,  nor  any 
fish  but  such  as  had  both  fins  and  gills.  These  restrictions  ren- 
dered it  difficult  for  a  strict  Jew  to  eat  with  a  heathen.     The  hog 


288  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

was  not  forbidden  more  especially  #than  many  other  animals;  but 
being  the  only  unclean  beast  the  flesh  of  which  was  usually  and 
commonly  eaten,  its  absence  from  the  diet  of  the  Jews  attracted 
more  attention  than  any  other  prohibition.  Poultry  was  but 
sparingly  used.  The  only  domestic  birds  kept  were  pigeons  and 
the  common  fowl.  Bread  was  baked,  not  in  loaves  as  with  us, 
but  in  rolls  or  flat  cakes.  There  were  no  knives  or  forks  used  in 
those  days,  the  food  being  conveyed  from  the  dish  to  the  mouth 
by  the  right  hand.  This  is  why  the  hands  had  to  be  wased  before 
eating.  The  principal  meal  was  after  the  labors  of  the  day  were 
over,  although  "a  kind  of  lunch,  consisting  of  bread,  milk,  cheese, 
etc.,  was  taken  in  the  forenoon."  When  the  Hebrews  "ate  from  a 
table,  they  used  seats;  but  when  they  sat  on  the  ground,  the  meal 
was  laid  on  a  cloth  spread  on  the  floor,  with  a  large  piece  of 
leather  under  it,  to  prevent  mats  or  carpets  from  being  soiled."  It 
was  only  after  the  captivity  that  the  Jews  learned  from  the  Per- 
sians the  art  of  reclining  at  the  dining  table.  Wine,  though 
greatly  diluted,  was  commonly  drunk  during  meals,  as  the  cistern 
water  often  became  polluted  and  unfit  to  drink.  Feasts  and  en- 
tertainments were  frequent,  at  which  the  guests  were  anointed 
with  precious,  perfumed  oil  wh'l  ejests.  riddles,  singing,  music, 
dancing,  and  story-telling  were  indulged  in. 

On  account  of  the  divine  prohibition  against  painting,  draw- 
ing, or  carving  the  image  of  anything,  we  have  less  accurate  in- 
formation concerning  the  dress  of  the  Israelites  than  of  anything 
eise  in  their  social  life.  But  "we  may  conceive  the  figure  of  a 
Jew,  viewed  externally.as  that  of  a  fullbearded  man,  clad  in  a  long 
and  loose  garment  with  large  sleeves,  which  was  confined  to  the 
person  by  a  girdle  about  the  loins ;  the  neck  bare,  the  feet  pro- 
tected by  a  piece  of  leather  strapped  to  the  sole,  and  the  head 
cither  bare  (as  it  seems  very  often  to  have  been),  or  covered, 
among  the  higher  classes,  by  a  kind  of  turban,  and  among  the 
common  people,  by  a  piece  of  cloth  thrown  over  the  head,  and 
confined  by  a  fillet  around  the  brows."  In  action,  the  "arm  was 
made  bare."  and  "the  loins  were  girded"  by  drawing  up  the  skirts. 
The  appearance  of  the  Jew.  however,  varied  with  circumstances, 
'•'as  when  a  large,  loose,  shapeless  garment  was  thrown,  like  a 
cloak,  over  the  dress  which  has  been  described."  On  the  four 
corners  of  this  article  of  clothing  it  was  common  to  have  "a 
fringe  with  a  piece  of  blue  tape,'  'to  remind  them  that  they  were 
a  peculiar  people.  All  these  dresses,  excepting  this  outer  garment, 
were  of  linen  or  cotton,  this  latter  being  of  wool  and  hair.  Stock- 
ings and  socks  were  not  in  use.  Most  persons  went  entirely  bare 
foot,  except  in  winter  or  upon  a  journey.  The  wealthier  classes 
wore  sandals  out  of  doors,  except  during  mourning.  The  Israel- 
ites allowed  the  hair  and  beard  to  grow.     "Baldness  in  men  not 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  289 

old  was  rare.  The  hair  was  dressed  and  anointed  with  much 
care,  especially  at  festivals. 

"Women  appear  to  have  enjoyed  considerably  more  freedom 
among  the  Jews  than  is  now  allowed  them  in  Western  Asia,  al- 
though in  other  respects  their  condition  and  employment  seem  to 
have  been  dissimilar."  In  Ruth  we  read  of  women  eating  with 
men — the  only  instance  of  this  kind  in  the  Bible.  Daughters,  In 
Abrahamic  times,  as  we  have  seen,  tended  their  father's  flocks. 
The  first  task  of  the  day  usually  was  to  grind  corn  and  to  bake. 
Peasant  women  gathered  fuel  and  carried  water  from  the  wells, 
which  were  usually  on  the  outskirts  of  town.  The  clothes  used 
by  the  family  were  made  by  the  women  members,  as  also  were 
the  tapestries  for  bed-coverings.  Among  the  women  of  the  poorer 
classes  the  dress  "was  probably  coarse  and  simple,  and  not  ma- 
terially different  from  that  which  we  now  see  among  the  Bedouin 
women,  and  the  female  peasantry  of  Syria.  This  consists  of 
drawers,  and  a  long  and  loose  gown  of  coarse  blue  linen,  with 
some  ornamental  bordering  wrought  with  the  needle,  in  another 
color,  about  the  neck  and  bosom.  The  head  is  covered  with  a 
kind  of  turban,  connected  with  which  behind,  is  a  veil  which 
ovrces  the  neck,  back,  and  bosom.  We  may  presume,  with  still 
greater  certainty,  that  women  of  superior  condition  wore,  over 
their  inner  dress,  a  frock  or  tunic  like  that  of  the  men,  but  more 
closely  fitting  the  person,  with  a  girdle  formed  by  an  unfolded 
kerchief.  The  hair  was  worn  long  and,  as  at  present,  braided  into 
numerous  tresses,  with  trinkets  and  ribbons."  Ear-rings  were 
also  worn,  and  nose-jewels  of  gold  or  silver,  and  bracelets  and 
armlets. 

Marriage  and  the  rearing  of  children  were  extremely  import- 
ant among  the  Israelites.  Engagements  were  contracted  by  Hie 
fathers.  If  a  man  died,  his  widow  was  given  to  his  brother  or 
nearest  of  kin,  and  the  firstborn  son  belonged  to  the  deceased. 
Divorce  was  not  allowed  by  Moses  except  for  adultery,  which 
sin  was  to  be  punished  by  stoning  the  offender  to  death.  Plural 
marriage,  despite  the  assertions  of  some  Biblical  scholars  to  the 
contrary,  was  not  only  permitted  but  enjoyed  by  the  divine  law. 
To  be  barren  was  "a  reproach."  Children  were  "the  heritage  of 
the  Lord,"  and  "blessed"  was  he  who  had  his  "quiver  full." 
The  child  remained  with  the  mother  till  it  was  five  years  old,  when 
it  was  delivered  over  to  the  care  of  the  father  to  be  taught  the 
Law.  Often  the  well-to-do  employed  the  services  of  a  private 
tutor. 

The  Israelites,  like  all  Orientals,  were  marked  in  the  ex- 
pression of  their  varying  moods  by  outer  signs.  The  men  when 
equals,  kissed  one  another's  beards.  The  kiss  of  respect  or 
homage  was  on  the  brow.     Kissing  the  feet  of  the  person  rev- 


290  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

erenced  was  common.  "The  Lord  bless  thee,"  was  a  familiar 
greeting,  as  in  Ruth.  The  Jewish  modes  of  showing  insult  ap- 
pear to  us  childish,  as  for  instance,  spitting  upon  the  beard,  or 
plucking  off  the  hair,  or  putting  a  man  to  do  a  woman's  work,  or 
clapping  the  hands,  kissing,  thrusting  out  the  tongue  and  making 
a  wry  mouth,  or  crunching  the  teeth  and  wagging  the  head.  The 
most  intolerable  insult,  however,  was  to  cast  contempt  upon  a 
man's  mother. 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  What  kind  of  political  government  did  Israel  have  at 
the  time  of  Ruth? 

2.  Were  there  any  other  people  in  Palestine  besides  Israel- 
ites?   Explain. 

3.  Tel  labout  Israelitish  towns. 

4.  Describe  the  houses  of  the  people  in  those  days. 

5.  What  and  how  did  they  eat? 

6.  Why  do  we  not  know  more  about  the  dress  of  those 
people?    Describe  their  dress. 

7.  Describe  some  of  their  marriage  customs  ;  the  care  of 
children. 

8.  Tell  of  some  of  the  ways  the  Israelites  had  of  expressing 
contempt. 

BIBLE  LESSON   FOR  JUNE. 

"Sanctify  them  through  thy  truth.    Thy  word  is  truth." 
Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  21 — 57. 

LESSON  II. 

Work  and  Business. 

Second  Week  in  June. 
LESSON  III. 

Genealogy  and  Literature. 

Third  Week  in  June. 
PREFIXES  AND  SUFFIXES. 

COMPOUND   SURNAMES — CHANGED   SURNAMES. 

Many  surnames  were  formed  with  the  addition  of  the  little 
preposition  which  preceded  place  names  or  followed  place  names 
in  a  qualifying  sense. 

A  prefix  means  something  added  before  and  a  suffix  means 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  291 

something  added  after.  For  instance,  atte  is  an  Anglo-Saxon 
prefix  meaning  at  the;  Atte-Oak  would  mean  at  the  oak.  The 
Anglo-Saxon  den  or  denn  meant  a  cave  or  hole;  so  Oak-Den 
would  mean  a  cave  near  an  oak. 

Norman  prefixes  often  consisted  of  the  French  de  or  le,  de 
meaning  of;  de  always  preceded  the  name  of  a  place  whence  the 
Norman  came,  and  where  he  had  a  castle  or  an  earthwork  crowned 
by  a  wooden  structure,  in  which  he  and  his  family  lived.  At  the 
time  of  the  Conquest  very  few  nobles  and  knights  had  stone 
dwellings.  It  sufficed  him  to  throw  up  a  trench — in  French  motte 
— and  to  crown  it  with  a  house  built  of  wood,  reached  by  a  lad- 
der, little  better  than  a  hen-roost.  In  instances  where  a  place- 
name  began  with  a  vowel,  the  middle  e  would  be  dropped  and 
the  de  would  be  fastened  right  on  to  the  name  like,  Danvers 
(D'Anvers),  Deveux,  Daubigny,  Darcy,  and  Dawney.  The  Ger- 
man used  von  with  the  same  meaning. 

The  Le  introduced  by  the  Normans  was  the  prefix  before  a 
descriptive  name  of  a  trade  or  else  of  a  functionary,  or  expressing 
some  personal  characteristic:  Le  Roux,  he  of  the  ruddy  com- 
plexion or  with  red  hair ;  Le  Portier,  the  doorward.  L'Estranger 
had  become  Stranger.  With  its  tail  cut  off  it  is  Strange.  Le  also 
preceded  the  .designation  of  a  man  from  foreign  parts,  as  Le 
Brabazon,  Le  Breton  or  the  man  from  Breton.  The  prefix  de 
was  changed  later  to  the  and  with  the  lapse  of  centuries  the 
Saxon  the  and  the  Norman  de  were  both  dropped  by  English- 
men. Adam  the  page  and  Phillip  the  cook  became,  with  the  in- 
coming Normans,  Adam  le  Page  and  Phillip  le  Cook.  Then  the 
articles  were  dropped  altogether  and  the  surname  would  simply 
be  Page  and  Cook.  The  same  thing  happened  with  de :  Richard 
de  Berry  and  Elias  de  Oxbridge  meant  Richard  of  Berry  and 
Elias  of  Oxbridge.  Both  de  and  le  totally  disappeared  from 
the  English  records  after  1535.  Richard  le  Spicer  and  William 
de  Dean  were  simply  known  as  Richard  Spicer  and  William 
Dean.  In  the  same  manner  the  Anglo-Saxon  atte  was  dropped 
and  men  who  had  been  called  John  Atte  Ford,  William  Atte  Hay 
and  David  Atte  Stone  found  themselves  after  that  time  called 
simply  John  Ford,  William  Hay  and  David  Stone.  In  a  few 
instances,  however,  the  atte  remained  as  in  Atwell,  Atwood  and 
Aston.  A  man  might  be  called  William  the  Long,  or  le  Long; 
John  le  Young,  or  John  the  Young ;  Richard  le  Barber,  or  Richard 
the  Barber;  Robert  the  Cook,  Adam  the  Page.  Thomas  the  Spen- 
cer, or  Henry  le  Walleys  (the  Welshman). 

The  Welsh  have  ap,  as  a  prefix ;  in  the  course  of  surname 
changes  ap  Rice  has  become  Price,  ap  Einion  has  become  Bunyan. 
ap  Ewan  has  become  Bevan,  and  ap  Owen  has  become  Bowen. 


292  RELIEF  S0CIE1  Y  MAGAZINE. 

Among  the  prefixes  and  suffixes  which  indicated  place  names 
are: 
Prefixes 

de  (of) 

le  (the) 

atte  (at  the) 
Suffixes 

ing  (son  of) 

heah  (high)  Hemstead 

hits  (house)  etc. 

cot  (cottage) 

bothy  (log-hut) 

ham  (home,  an  enclosure) 

burh  (a  fortified  place)  bury 

kin  or  kyn,  as  a  suffix  is  a  diminutive 

cock  (diminutive) 

et  (diminutive) 

ell  (a  measure) 

y  or  e,  ye,  same  as  the 

lin,  linn,  lyn,  a  waterfall,  precipiece  or  ravine 

by  (from,  near,  beside) 

thorp  or  torp,  a  cottage,  a  little  farm  or  field 
Compound  Names. 

Sometimes  surnames  are  a  compound,  not  so  often  in  Amer- 
ica as  in  England  and  on  the  continent.  Especially  is  this  true  of 
noble  families  who  keep  several  surnames  to  indicate  their  various 
lines.  The  author  of  "The  Story  of  Family  Names,"  Barring- 
Gould  is  an  illustration  of  a  compound  name.  It  is  thought  to 
be  very  fine  and  cultured  in  England  for  people  to  have  these 
double  surnames.  An  amusing  instance  occurred  in  recent  years 
when  Mr.  Ernest  Seton-Thompson  came  over  to  America  to  lec- 
ture. His  name  was  simply  Ernest  Seton,  but  his  managers  per- 
suaded him  that  a  compound  name  would  sound  more  enticing  to 
American  ears,  so  he  thoughtlessly  assumed  the  name  of  Thomp- 
son, calling  himself  Ernest  Seton-Thompson,  and  Ernest  Seton- 
Thompson  he  was  to  people  on  the  eastern  coast ;  but  when  he 
started  on  his  American  travels  the  breezy,  hurried  westerner 
hailed  him  simply  as  Mr.  Thompson.  They  had  no  time  nor  in- 
clination to  spend  breath  on  two  names.  The  consequent  irrita- 
tion to  this  gentleman's  sensitive  nerves  was  so  great  that  he  ap- 
pealed to  the  press  everywhere  to  change  his  name  about  and  call 
him  Thompson-Seton  or  to  leave  the  Thompson  out  altogether  as 
nature  had  done  and  make  him  simply  Ernest  Seton.  Tt  was  no 
use — reporters  juggled  with  the  name,  tossing  it  up  one  way  to 
have  it  fall  back  in  a  bewildering  variety  of  contortions.  He  was 
Tom  Seton  and  Se  Thompson,  and  now  you  see.  and  now  you 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  293 

don't  see  Tom.  Mr.  Seton  finally  decided  that  it  was  much  easier 
to  take  a  name  than  to  get  rid  of  it  and  resigned  himself  dog- 
gedly to  endure  the  burden  he  had  himself  prepared.  Lord  Bolton 
is  an  Orde-Powlett ;  Viscount  Boyne  is  a  Hamilton-Russel,  and 
Baron  Brabourne  a  Knatchbull-Hugessen.  The  Duke  of  Port- 
land is  a  Cavendish-Bentinck.  The  Sari  of  Ilchester's  family 
name  is  Fox-Strangevvays.  Viscount  Canterberry  is  a  Manners- 
Sutton,  Lord  Londonderry  a  Vance-Tempest,  Lord  Eversley  a 
Shaw-Lefevre,  Lord  Sudeley  a  Hanbury-Leigh,  Lord  Wentworth 
a  Noel-Milbanke. 
Changed  Names. 

It  happens  not  infrequently  that  men  wish  to  change  their 
names,  sometimes  because  they  dislike  the  name  itself,  sometimes 
because  some  odium  is  attached  to  it,  sometimes  because  they  wish 
to  hide  their  identity,  and  sometimes  adopted  children  have  their 
names  changed.  All  of  these  changes  are  confusing  and  mislead- 
ing to  genealogists.  It  is  much  better  to  keep  the  surname  evils 
we  may  have  than  to  flee  to  those  we  know  not  of. 

A  very  famous  Welshman  named  Morgan,  in  1500,  married 
the  only  daughter  and  heiress  of  William  Young.  He  assumed 
the  name  of  Young  as  did  many  other  Englishmen  under  similar 
circumstances.  Any  one  who  was  searching  for  either  Youngs 
or  Morgans  would  be  entirely  lost  unless  they  received  some  in- 
formation concerning  this  change.  Several  families  in  Utah 
have  changed  their  surnames  while  many  .deliberately  changed  the 
spelling  thereof.  The  changing  of  a  surname  is  regulated  by  law, 
in  all  civilized  countries,  so  vital  a  matter  is  it  considered  to  be  by 
governments.  Few  genealogists  go  back  any  distance  on  family 
lines  without  finding  instances  of  these  changed  names. 

Note. — This  lesson  closes  the  season's  study  in  Genealogy 
We  regret  the  fact  that  we  were  unable  to  secure  enough  surname 
books  to  supply  our  students.  However,  the  results  may  be  very 
advantageous  to  us.  We  hope  to  have  our  own  surname  book 
ready  for  use  when  we  open  our  classes  in  September,  and  we 
shall  take  our  lessons  from  that  book.  It  has  been  a  difficult  task 
for  the  genealogical  class  teachers  to  prepare  the  lessons  this  year, 
and  all  will,  no  doubt  be  glad  to  cover  the  same  ground  again 
next  year  with  very  much  better  facilities  and  a  lesson  book  of 
our  own  to  work  with.  We  congratulate  all  who  have  made  any 
sort  of  success  this  year  and  feel  to  sympathize  with  those  who 
have  failed  in  any  sense ;  but  we  are  all  working  together  with 
the  best  wisdom  we  have  and  our  mistakes  and  failures  will  but 
teach  us  the  better  way. 

QUESTIONS. 

What  can  you  say  of  prefixes? 
What  is  the  meaning  of  a  suffix? 


294  RELIEF  SOl  //• TV  MAGAZINE. 

Give  instances  of  both  suffixes  and  prefixes. 

What  is  a  compound  name? 

Why  have  they  been  used  ? 

What  would  you  think  of  a  compound  name,  especially  for 
married  women? 

Why  should  governments  object  to  people  changing  their 
surnames? 

Will  you  explain  to  the  class  by  what  process  of  law  a  person 
could  change  his  name'  (Consult  a  lawyer  for  an  answer  to  this 
question.) 


LITERATURE. 

Third  Week  in  May. 

old  time  tales. 

From  the  great  cliffs  that  make  our  craggy  canyon  walls. 
mugh  pieces  of  stone  are  constantly  being  broken  by  the  frost  and 
other  elements.  These  rock  fragments,  falling  down  the  moun- 
tain side,  frequently  reach  the  stream  below.  Such  as  do  are 
washed  and  tumbled  along  by  the  water,  and  ground  against  other 
stones  in  the  creek  bed  until  they  become  smoothed  and  polished 
boulders,  which  are  often  scattered  over  the  valley  floor. 

In  some  such  way  as  this,  have  old  tales  been  carried  down 
the  stream  of  time  to  us.  In  days  of  long  a,go  people  used  to  sit 
around  their  campfires  and  hearthstones  and  tell  stories  to  enter- 
tain one  another.  These  stories,  no  doubt,  were  at  first  crude — 
tough-hewn  in  style;  but  many  of  them  were  interesting  enough 
to  be  remembered  and  passed  from  father  to  son,  and  son  to 
grandson  down  the  ages.  In  being  thus  told  and  retold,  they 
were  often  changed  and  polished  into  charming  tales. 

Literature  is  full  of  these  old  stories.  No  one  knows  who 
first  told  them;  but  such  story-tellers  as  /Esop  and  the  Grimm 
brothers  have  made  collections  of  them;  authors  like  Shake- 
speare, Scott,  Irving,  Tennyson,  and  many  others  have  woven 
them  into  their  choicest  tales.  In  most  of  our  writings  are  allu- 
sions to  them.  It  is,  therefore,  quite  impossible  to  understand 
literature  fully  without  knowing  something  about  this  literary 
heritage  of  the  past. 

Old  time  tales  come  to  us  in  many  different  forms ;  but  for 
purpose  of  studv  thev  mav  be  classified  as  follows : 

1.  Nursery  Tales;  2.  Fairy  Tales;  3.  Fables:  4.  Parabks ; 
5.  Myths ;  6.  Legends. 

The  Nursery  Tale  is  familiar  to  most  mothers.  Such  stones 
as  "The  Three  Little  Pigs."  "The  L:ttle  Red  Hen."  "The  Ginger- 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  295 

bread  Man,"  and  "Three  Billy  Goats  Gruff,"  belong  to  this  group. 
They  might  be  called  "repetition  tales,"  since  certain  parts  in  them 
are  constantly  repeated.  The  nursery  tale  is  a  simple  little  tale 
created  mainly  to  amuse  children,  generally  it  is  harmless  and 
usually  very  interesting  for  little  folk. 

Fairy  tales  are  also  well  known.  These  are  fanciful  crea- 
tions, having  in  them  fairies,  elves,  and  other  supernatural  char- 
acters that  work  in  magic  ways  to  help  or  harm  human  folk. 
Cinderella  is  one  of  the  best  illustrations.  "Jad*  and  the  Bean- 
stalk" is  another  fairy  tale.  The  fairy  in  this  story  represents  the 
boy's  ambition.  The  giant,  whom  Jack  outwits  and  finally  over- 
comes, typifies  brute  force.  Many  a  lad  like  Jack  has  conquered 
by  skill  and  intelligence  some  such  giant. 

The  fairy  tale  generally  carries  some  hidden  meaning ;  but 
its  chief  appeal  to  the  young  lies  in  the  charm  of  the  story  itself. 

The  fable  is  a  story  told  to  point  a  moral.  Its  chief  char- 
acters are  usually  animals  personified.  A  good  example  of  this 
sort  of  tale  is  found  in 

THE  HARE  AND  THE  TORTOISE. 

A  conceited  hare,  as  you  remember,  once  challenged  a  tortoise 
to  a  race.  The  tortoise  accepted  and  they  started.  Of  course, 
the  swift  hare  bounded  easily  ahead  of  his  slow  rival ;  but  when 
half  way  to  the  goal,  the  hare,  thinking  that  the  race  was  easily 
his,  lay  down  to  rest.  He  fell  asleep,  while  the  tortoise,  plodding 
steadily  on,  finally  overtook  and  passed  the  foolish  hare.  When 
ihe  sleeper  awoke,  he  found  the  old  tortoise  at  the  goal.  The 
moral  is  plain  :    Slozv  and  steady  wins  the  race. 

Usually  the  meaning  of  the  fable  can  be  put  like  this,  in  the 
form  of  a  proverb. 

The  parable  differs  from  the  fable  in  that  it  seldom,  if  ever, 
has  animal  characters ;  and  its  meaning  cannot  so  readily  be  given 
as  a  maxim.  Some  spiritual  truth,  some  lesson  of  life,  is  illum- 
inated or  explained  by  the  parable.  The  illustration  at  the  begin- 
ning of  this  lesson,  wherein  the  stones  in  the  stream  are  com- 
pared with  old  time  tales,  is  a  kind  of  parable. 

The  following  interesting  parable  is  one  which  Benjamin 
Franklin  was  very  fond  of  telling  to  his  friends.     It  is  called 

THE   PARABLE   OF   ABRAHAM. 

"And  it  came  to  pass  after  these  things,  that  Abraham  sat 
in  the  door  of  his  tent,  about  the  going  down  of  the  sun. 

"And  behold,  a  man.  bowed  with  age,  came  from  the  way  of 
the  wilderness,  leaning  on  a  staff. 

"And  Abraham  arose  and  met  him,  and  said  unto  him,  'Turn 


296  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

in  I  pray  thee,  and  wash  thy  feet,  and  tarry  the  night,  and  thou 
shalt  arise  early  on  the  morrow,  and  go  on  thy  way.' 

"But  the  man  said.  'Nay,  tor  I  will  abide  under  this  tree.' 

"And  Abraham  pressed  him  greatly :  so  he  turned,  and  they 
went  into  the  tent,  and  Abraham  baked  unleavened  bread,  and 
they  did  eat. 

"And  when  Abraham  blessed  not  God.  he  said  unto  him. 
'Wherefore  dost  thou  not  worship  the  most  high  God?' 

"And  the  man  answered  and  said.  'I  do  not  worship  the  God 
thou  speakest  of.  neither  do  I  call  upon  his  name ;  for  I  have 
made  to  myself  a  god,  which  abideth  in  my  house,  and  provideth 
me  with  all  things.' 

"And  Abraham's  zeal  was  kindled  against  the  man.  and  he 
arose  and  fell  upon  him,  and  drove  him  forth  into  the  wilderness. 

"And  at  midnight  God  called  unto  Abraham,  saying,  'Abra- 
ham, where  is  the  stranger?' 

"And  Abraham  answered  and  said,  'Lord,  he  would  not  wor- 
ship thee,  neither  would  he  call  upon  thy  name;  therefore  have  I 
driven  him  out.' 

"And  God  said,  'Have  I  borne  with  him  these  hundred  ninety 
and  eight  years,  and  nourished  him  and  clothed  him  notwith 
standing  his  rebellion  against  me;  and  couldst  not  thou,  that  art 
thyself  a  sinner,  bear  with  him  one  night?'  " 

Where  Franklin  obtained  this  interesting  parable  is  not 
known.  It  sounds  very  much  like  a  Biblical  story,  but  it  is  not 
found  in  the  Bible. 

The  myth  is  a  fanciful  story  dealing  with  nature,  which  is 
often  personified  in  the  form  of  gods  and  goddesses,  and  other 
supernatural  beings.     A  good  illustration  of  this  story  is 

THE  STORY  OF  CYLTIE. 

Cyltie  was  a  little  sea  nymph  who  would  often  come  to  the 
top  <>f  the  waves  and  ride  over  them  in  her  sea-shell  chariot. 

One  day  Cyltie  saw  Apollo,  the  sun  god.  coming  out  of  his 
beautiful  home,  curtained  by  clouds,  to  make  his  daily  trip  across 
the  sky. 

Clytie  was  so  charmed  with  the  sun  god  that  she  stood  on 
the  shore  gazing  all  day  in  admiration. 

When  the  sun  sank  behind  the  clouds  in  the  west,  Clytie 
turned  to  go  back  to  her  sea-cave  home ;  but  she  could  not  move. 
Tier  little  toes  had  turned  into  tiny  brown  rootlets,  her  dress  was 
changed  to  green  leaves,  her  pretty  round  face  was  sunburnt  from 
gazing  at  the  sun  so  long;  and  her  golden  curls  were  changed  to 
the  golden  petals  of  the  sunflower. 

Clvtie's  sunflower  children,  may  still  be  seen  gazing  upward 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  297 

at  Apollo  the  sun  god,  as  he  drives  his  fiery  chariot  across 
the  sky. 

Such  fanciful  old  tales  seem  strange  or  even  foolish  to  us 
today;  yet  they  often  have  a  charm  about  them,  especially  when 
one  sees  the  beauties  of  nature  through  them. 

In  days  of  long  ago,  before  the  Bible  came  with  its  higher 
truths,  these  myths  were  believed.  People  worshiped  Apollo,  the 
sun  god,  Diana,  the  moon  goddess,  and  the  other  deities  about 
which  such  myths  were  told. 

It  is  necessary  to  know  something  of  the  myths  in  order  to 
interpret  clearly  many  Bible  sayings,  such  as,  "Thou  shalt  have 
no  other  gods  before  me." 

The  legend  is  a  traditional  tale  in  which  fact  is  mixed  with 
fancy.  It  often  deals  with  historical  characters.  The  story  of 
Robert  Bruce  and  the  spider,  and  of  Washington  and  his  hatchet, 
are  good  examples  of  the  legendary  story.  The  "Tales  of  the 
Wayside  Inn,"  by  Longfellow,  is  made  up  largely  of  legends.  One 
of  the  stories  to  be  found  there  is  called 

THE  LEGEND  BEAUTIFUL. 

It  tells  of  a  monk  who  went  to  the  top  of  the  church  tower  to 
pray.  In  the  midst  of  his  fervent  devotions  he  was  blessed  with 
a  vision  of  the  Savior.  As  he  was  gazing  in  adoration  on  the 
heavenly  personage,  the  poor  and  the  sick  people  began  to  knock 
and  call  down  at  the  convent  gate  for  the  monk  to  come  and  min- 
ister to  their  needs. 

He  hesitated  a  moment,  undecided  whether  to  go  and  do  his 
daily  work,  or  remain  and  worship  his  Lord.  But  his  sense  of 
duty  made  him  forego  the  blessed  privilege,  and  he  rose  and  went 
to  help  the  needy.  When  he  returned,  the  Savior,  still  there 
awaiting  his  return,  said  to  him,  "Hadst  thou  staved  I  must  have 
fled." 

The  poet  reinforced  the  lesson  of  the  legend  by  adding  these 
lines : 

"Do  thy  duty,  that  is  best, 
Leave  unto  the  Lord  the  rest." 

Out  of  these  old  time  tales  comes  many  a  beautiful  truth.  They 
are  often  charming  in  their  interest.  The  best  of  them  should 
find  place  in  our  lives. 

LESSON   OUTLINE. 

1.  Explain  how  the  old  time  tales  have  been  produced  and 
brought  down  to  us. 

2.  Name  six  different  kinds  of  folk  tales. 

3.  Read  in  some  primary  book  used  by  school  children,  a 
nursery  tale,  a  fairy  tale,  and  a  fable. 


2QX  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

4.  Be  ready  to  tell  some  parable  from  the  Bible. 

5.  Find,  if  you  can,  the  myth  of  Persephone  the  Goddess 
of  spring',  and  show  how  it  reflects  nature. 

6.  In  Baldwin's  ''Fifty  Famous  Stones"  are  some  charming 
legends.  Read  from  it  the  tale  of  "Androches  and  the  Lion," 
or  "Damocles  and  His  Sword,"  "The  Bell  of  Atri,"  and  be  ready 
to  tell  one  of  them. 


LESSON  IV. 

Home  Economics 

Fourth  Week  in  June. 
VARIOUS  FACTORS  AFFECTING  THE  USE  OF  FOODS. 

One  of  the  most  important  factors  in  digestion  is  the  condi- 
tion of  the  nervous  system.  Change  of  scene,  open-air  life,  drop- 
ping the  little  frets  and  worries,  taking  time  to  look  over  the  day's 
work  before  plunging  into  it,  remembering  that  nothing  matters 
greatly  after  all,  making  time  for  recreation  and  during  that  time 
letting  go  of  work,  working  steadily  but  avoiding  hurry,  and 
finally  sleeping  enough,  are  all  aids  in  keeping  the  nerves  toned. 
The  acme  of  good  digestion  is  to  provide  plain,  well-cooked,  pal- 
atable fare,  eat  with  appetite  born  of  fresh  air  and  exercise,  and 
forget  that  there  are  such  things  as  organs  of  digestion.  With 
the  very  young  the  main  idea  is  to  start  good  eating  habits  to 
such  an  extent  that  they  will  become  fixed.  Your  April  lesson 
shows  plainly  how  to  form  these  habits  and  will  have  additional 
force  if  the  book  by  Dr.  Mary  L.  Rose  of  Clumbia,  entitled  "Feed- 
ing the  Family"  is  used;  (publishers,  Macmillan  Company,  Chi- 
cago, $2  by  mail ;  order  from  Sunday  School  Book  Store,  or  Des- 
eret  News  Book  Store ).  In  this  book  diets  according  to  age  and 
occupation  are  worked  out  in  such  manner  as  to  be  of  practical 
use  to  every  mother.  Another  source  of  information  is  the  recent 
bulletin  No.  808  put  out  by  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  This  is  the  first  of  a  series  giving  suggestions  on 
how  to  select  foods  so  as  to  obtain  the  most  nutrition  for  the 
money  expended. 

Elimination  plays  an  important  part  in  nutrition.  Foods 
have  certain  waste  matters  such  as  seed  coats  of  receals.  and  there 
are  certain  products  of  digestion  that  finally  collect  in  the  large 
intestine.  There  is  in  the  normal  individual  an  automate  call  for 
the  removal  of  these  waste  matters,  which  if  not  attended  to  re- 
sults in  constipation.     Young  children  should  be  taught  to  form 


GUIDE  DEPARTMENT.  299 

regular  habits  and  as  they  grow  older  should  be  constantly  re- 
minded and  educated  by  parents  and  warned  of  the  dangers  which 
result  in  neglecting  this  important  duty.  Waste  matters  in  the 
intestine  are  attacked  by  bacteria  and  finally  putrefy  and  cause  a 
poisoning  of  the  blood.  Headache,  heaviness,  sallowness  and 
lowered  vitality  constitute  a  condition  open  to  taking  cold  and 
disease  is  the  result.  Tell  your  girls  that  no  matter  haw  fair  the 
exterior,  neglect  of  this  function  makes  the  body  like  a  town  with 
a  clogged  sewer.  I  would  add  also  that  the  inconvenience  of  the 
outdoor  toilet  and  the  uncleanly  condition  in  which  it  is  often 
kept,  are  sometimes  factors  in  forming  careless  habits.  Work 
then  to  obtain  indoor  conveniences  as  a  matter  of  health  and 
comfort. 

Dress  and  carriage  influence  digestion  of  food.  A  stooping 
position  while  eating  is  not  good,  while  tight  dress,  impeding  the 
circulation,  is  a  serious  factor.  Insufficient  clothing  causing  chill 
will  impede  digestion. 

Regularity  of  service  of  meals,  especially  in  the  case  of  chil- 
dren, is  a  necessity.  The  body  is  mechanical  in  action  and  too 
long  a  wait  for  a  meal  may  result  in  their  getting  too  hungry  and 
overeating,  and  is  productive  of  headache  and  nervousness.  Plenty 
of  time  for  the  partaking  of  a  meal  should  be  allowed.  It  is  good 
training  for  children  to  understand  that  they  cannot  leave  the  table 
until  all  are  through.  Time  between  school  sessions  should  be  of 
sufficient  length  to  allow  for  an  unhurried  noon  lunch.  Educa- 
tion consists  of  something  more  than  books,  and  the  care  of  the 
body  should  be  a  big  factor  in  that  education. 

Mastication  largely  depends  upon  an  absence  of  a  rushed 
feeling  and  the  formation  of  the  deliberate  eating  habit.  Parents 
are  often  to  blame  by  saying  at  table  "Now  hurry,  don't  be  all  day 
eating."  A  difference  should  be  made  between  a  child  playing 
with  his  food  or  starting  to  eat  when  everyone  else  is  through, 
and  the  time  required  for  thorough  mastication  of  each  mouthful. 
The  old  country  custom  of  not  allowing  any  child  to  leave  the 
table  until  the  meal  was  really  through,  seemed  a  hardship  at 
times  but  had  good  results.  Perhaps  a  better  suggestion  would 
be  the  plan  adopted  by  a  family  who  at  the  principal  meal  of  the 
day  made  it  a  rule  that  each  member  of  the  family  should  con- 
tribute something  of  interest  to  the  conversation,  shop  talk  of 
course  being  prohibited.  The  hurried,  silent  "feeding  time" 
Which  our  family  meal  too  often  suggests  gave  way  to  easy  inter- 
change of  thought,  and  made  the  meal  a  time  of  pleasure. 

Palatability  of  foods  is  another  factor  depending  somewhat 
upon  individual  taste,  preparation  of  food  and  service.  There  are 
children  to  whom  some  foods  will  always  be  distasteful  and  it  is  a 
foolish  thing  to  try  to  force  them  to  partake  thereof.     However, 


300  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

children  are  very  imitative  and  tlie  making  of  adverse  remarks 
regarding  the  food  does  a  great  deal  towards  shaping  a  child's 
likes  and  dislikes.  Often  the  dislike  of  greens,  salads,  and  vege- 
tables begins  with  the  feeling  aroused  by  hearing  father  say  "No. 
thanks,  I  don't  care  for  any  fodder.  I'm  a  man,  not  stock." 
Again,  some  of  the  food  points  in  child  nutrition  taught  in  this 
year's  lessons  will  be  entirely  lost  unless  there  is  co-operation  be- 
tween parents  on  this  subject.  Both  must  realize  the  importance 
of  not  only  providing  the  right  kind  of  food  for  growth,  but  also 
of  avoiding  such  foods  as  will  retard  growth,  and  must  get  over 
the  idea  that  to  refuse  what  the  child  asks  for  is  stingy  or  unkind. 
1  lemember  well  the  case  of  a  little  girl  who  had  her  own  way  in 
regard  to  everything  but  the  question  of  what  she  should  eat. 
The  wonder  was  that  the  extreme  docility  with  which  she  accepted 
her  parents'  decisions  in  such  matters  did  not  give  them  the  key 
to  the  best  method  of  dealing  with  her  in  other  things,  namely, 
a  firm,  unchanging  but  kind  refusal. 

The  mental  condition  of  the  individual  has  much  to  do  with 
case  of  digestion.  The  digestive  juices  are  affected  by  worry, 
overwork,  fear,  anger,  and  similarly  by  joy,  in  the  absence  of 
undue  excitement,  happiness  and  a  feeling  of  rest  and  good  cheer 
ure  serious  factors  to  be  considered.  The  meal  time  is  no  occa- 
sion for  scolding,  complaining  or  airing  of  troubles. 

But  the  crux  of  the  whole  matter,  young  mothers,  lies  in  be- 
ginning as  you  mean  to  go  on  and  that  beginning  must  be  made 
fiist  with  the  father  himself  who  may  have  been  poorly  trained 
in  food  habits.  Do  not  say  as  so  many  young  home-makers  do, 
"It  is  no  use  cooking  any  green  vegetables  for  I  have  to  eat  them 
olone.  John  does  not  like  any  vegetable  but  potatoes."  Just  go 
right  on  preparing  all  vegetables  in  various  palatable  ways  and 
he  will  join  you  by  and  by,  and  even  if  he  doesn't  you  will  insure 
their  presence  at  your  table  when  your  first  child  is  ready  to  eat 
with  you.  A  little  thought  in  these  matters  when  starting  a  new 
home  avoids  trouble  in  the  future. 

QUESTIONS. 

1.  Give  suggestions  of  methods  for  insuring  good  habits  in 
elimination  in  children  from  one  year  up  to  school  age. 

2.  Discuss  how  this  may  be  controlled  in  children  of  school 
age. 

3.  Discuss  the  possibility  of  arranging  farm  work  so  as  to 
alow  of  better  meals  in  relation  to  time  and  regularity. 

4.  Name  some  foods  that  your  children  will  not  eat.  Dis- 
cuss different  ways  in  which  they  may  be  prepared  or  methods 
used  to  induce  them  to  trv  same. 


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CONTENTS. 

JUNE,  1017. 

The  Star-Spangled    Banner f 301 

A  Widowed  Mother  to  her  Son Alfred  Lamhourne  303 

Another  Widowed.  Mother 304 

General  Conference  of  the  Relief  Society 

Amy  Brown  Lyman  305 

The  Disease  Germ  in  Utah 331 

June  Entertainments Morag  333 

Pin  Money  Suggestions Morag  335 

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Salt  Lake  City.         -         Utah 


BURIAL  INSURANCE 
IN   THE  BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE   COMPANY 

The  women  of  the  Relief  Society  have  now  the  opportunity  of  securing 
a  sufficient  sum  for  proper  burial  by  the  payment  of  a  small  monthly  amount. 
The  moment  you  sign  you  policy  your  burial  expenses  are  assured  without 
burdening    your    children.        Talk    to    us    about    this.  RELIEF    SOCIETY 

HEADQUARTERS,  or 

Beneficial  Life  Insurance  Company 
Relief  Society  Department 

HOME    OFFICE:      VERMONT    BUILDING,    SALT    LAKE    CITY,    UTAH 


THE  | 

UTAH  STAT Ei 
NATIONAL 
•    BANK 

SAU  tAKtCITV 


"Banking  Perfection 
under  U.  S.  Inspection" 

One  of  the  largest 
banking  institutions  of 
the  West  with  ample 
resources  and   unexcelled  facilities. 

Officers 

Joseph  F.   Smith,   President 
Heber  J.  Grant,  Vice-President 
Rodney  T.  Badger,  Vice-Prest 
Henry  T.  McEwan,  Cashier. 
George  H.  Butler,  Asst. Cashier 


Established  1860        Incorporated  1908 

S.M.TAYLOR  &  Co. 

Undertakers  and  Embalmeri 

Successors  to 

Joseph  E.  Taylor 

The  Pioneer  Undertaker  of  the  West 
Fifty-three  years  in  one  location — 

251-257  East  First  South  Street 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Efficient   Service,   Modern   Methods 
Complete  Equipment 


THE  STAR-SPANGLED  BANNER 

O  say,  can  you  see,  by  the  dawn's  early  light, 

What  so  proudly  we  hailed  at  the  twilight's  last  gleaming, 

Whose  broad  stripes  and  bright  stars   through  the  perilous  fight, 
O'er  the  ramparts  we  watched   were  so  gallantly  streaming? 

And  the  rockets'  red  glare,  the  bombs  bursting  in  air, 

Gave  proof,  through  the  night,  that  our  flag  was  still  there. 

CHORUS. 

O  say,  does  that  Star-spangled  Banner  yet  wave 
O'er  the  land  of  the  free   and  the  home  of  the  brave? 

.On  the  shore,  dimly  seen  through  the  mists  of  the  deep, 

Where  the  foe's  haughty  host  in  .dread  silence  reposes, 
What  is  that  which  the  breeze,  o'er  the  towering  steep, 

As  it  fitfully  blows,  now  conceals,  now  discloses? 
Now  it  catches  the  gleam  of  the  morning's  first  beam. 
In  full  glory  reflected,  now  shines  on  the  stream  ; 

CHORUS. 

Tis  the  Star-spangled  Banner ;  O  long  may  it  wave 
O'er  the  land  of  the  free  and  the  home  of  the  brave ! 


And  where  is  that  band  who  so  vauntingly  swore 
That  the  havoc  of  war  and  the  battle's  confusion 

A  home  and  a  country  should  leave  us  no  more? 

Their  blood  has  washed  out  their  foul  footsteps'  pollution. 

No  refuge  could  save  the  hireling  and  slave 

From  the  terror  of  flight  or  the  gloom  of  the  grave ; 

CHORUS. 

And  the  Star-spangled  Banner  in  triumph  doth  wave 
O'er  the  land  of  the  free   and  the  home  of  the  brave. 

O  thus  be  it  ever,  when  freemen  shall  stand 

Between  their  loved  homes  and  the  war's  desolation ! 

Blest  with  vict'ry  and  peace,  may  the  heav'n-rescued  land 
Praise  the  Power  that  hath  made  and  preserved  us  a  nation ! 

Then  conquer  we  must,  when  our  cause  it  is  just ; 

And  this  be  our  motto  :    "In  God  is  our  trust !" 

CHORUS. 

And  the  Star-spangled  Banner  in  triumph  shall  wave 
O'er  the  land  of  the  free   and  the  home  of  the  brave. 

Francis  Scott  Key. 


THE 


Relief  Society  Magazine 


Vol.  IV. 


JUNE,  1917. 


No.  6 


A  Widow  Mother  to  Her  Son 

When  He  Told  Her  He  Would  Enlist 
(A  True  Incident) 

My  son,  O  listen  to  these  words  I  speak — 
Nor  shame  is  mine  that  tears  bedew  my  cheek — 
Tho'  deep  the  anguish  in  thy  mother's  heart, 
She  knows  that  duty  bids  us  now  to  part. 

Ah!  fathomless  that  love  a  mother  feels, 
Divine,  unselfish,  soul  to  soul  it  seals; 
My  son,  thou  art  my  One,  thou  art  my  All, 
Yet  through  my  love  I  hear  our  country  call. 

A  prayer  for  thee  shall  be  my  every  breath — 
0  spare  my  son,  and  give  him  not  to  death — 
Yet  must  thou  die  that  man  be  not  a  slave, 
Still  go,  be  true,  ami  fill  a  hero's  grave! 

Alfred  Lambournc. 


Another  Widowed  Mother. 

(Note)     The    exquisitely    beautiful    poem    which    opens    this    Mag- 

iicine    was    already  in  the  hands  of    the    printers,    when    the    following 

letter   was    received    by    Prof.    Richard    R.    Lyman,    husband    of    Amy 

Brown  Lyman,  written  by  one  of  our  faithful  Relief  Society  presidents 

Mrs.  Mary  M.  Lyman,  of  Deseret  Stake. 

While  in  attendance  at  the  recent  Relief  Society  conference,  she 
stated  that  she  felt  that  she  would  be  unpatriotic  if  she  refused  to 
allow  her  sons  to  enlist  in  the  army,  adding.  "If  my  country  needfl 
my  sons,  it  will  have  them,  and  it  will  yet  them  as  volunteers." 

The  son  referred  to  in  the  letter,  a  bright  and  vigorous  boy  of  19, 
is  now  at   Fori   Scott  in  San  Francisco,  in  the  COUntr/s  service. 


MARY    M.    LYMAN. 

Delta,  Utah,  April  14,  1917. 
My  Darling  Loved  Richard,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

My  boasted  patriotism  is  now  put  to  the  severest  test.  1 
have  been  weighed  in  the  balance,  but  not  found  wanting,  although 
the  tears  will  come  and  the  pain  in  my  heart  is  all  that  I  can  bear 

Rich  has  enlisted  and  will  start  for  Salt  Lake  at  11:19 
Sunday  night.  But  through  all  the  smart  and  tears  T  thank  the 
Lord  I  have  not  raised  a  coward. 

You  told  me  once  what  an  ordeal  it  was  to  you  when  Jean 
Driggs  requested  you  to  arrange  his  affairs  before  going  to  the 
Rorder.  You  can  imagine  the  feelings  of  a  poor  widowed  mother 
going  through  the  same  ordeal. 

Love  to  Amy  and  the  children. 

Richard,  pray  for  your  sorrow-burdened  aunt, 

Mary  M.  Lyman. 


General  Conference  of  the  Relief 
Society. 

Amy  Brown  Lyman 

The  Annual  Conference  of  the  Relief  Society  was  held  in 
Salt  Lake  City,  Wednesday  and  Thursday,  April  4  and  5,  1917. 
Two  public  sessions  were  held,  Wednesday,  April  4,  in  the  Salt 
Lake  Assembly  Hall,  and  two  sessions  for  stake  officers  were  held 
Thursday,  April  5,  in  the  Assembly  Hall  of  the  Bishop's  building. 

The  Home  Economics  Department  held  two  demonstrations 
during  the  conference  at  which  gas  and  electric  stoves  with  fireless 
ovens  were  demonstrated.  This  department  also  held  a  special 
meeting  in  the  interest  of  pure  milk,  with  Prof.  Fred  W.  Merrill, 
of  Minneapolis,  Minnesota,  as  the  speaker. 

A  special  meeting  was  held  for  secretaries  and  treasurers 
during  the  noon  recess,  on  April  5,  at  which  time  methods  for 
compiling  reports,  were  discussed. 

A  genealogical  meeting  was  held  Saturday,  at  the  Salt  Lake 
Assembly  Hall  at  4:30  p.  m.  This  meeting  was  held  in  connec- 
tion with  and  under  the  direction  of  the  Genealogical  Society  of 
Utah. 

On  Thursday  evening  a  brilliant  reception  was  held  at  the 
home  of  Counselor  Julina  L.  Smith — Bee-hive  House — at  which 
the  members  of  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society  were 
hostesses  to  the  General  Boards  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  and  Pri- 
mary Associations  and  the  official  representatives  of  the  Relief 
Society ;  350  women  called  during  the  hours  from  eight  to 
eleven. 

Thursday  noon,  luncheon  was  served  to  the  390  stake  officers 
who  were  in  attendance  at  the  officers'  meeting. 

The  attendance  at  the  conference  was  larger  than  ever  be- 
fore. At  the  morning  session  of  the  public  meeting  1,545  were 
in  attendance,  and  at  the  afternoon  meeting  the  number  was 
swelled  to  1,946. 

At  the  two  officers'  meetings  which  were  limited  to  stake 
officers  there  were  present  390. 

The  representation  at  the  officers'  meetings  was  as  follows : 

General  Board  members,  19 ;  stake  representatives,  58 — 42 
by  stake  presidents  and  16  by  other  officers;  missions  represented, 
1.    Total  number  of  officers  present,  390. 

The  mission  represented  was  the  Western  States,  by  the 
President,  Mrs.  Jane  W.  Herrick. 


Mx> 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


The  attendance  of  stake  presidents  was  larger  than  ever 
before  in  the  history  of  the  Relief  Society,  the  number,  42.  being 
the  largest  so  far  recorded.  There  were  51  stake  counselors  pres- 
ent., 12  -take-  secretaries,  and  5  stake  treasurers. 

There  was  a  large  attendance  of  stake  hoard  members,  in 
s  »me  of  the  near-by  stakes  the  per  cent  of  attendance  being  100. 

The  Relief  Society  choir,  under  the  able  direction  of  Mrs. 
Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,  furnished  the  singing  for  the  general  ses- 
sion of  the  conference,  and  our  General  Organist,  Miss  Edna 
Coray,  furnished  artistic  accompaniments  and  voluntaries.  Two 
special  numbers  were  given,  one  by  the  male  quartette— Samuel 
1).  Winters.  Charles  Parsons,  Verne  Arnold  and  Frank  Parsons — 
and  the  other,  a  tenor  solo,  by  Dr.  W.  R.  Worley. 

At  the  officers-  meetings,  Mrs.  Edward  led  in  congregational 
singing. 

President  Emmeline  B.  Wells  presided  at  the  meetings  of 
the  conference  In  her  opening  address,  she  extended  cordial  greet- 


ZURICH    RF.I.IF.F  SOCIETY. 


ings  to  the  large  assemblage.  She  expressed  her  appreciation  to 
her  heavenly  Father  that  her  life  had  been  spared  and  that  she 
was  permitted  to  enjoy  another  General  Conference  of  the  Relief 
Society.  Referring  to  the  national  crisis.  President  Wells  said 
that  perilous  tiiue^  have  come  among  us,  probably  sooner  than 
most  of  us  imagined  they  would.  Our  hearts  are  filled  with  grief 
and.  sorrow  over  the  loss  of  life  incident  to  the  great  world  war. 
and  our  sympathy  and  love  go  out  to  those  who  are  so  sorely  af- 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  307 

flicted  and  bereft.  The  prophecies  are  being  fulfilled  which  de- 
clare that  it  will  hardly  be  possible  to  endure  the  things  that  arc 
to  come  in  the  last  days,  that  the  hearts  of  men  will  tremble  with 
fear  and  that  men  and  women  will  come  to  Zion  to  be  fed. 
Mrs.  Wells  urged  her  hearers  to  prepare  themselves  for  the  tests 
that  are  to  come,  by  being  frugal  and  saving,  prayerful  and  faith- 
ful, and  by  cultivating  a  spirit  of  love  and  charity  for  all  man- 
kind. She  emphasized  the  importance  of  conservation  of  all  re- 
sources and  the  need  of  being  provident  not  only  in  the  matter  of 


OFFICERS  OF  BERLIN  RELIEF  SOCIETY. 
Taken  at  celebration,  March  17th. 

storing  grain,  but  all  other  food  supplies  as  well.  Mrs.  Wells 
spoke  of  the  early  days  of  the  Church,  at  Nauvoo,  and  of  her  own 
testimony  that  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  had  been  sent  to  build 
up  a  Church  that  would  endure  till  the  coming  of  Christ.  She 
closed  by  asking  God's  blessings  on  our  country  and  all  her  peo- 
ple. She  prayed  especially  for  the  youth  of  Zion,  that  they  might 
turn  to  God  for  guidance  and  protection  that  their  hearts  might 
be  stimulated  with  the  desire  to  do  deeds  of  valor  and  honor,  of 
kindness  and  of  charity  and  love. 

Mrs.  Aggie  Herrick  Stevens,  President  of  the  Weber  stake 
Relief  Society,  in  a  response  to  the  welcome  extended  by  President 
Wells,  spoke  with  appreciation  of  the  work  of  the  General  Board. 
She  stated  that  the  great  body  of  workers  in  the  Relief  Society 


308 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


look  to  the  General  Board  for  spiritual  refreshment  and  practical 
instruction  as  the  weary  traveler  in  the  desert  looks  to  the  oasis. 
She  felt  that  the  General  Board  is  composed  of  women  of  faith, 
charitv.  efficiency  and  refinement,  and  that  they  are  instrumental 
in  aiding  the  Relief  Society  women  to  become  better  home  man- 
agers, better  mothers,  and  more  loyal  wives.  She  spoke  very 
feelingly  of  her  love,  and  of  the  love  of  every  member  of  our 
great  Society,  for  our  beloved  president,  whom  she  characterized 
as  a  woman  of  gifts  and  graces  and  of  the  highest  spiritual  nature 
and  moral  strength.     Mrs.  Stevens  referred  to  the  Relief  Society 


AT  Till-.  L.   D.  S.   HEADQUARTERS,  ZURICH,  SWITZERLAND. 

Magazine  as  a  messenger  of  light,  which  is  filled  with  in- 
spiration and  instruction,  and  goes  over  land  and  over  sea,  bear- 
ing tidings  of  joy  and  love  to  the  remotest  branches  of  the  Society 
and  uniting  them  all  in  a  strong  bond  of  common  interest.  Mrs. 
Stevens  reviewed  the  work  of  the  organization  along  lines  of 
theology,  genealogy,  literature  and  home  economics,  and  said 
that  it  is  only  after  severe  mental  discipline,  study  and  prayer 
that  we  can  obtain  success  along  these  lines. 

She  spoke  of  the  beautiful  charity  work  of  the  organization, 
stating  that  other  things  are  more  important  than  ourselves,  and 
if  we  forget  ourselves  in  service  to  others  our  lives  will  be  en- 
riched beyond  measure.  The  three  laws  of  Christ  are,  love,  ser- 
vice, and  sacrifice,  and  our  observance  of  these  laws  will  bring 
rich  reward  and  supreme  happiness. 

Mrs.  Jane  W.  Herrick,  president  of  the  Relief  Society  in  the 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  309 

Western  States  Mission,  reported  the  work  in  her  field  of  labor. 
She  expressed  her  delight  in  looking  into  the  honest  faces  before 
her — faces  of  women  who  are  looking  to  another  life,  and  con- 
trasted them  with  the  vain  masses  of  women  who  are  wasting 
their  efforts  in  fighting  for  lost  youth.  Mrs.  Herrick  spoke  of 
the  co-operation  of  the  Denver  Society  with  the  charity  organiza- 
tions of  that  city.  The  twenty-one  charity  societies  there  are  ac- 
complishing a  wonderful  work,  and  not  a  little  assistance  has  been 
given  by  the  local  "Mormon"  women.  She  contrasted  the  sal- 
aried charity  workers  of  other  organizations  with  the  unpaid  Re- 
lief Society  workers,  and  explained  a  few  details  of  the  work. 
The  Denver  branch  recently  raised  $84.18  for  their  own  purposes 


Twins  born  several  weeks  after  the   father  had   fallen   in   the   battlefield. 

The  mother  is  Mrs.   Elizabeth  Hofer,  president  of  the 

Relief   Society,   Frankfurt,   Germany. 


and  collected  $400.00  for  the  United  Charity  Organization  of 
Denver.  One  year  ago  there  was  not  a  Relief  Society  in  the 
whole  Western  States  Mission,  two  having  been  disorganized  sev- 
eral years  ago.  At  the  present  time  there  are  five  societies  with 
two  more  ready  for  organization.  The  branches  are  located  in 
Denver,  Alamosa,  Omaha,  Trinidad  and  Pueblo.  The  total  mem- 
bership in  the  mission  is  127.  They  report  100  per  cent  subscrip- 
tion to  the  Magazine,  and  100  per  cent  membership  dues. 

Glimpses  of  Relief  Society  mission  work  abroad  were  vividly 
pictured  by  Mrs.  Rose  B.  Valentine — until  recently  president  of 
the  Swiss-German  Mission.  With  her  husband,  Mrs.  Valentine 
entered  this  mission  in  1911.  She  found  that  during  the  last 
twenty-five  years  there  have  been  sporadic  Relief  Society  organ- 
izations at  various  places.  In  1911  there  were  only  two  in  actual 
operation — those  in  Zurich  and  Konigsberg.    At  present  there  are 


310 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


seventeen  branches,  all  of  them  doing  regular  work  at  the 
outbreak  of  the  war.  Mrs.  Valentine  held  the  deepest  interest  of 
her  audience  a^  she  related  pathetic  incidents  of  the  war.  and  she 
stated  that  while  the  routine  work  of  the  mission  had  been  inter- 
fered with,  the  hearts  of  the  masses  are  being  turned  from  the 
passing  tilings  of  the  world  to  the  higher  spiritual  truths.  Four 
hundred  members  of  the  Church,  Mrs.  Valentine  stated,  had  gone 
to  the  war,  and  their  places  had  heen  taken  bravely  by  the  women 
left  behind.     These  soldiers  had  taken  with  them  to  the  trenches 

their  missionary  work,  and 
the  mission  paper  forwarded 
them  by  those  at  home  free  of 
charge  had  heen  read  to  com- 
rades on  the  battle-field.  She 
described  one  church  service 
on  the  battle-field,  conducted 
by  a  member  of  the  Church  in 
a  little  chapel  in  a  forest  when 
his  audience,  the  soldiers  at 
the  front,  listened  with  in- 
tense interest  to  the  young 
"Mormon."  I 'leas  for  mis- 
si  inafies  had  been  received 
from  Russia,  and  Mrs.  Valen- 
tine entertained  the  hope  that 
the  present  freeing  of  the 
200.000,000  people  there 
might  mean  the  opening  of 
the  country  for  the  gospel. 
The  speaker  explained  the 
outline  work  taken  up  by  the 
societies  and  the  deep  interest 
of  the  Swiss  and  German 
women  in  their  study.  She 
told  <if  the  humble  beginnings  of  the  charity  work  of  these  women, 
of  their  small  contributions  of  8  cents  and  10  cents  a  month,  of 
their  great  joy  on  receiving  from  Utah  $20  for  each  Society  for 
relief  work.  These  women  are  not  only  carrying  on  their  usual 
duties  in  their  homes  and  for  the  Church,  but  are  working  eve- 
nings patching  and  knitting  for  the  aid  of  those  more  needy  than 
themselves.  The  speaker  closed  by  making  a  strong  plea  for 
economy  as  practiced  throughout  Europe.  She  deprecated 
American  waste  and  extravagance,  and  declared  it  to  be  a  re- 
proach on  the  people  of  the  whole  country. 

Mrs.  Rebecca  N.  Nibley,  of  the  General  Board,  spoke  on  the 
importance  of  testimony  bearing,  and  of  our  regular  testimony 


Three    Women    from    Budapest;    the 
only  Members  <>f  the  Church  there. 


GENERAL  CONEERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  311 


meetings ;  of  the  strength  that  comes  to  those  who,  having  been 
helped  and  sustained  through  sore  trials,  sickness  and  death,  are 
ready  and  willing  to  testify  of  God's  blessings  and  mercies  to 
them.  Such  testimony  gives  encouragement  and  hope  to  others, 
and  spiritual  development  and  growth  to  those  who  glorify  God 
by  testifying  of  his  goodness  to  them. 

Intellectual  and  spiritual  adjustment  was  the  subject  spoken 
upon  by  Mrs.  Ida  Smoot  Dusenberry.  Mrs.  Dusenberry  said  that 
many  vital  things  are  overlooked  and  unappreciated  in  our  scheme 
of  education — that  the  real  experiences  of  life  are  more  valuable 

educationally  than  mere  men- 
tal application,  and  those  who 
have  passed  through  rich  ex- 
periences and  have  made  these 
experiences  a  part  of  their  de- 
velopment are  the  truly  edu- 
cated. Jesus  said :  "Love  one 
another,"  "Judge  not  that  ye 
be  not  judged,"  "Forgive  that 
ye  may  be  forgiven."  These 
are  simple  teachings,  yet  they 
embody  the  noblest  thought* 
of  God. 

The  humble  beginning 
of  the  "great  latter-day  work 
by  a  young  boy  of  14,  who 
had  plenty  to  do  but  no 
chance  for  education,  grows 
more  astonishing  as  time  goes 
on.  It  was  his  spiritual  crav- 
ing that  led  to  his  spiritual 
enlightenment,  and  his  faith 
in  the  passage  :  "If  any  of  you 
lack  wisdom,  let  him  ask  of 
God,"  which  brought  the  rich 
The  times  are  such  now  that  we  go  to  bed  at  night  pray- 
ing to  God  and  wake  up  to  find  in  the  morning  some  wonderful 
fulfilment  of  prophecy  made  by  the  boy  the  world  thought  so 
ignorant.  Mrs.  Dusenberry  called  attention  to  the  great  efforts 
of  the  'Mormon"  people  along  educational  lines,  with  the  early 
beginnings  in  Utah,  when  a  schoolhouse  was  among  the  first  build- 
ings erected  in  the  territory.  She  felt  that  their  struggle  for  edu- 
cation, together  with  their  rich  experiences  in  temporal  and  spir- 
iual  things  had  developed  them  into  a  sane,  a  practical  and  a 
helpful  people.  There  are.  however,  with  us,  as  with  all  the 
world,  some  vital  things  which  have  been  overlooked.  The  fact 
of  the  existence  of  cripples,  blind  people,  imbeciles  and  prisons 


L.    D. 


reward. 


S.    Church    Headquarters 
Basel,  Switzerland. 


at 


312  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

containing  people  who  have  no  purpose  in  life,  prove  that  a  sys- 
tematic effort  should  be  made  all  over  the  world  for  enlighten- 
ment along  these  lines.  The  mothers  who  would  bring  into  the 
world  healthy  and  normal  children  must  themselves  have  health 
and  strength,  and  brain  power,  the  latter  of  which  comes  through 
health  and  strength. 

We  meet  daily  on  the  streets  people  with  set  faces,  tense 
bodies,  and  strained  eyes,  who  are  living  on  a  nervous  strain,  burn- 
ing the  candle  at  both  ends — .people  who  are  being  undermined 
with  the  poison  of  fatigue. 

Mrs.  Dusenberry  urged  the  women  to  take  care  of  their 
health — for  it  is  the  nervous,  tired  women  who  become  the  moth- 
ers of  deficient  children,  imbeciles  and  feeble-minded.  The  indus- 
trial world  is  studying  this  problem  today.  It  proclaims  that 
fatigue  and  nervous  exhaustion  are  the  root  of  ill-health  and  are 
responsible  for  the  tragic  disease  of  helplessness. 

Mrs.  Dusenberry  also  made  a  plea  for  more  sensible  dress 
among  women  and  girls,  and  heavily  scored  the  free  lorn  of  the 
movies  in  picturing  stories  that  would  have  no  place  in  the  or- 
dinary home.  She  declared  there  should  be  a  state  censorship 
over  moving  pictures.  Some  50.000,000  adolescent  boys  over  the 
country  arc  in  daily  attendance  at  the  film  theatres,  and  the  dol- 
lars spent  at  such  shows  if  placed  side  by  side  would  stretch 
around  the  world,  she  said.  All  the  school  children  of  the  United 
States  going  to  the  film  theatres  daily,  if  marching  in  single  file, 
would  take  nineteen  days  to  pass  a  given  point.  The  picture-show 
has  come  to  stay,  she  maintained,  and  it  can  be  made  a  factor  in 
education — a  factor  for  good  if  it  can  be  properly  controlled. 

At  the  Wednesday  afternoon  meeting  remarks  were  made  by 
Miss  Lillian  Cameron,  and  addresses  were  given  by  Counselors 
Clarissa  S.  Williams,  Julina  L.  Smith,  by  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith  and  Bishop  Charles  W.  Nibley. 

Miss  Cameron  was  introduced  as  the  newest  member  of  the 
General  Board  of  the  Relief  Society,  her  appointment  to  this  po- 
sition having  been  made  since  the  last  regular  conference.  Miss 
Cameron  expressed  herself  as  feeling  highly  honored  in  being 
chosen  to  serve  on  the  Board  and  asked  for  the  sympathy  and 
support  of  the  members  in  her  behalf.  She  spoke  especially  on 
the  charity  work  of  the  organization,  stating  that  all  men  and 
women  need  help  and  support,  and  that  we  should  seek  to  cover 
up  the  faults  and  failings  of  each  other  rather  than  to  expose  them. 

Counselor  Clarissa  S.  Williams  expressed  her  appreciation 
for  the  splendid  addresses  that  had  been  given  during  the  sessions 
of  the  conference.  She  stated  that  it  i^  a  wondrous  mission  to 
save  -"ids  and  that  a  mother  should  begin  at  her  own  fireside  by 
setting  an  example  to  her  own  children  and  to  the  neighborhood. 

The  mission  of  the  Relief  Socictv  woman  is  so  broad  and  so 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  313 

elastic  that  it  embraces  every  good  thing  in  the  world,  and  rich 
rewards  are  in  store  for  those  faithful  ones  who  have  lived  lives 
of  devotion  to  this  cause.  More  than  often  the  woman  who  has 
given  the  greatest  service  is  the  woman  with  the  largest  family, 
and  because  she  does  one  line  of  work  well  she  is  the  better  pre- 
pared to  accomplish  other  labors. 

Mrs.  Williams  stated  that  the  Relief  Society  is  always  ready 
to  take  up  new  thoughts  and  new  work  and  that  in  connection 
with  the  other  auxiliary  organizations,  we  are  now  called  upon 
to  work  for  improvement  in  dress  and  social  work.  She  urged 
that  all  Relief  Society  women  stand  as  a  unit  in  carrying  out  the 
instructions  of  the  First  Presidency  in  this  matter,  and  in  follow- 
ing closely  the  recommendations  which  have  been  sent  out  to  the 
various  stakes  and  wards.  The  general  and  stake  officers  have 
pledged  themeslves  to  show  by  their  own  example  their  sincerity 
in  this  matter,  and  to  use  their  efforts  toward  the  accomplish- 
ment of  the  purposes  of  this  special  mission.  The  speaker  held 
that  the  love  of  dress  is  an  inherent  quality  in  women  and  it  is 
right  that  they  should  love  beautiful  things  provided  they  are 
modest  and  not  extravagant,  but  she  felt  that  the  women  of  Amer- 
ica are  going  dress  and  fashion  crazy.  She  urged  the  mothers 
to  teach  modesty  and  the  sacredness  of  the  human  body  to  their 
children,  and  stated  that  mothers  themselves  are  often  to  blame 
for  the  immodest  dress  of  their  daughters. 

In  the  old  days  Brigham  Young  called  upon  the  women  of 
the  Church  to  retrench  and  reform  in  the  matter  of  dress,  and  if 
the  people  had  in  all  these  years  lived  up  to  this  teaching  there 
would  be  no  need  now  for  President  Smith  to  make  this  special 
^all  on  the  women  of  today. 

Mrs.  Williams  said  that  no  other  thing  that  we  have  compares 
with  the  sacred  heritage  of  children,  and  that  parents  should  set 
the  right  example,  should  be  companions  to  their  boys  and  girls,  if 
they  would  have  proper  influence  with  them.  She  asked  God's 
blessings  on  the  mothers  in  Israel,  that  they  may  have  faith,  cour- 
age and  enlightenment  and  that  they  may  be  inspired  to  carry  on 
the  work  they  are  from  time  to  time  called  upon  to  do. 

Counselor  Julina  L.  Smith  spoke  of  the  work  of  the  old 
Retrenchment  Society,  in  the  days  of  Brigham  Young,  of  the  suc- 
cess of  that  organization  along  the  lines  of  improvement  in  dress. 
She  denounced  vigorously  the  prevailing  immodesty  in  dress, 
and  asked  the  mothers  to  carry  out  the  instructions  of  the  First 
Presidency  by  working  unitedly  for  reform  and  improvement. 
Mrs.  Smith  also  condemned  race  suicide — speaking  of  it  as  one 
of  the  great  curses  of  the  age.  She  stated  that  if  girls  do  not  de- 
sire to  take  up  the  burden  of  motherhood  they  should  not  marry. 
The  lack  of  wealth  is  no  excuse  for  limiting  the  family.  She  de- 
clared that  if  the  women  of  the  Church  desire  to  endure  faithful 


314  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

to  the  end  they  must  live  up  to  their  knowledge  of  the  things 
of  God.  She  said  we  have  received  the  word  of  the  Lord  from  the 
head  of  the  Church,  and  there  is  only  one  man  on  earth  at  a 
time  qualified  to  give  that  authoritative  word;  women  need  not 
run  to  any  man  or  listen  to  old  woman's  dreams  and  revela- 
tions, for  the  word  of  the  Lord  comes  only  through  His  author- 
ized servant. 

President  Joseph  F.  Smith  then  addressed  the  congregation 
a-  follows : 

PRESIDENT  JOSEPH  F.  SMITH, 

I  would  very  much  prefer  to  listen  to  some  of  the  good  sisters 
talk  to  the  sisters,  and  I  hardly  know  what  the  spirit  of  the 
meeting  calls  for,  or  what  necessities  there  are  for  me  to  say  any- 
thing. I  am  very  grateful  for  the  privilege  of  being  here  with 
you.  I  think  it  is  a  great  privilege  for  me  to  live  in  these  last  days, 
and  1  exceedingly  enjoy  the  multiplicity  of  blessings  that  the  Lord 
has  mercifully  bestowed  upon  me  and  mine  throughout  all  my 
life.  And  vet  T  cannot  say,  nor  boast,  that  the  experiences  of  my 
life  have  all  been  just  what  1  would  have  liked  them  to  be:  and  I 
have  been  required,  a  portion  of  my  time  at  least,  to  pass  through 
some  of  the  "narrows"  incident  to  the  early  settlement  in  the 
valleys  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  I  had  the  experience  in  my  youth 
of  traversing  the  plains.  I  had  an  experience  as  a  herd  boy  and  as 
a  farmer,  a  sheep  man  and  a  stock  grower,  on  a  small  scale.  We 
in  ver  entered  into  these  matters  of  business  extensively,  but  to  a 
degree  necessary  to  keep  the  wolf  from  the  door,  and  to  provide 
for  tlu'  necessities  of  a  considerable  family.  1  have  bad  experience 
in  all  of  these  things,  which  1  appreciate  more  than  T  can  tell. 
Jn  my  travels  in  later  years  I  have  seen  conditions  wlrch  existe  1 
among  our  communities  that  needed  correction  and  advice;  and 
through  the  experiences  that  1  had  gained  in  early  life  T  was 
enabled  to  give  advice  an  1  counsel  many  times  to  our  people  that 
I  think  was  beneficial  to  them.  1  remember  on  one  occasion  \ 
visited  one  of  our  new  settlements  in  the  northern  part  of  our 
country,  where  the  valley  was  high  and  the  warm  season  of  the 
year  was  extremely  short,  and  all  the  heat  and  moisture  that  could 
be  had  was  necessary  to  produce  crops.  T  witnessed  the  fact  that 
the  whole  valley  was  extremely  well  watered.  This  was  in  the 
month  of  August.  T  believe,  and  1  observed  that  the  water  in  large 
streams  was  running  through  the  farms,  and  the  grain  was  look- 
ing green  and  beautiful.  1  spoke  at  the  conference  meeting  that 
convened,  and  took  the  liberty  to  advise  the  good  people  of  that 
valley  to  turn  the  water  from  their  crops  and  give  them  a  chance 
in  dry  out  a  little  and  to  ripen,  to  gather  a  little  warmth.  That 
was  quite  a  number  of  years  ago.    The  Bishop,  who  was  a  much 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  315 

older  man  than  I  was,  announced  after  my  advice,  that  "Brother 
Joseph  might  know  something  about  preaching  the  gospel,  but  he 
did  not  know  very  much  about  farming."  I  stayed  with  a  kins- 
man of  mine  that  evening,  and  I  advised  him  to  go  at  once  and 
turn  the  water  away  from  his  crops.  I  said  if  that  is  not  done  they 
will  be  green  when  the  frost  comes  and  you  will  lose  your  grain. 
He  accepted  my  counsel,  and  did  as  I  said,  and  he  was  about  the 
only  man  in  the  settlement'that  had  ripened  grain  that  fall,  or  that 
harvested  good  crops  at  least.  So,  I  gained  that  experience 
in  my  youth.  It  is  a  good  thing  today.  But  what  has  that  to  do 
with  the  sisters?  Why,  bless  your  soul,  I  have  taken  a  great  deal 
of  pleasure  in  reading  the  report  of  the  Relief  Society's  collection 
of  grain,  the  storing  of  grain  throughout  the  country,  amounting 
to  millions  of  pounds,  and  to  hundreds  and  thousands  of  bushels 
of  grain.  Now  frost  is  still  in  the  ground  this  the  fourth  day 
of  April,  and  in  some  parts  of  our  country  there  is  a  foot  of  snow 
yet  lying  all  over  the  farms.  How  long  it  may  take  the  sun  to 
melt  this  snow  and  put  the  ground  in  condition  to  be  cultivated 
1  do  not  know ;  but  it  is  possible  that  we  will  have  an  early 
fall  after  a  very  short  season  this  year,  and  if  our  grain  crop  is 
extremely  light  it  may  be  that  the  sisters  will  not  be  able  to  lay 
up  as  much  grain  as  they  would  like  to.  And  I  want  to  say  to  you 
that  we  approve  very  heartily  the  idea  of  having  a  little  breadstuff 
on  hand  which,  if  we  do  not  need  ourselves,  we  can  impart  to 
those  who  do  need  or  will  need  it  in  the  future.  It  may  be  very 
highly  necessary  for  us  to  help  our  neighbors  to  live,  and  I  think 
W£  ought  to  be  careful,  industrious,  frugal  and  saving  with  the 
materials  that  the  Lord  has  so  bountifully  blessed  us  with  hitherto, 
?nd  we  sincerely  hope  that  we  will  be  worthy  of  his  continued 
blessings. 

Now,  my  sisters,  as  I  have  expressed  my  feelings  many 
times,  I  will  again  say  that  I  think  the  Relief  Society  organization 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  is  one  of  the 
most  important  and  necessary  and  blessed  organizations  that  has 
been  devised  since  the  organization  of  the  Church  itself.  It  is 
a  helpful  organization,  not  only  in  those  things  that  help  to  make 
up  the  material  life,  but  essential  in  those  things  which  are  of 
more  importance  really  to  the  immortal  soul  than  those  things 
which  perish  and  which  are  confined  solely  to  the  necessities  of 
mortal  life.  I  believe  that  the  authority  and  the  influence  of  this 
organization  should  be  exerted  in  behalf  of  the  spiritual  welfare 
and  upbuilding  of  the  daughters  of  Zion  and  of  your  sisters 
throughout  all  the  world,  so  far  as  your  influence  can  possibly 
extend.  I  think  that  no  women  in  all  the  world  should  be  better 
qualified  to  live  aright  than  the  women  who  have  membership  in 
the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  and  who  have 
the  privilege  of  being  associated  with  this  Woman's  Relief  Society. 


316  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

I  think  that  the  best  mothers  in  the  world  should  be  found,  and 
d  nsistently  found,  among-  the  Latter-day  Saints.  I  believe  the 
best  wives  in  all  the  world  are  found  among  the  Latter-day  Saints 
I  do  not  know  of  any  other  women  in  the  worl  1  that  have  the 
same  conception  of  wifehood  and  motherhood  that  the  Latter- 
t'ay  Saints  possess.  Our  associations  are  not  exclusively  in- 
tended for  this  life,  for  time,  as  we  distinguish  it  from  eternity. 
We  live  for  time  and  for  eternity.  We"  form  associations  and  re 
lations  for  time  and  all  eternity.  Our  affections  and  our  desires 
are  found  fitted  and  prepared  to  endure  not  only  throughout  the 
temporal  or,  mortal  life,  but  through  all  eternity.  Women  in 
the  world  do  not  contemplate  such  a  tiling  as  this;  they  do  not 
believe  in  it.  They  long  for  it,  no  doubt;  they  hope  that  such 
things  do  or  may  exist.  But  who,  aside  from  the  Latter-day 
Saints,  have  an  established  religion  revealed  from  God  which  is 
i  'tended  to  so  fix  these  principles  in  the  minds  and  in  the  hearts  of 
ihc  sons  and  daughters  of  ( rod  in  a  manner  that  will  help  them  to 
shape  their  lives  now  so  that  they  will  be  prepared  to  continue  the 
ties  they  form  here  in  the  eternities  that  are  to  come  ?  I  do  not  be- 
lieve that  a  woman  or  man  who  has  not  the  same  conception  that 
we  have  with  reference  to  the  object  of  life  and  with  reference  to 
the  future  of  our  lives,  can  possibly  value  life  as  we  do.  I  do  not 
think  any  one  other  than  those  who  possess  the  faith  and  the 
doctrines  that  we  do  can  entertain  the  same  affection  for  one 
.■mother  that  we  do.  or  that  will  strive  so  diligently  and  so  earnestl) 
to  make  things  pleasant  for  ourselves  and  for  those  who  are 
;  ssociated  with  us  in  life,  wih  a  view  that  we  may  continue  our 
desirable  relations  together  in  t:me  and  in  all  eternity.  Who  are 
there  besides  the  Latter-day  Saints  who  contemplate  the  thought 
that  beyond  the  grave  we  will  continue  in  the  family  organization  ? 
the  father,  the  mother,  the  children  recognizing  each  other  in 
the  relations  which  they  owe  to  each  other  and  in  which  they  stand 
to  each  other?  this  family  organization  being  a  unit  in  the  great 
and  perfect  organization  of  God's  work,  and  all  destined  to  con- 
tinue throughout  time  and  eternity? 

My  sisters,  we  have  something  to  hope  for,  something  to 
live  for,  something  to  awaken  our  desire  for  that  which  is  better 
and  nobler  and  more  exalting.  We  are  living  for  eternity  and  not 
merely  for  the  moment.  Death  does  not  part  us  from  one  another. 
if  we  have  entered  into  sacred  relationships  with  each  other  by 
virtue  of  the  authority  that  God  has  revealed  to  the  children 
of  men.  Our  relationships  are  formed  for  eternity.  We  are 
immortal  beings,  and  we  are  looking  forward  to  the  growth 
that  is  to  be  attained  in  an  exalted  life  after  we  have  proved 
ourselves  faithful  and  true  to  the  covenants  that  we  have  entered 
into  here,  and  then  we  will  receive  a  fulness  of  joV.  I  most 
sincerely  hope  that  the  mothers  of  Israel  will  guard  very  zealously 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  317 

and  very  carefully  the  lives  of  their  daughters  and  of  their  sons. 
1  would  if  I  had  it  in  my  power  make  it  possible  for  all  mothers 
to  have  the  joy  and  the  unspeakable  satisfaction  of  rearing  their 
sons  and  their  daughters  above  the  reproach  of  men  and  above 
the  power  of  sin.  I  would  that  all  Latter-day  Saints  could  live 
so  that  their  example  would  be  so  potent  in  the  lives  of  their 
families  that  forever  after  their  children  would  rise  up  and  call 
them  blessed,  and  thank  God  for  their  relationship  to  their 
parents,  and  honor  their  parents  for  their  worthy  example  and 
for  the  lives  that  they  gave  them,  and  for  the  virtues  and  purity 
of  life  that  were  inculcated  in  their  being.  I  would  like  to  see 
our  young  people  honor  the  aged.  I  would  like  to  see  children 
honor  their  parents  and  respect  and  love  them,  and  be  obedient 
to  their  counsel.  Who  can  counsel  a  child  with  greater  solicitude 
for  the  benefit  and  wellbeing  and  happiness  of  that  child  better 
than  can  the  father  and  the  mother?  No  one.  No  one  can  love 
our  children  just  as  we  love  them,  if  we  are  possessed  of  our 
talents,  if  we  understand  our  destiny  aright  and  the  calling  to 
which  we  are  called  as  we  should  understand  it.  No  one  can 
understand  our  children  better  than  we.  No  one  can  have 
greater  solicitude  for  their  happiness  than  we  have.  And  so  the 
children  ought  to  honor  their  parents  and  hearken  to  their  counsel. 
And  a  man  and  woman  who  have  embraced  the  gospel  of  Jesus 
Christ  and  w  ho  have  begun  life  together,  should  be  able  by  their 
power,  example  and  influence  to  cause  their  children  to  emulate 
them  in  lives  of  virtue,  honor  and  in  integrity  to  the  kingdom 
of  God  which  will  redound  to  their  own  interest  and  salvation. 
No  one  can  advise  my  children  with  greater  earnestness  and  solici- 
tude for  their  happiness  and  salvation  than  I  can  do  myself. 
Nobody  has  more  interest  in  the  welfare  of  my  own  children  than 
I  have.  I  cannot  be  satisfied  without  them.  They  are  part  of  me. 
They  are  mine ;  God  has  given  them  to  me,  and  I  want  them  to 
live,  and  I  want  them  to  be  honorable.  I  want  them  to  be  humble 
and  submissive  to  the  requirements  of  the  gospel.  I  want  them 
to  do  right,  and  to  be  right  in  every  particular  so  that  they  will 
be  worthy  of  the  distinction  that  the  Lord  has  given  them  in 
being  numbered  among  his  covenant  people  who  are  choice  above 
all  other  people,  because  they  have  made  sacrifice  for  their  own 
salvation  in  the  truth. 

Speaking  of  the  fashions  of  the  world,  I  do  not  care  to  say 
very  much  on  the  subject,  but  I  do  think  that  we  live  in  an  age 
the  very  trend  of  which  is  to  vice  and  wickedness.  I  believe  that 
to  a  very  large  extent  the  fashion?  of  the  day,  and  especially 
the  fashions  of  women,  have  a  tendency  to  evil  and  not  to  virtue 
or  modesty,  and  I  deplore  that  evident  fact,  for  you  see  it  on  every 
hand.  I  deplore  the  fact  that  our  young  women  as  well  as  some 
of  our  young  men — and  I  don't  know  whether  I  would  be  justi- 


318  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Red  in  making  any  distinction  between  the  young  men  and  the 
young  women  wih  reference  to  this  matter  are  loath  to  enter 
into  the  relationships  of  husband  and  wife  until  they  get  to  be  a 

great  deal  older  than  I  was  when  1  began  life  in  that  way.  and 
considerably  older  than  my  wives  were  when  they  entered  into 
that  relationship  with  me.  Young  men  want  to  get  homes  that 
are  palatial,  that  are  as  fine  in  all  their  appointments  and  as 
modern  as  anybody  else's  hefore  they  will  pet  married.  T  think 
it  is  a  mistake.  I  think  that  young  men  and  young  women,  too, 
should  he  willing,  even  at  this  day  and  in  the  present  condition 
<  f  things,  to  enter  the  sacred  bonds  of  marriage  together  and 
fight  their  way  together  to  success,  meet  their  obstacles  and  their 
difficulties,  and  cleave  together  and  co-operate  in  their  temporal 
affairs,  so  that  they  shall  succeed.  Then  they  will  learn  to  love 
one  another  better,  and  will  be  more  united  throughout  their 
lives,  and  the  Lord  will  bless  them  more  abundantly.  I  regret,  I 
think  it  is  a  crying  evil,  that  there  should  exist  a  sentiment 
or  a  feeling  among  any  members  of  the  Church  to  curtail  the 
birth  of  their  children.  T  think  that  is  a  crime  wherever  it  occurs, 
where  husband  and  wife  are  in  possession  of  health  and  vigor 
and  are  free  from  impurities  that  would  be  entailed  upon  their 
posterity.  I  believe  that  where  people  undertake  to  curtail  or 
prevent  the  birth  of  their  children  that  they  are  going  to  reap 
disappointment  by  and  by.  I  have  no  hesitancy  in  saying  that 
T  believe  this  is  one  of  the  grea'test  crimes  of  the  world  today,  this 
evil  practice. 

Xow,  I  would  rather  some  of  the  sisters  would  talk  about 
these  things.  They  can  do  it  better  than  I  can,  for  they  under- 
stand them  quite  as  well  as  T  do,  although  I  am  a  man 
cf  some  little  experience  in  family  matters;  the  Lord  has 
given  me  some  forty-five  children  of  my  own,  and  I  have  had 
the  pleasure  and  joy  of  rearing  most  of  them  to  manhood  and 
womanhood,  and  some  of  them  are  still  growing  in  that  direction. 
The  mothers  of  my  children  who  have  been  the  most  blessed 
with  a  multiplicity  of  children  are  the  healthiest,  strongest  and 
most  able  bodied  women  that  I  know  of.  They  have  never  .deteri- 
orated through  the  observance  of  the  principles  of  life  and  of 
natural  increase.  Now  I  think  I  ought  to  let  the  sisters  talk  about 
these  things  to  you,  my  sisters;  but  I  am  mighty  thankful  that 
the  mothers  of  my  children  have  borne  me  all  the  way  from 
seven  to  eleven  or  twelve  children  apiece,  and  they  are  not  sorry 
for  it  either.  We  have  not  had  any  too  many;  in  fact,  we  had 
to  take  other  people's  children,  because  we  did  not  feel  that  we 
had  done  our  duty  altogether,  and  we  have  raised  other  children 
besides  our  own.  and  adopted  them,  and  have  been  for  long  years 
grandfathers  and  grandmothers,  and  great  grandfathers  and  great 
grandmothers  to  their  children.    Rut  T  have  no  occasion  to  boast 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  319 

particularly  of  that.  I  am  thankful  for  the  blessings  of  life  which 
we  enjoy;  and,  sisters,  let  me  say  to  you,  that  one  of  the  great 
tlv'ngs  that  should  be  looked  into  carefully  by  all  mothers  to  whom 
is  entrusted  the  care  and  the  rearing  of  their  children,  is.  the 
great  and  glorious  truth  that  the  Lord  Almighty  is  doing  this 
work,  and  not  man.  God  is  at  the  helm.  The  Lord  has  laid  the 
foundation  of  this  work  through  the  instrumentality  of  His  ser- 
vants whom  He  has  raised  up  for  that  purpose,  and  He  has  never 
submitted  to  the  dictation  of  man  since  the  first  revelation  to 
the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  to  this  day.  The  Lord  Almighty  has 
never  left  the  dictation  of  His  work,  nor  the  personal  guidance 
and  direction  of  His  work,  to  any  man  that  has  ever  stood  at 
the  head,  or  ever  will  stand  at  the  head  of  this  great  work.  I 
believe  that  those  who  have  stood  at  the  head  of  this  work  have 
invariably  and  without  exception  been  guided  in  all  their  lives  in 
relation  to  the  advancement  of  the  cause  of  Zion,  by  the  power 
of  God  in  them  and  not  by  their  own  wisdom  and  strength.  If  we 
could  teach  our  children  this ;  if  we  could  get  this  principle  em- 
bodied in  their  hearts,  it  would  be  well.  All  our  children  ought  to 
know  that  it  is  the  Lord's  work,  that  it  is  not  Joseph  F.  Smith's, 
it  is  not  President  Anthon  H.  Lund's,  nor  President  Charles  W. 
Penrose's ;  it  is  not  the  work  of  John  Taylor,  nor  Wilford  Wood- 
ruff, nor  Lorenzo  Snow,  nor  Brigham  Young,  nor  Joseph  Smith 
the  Prophet.  We  honor  these  men  in  the  positions  that  they 
have  occupied ;  we  love  them  for  their  integrity  and  their  stability 
in  their  calling  and  their  faitfulness.  We  love  them  for  it,  and 
we  will  always  hold  them  in  veneration  for  the  faithfulness  and 
trust  that  were  imposed  in  them.  But  when  we  take  into  considera- 
tion the  cause  of  the  work,  the  purposes  of  the  work,  its  pro- 
gress, its  increase  in  the  midst  of  the  earth  against  all  the  opposi- 
tions that  have  been  arrayed  against  it  in  the  world,  we  must 
consider  that  the  work  is  God's  and  not  man's.  If  we  could 
only  get  that  into  our  hearts  and  into  the  hearts  of  our  children, 
they  would  not  be  easily  led  into  by-paths,  they  would  not  easily 
be  deceived,  they  would  not  easily  turn  away  from  the  right 
path,  because  they  would  realize  that  they  would  be  turning 
away  from  God,  not  from  President  Smith  or  President  Young. 
Some  men  have  apostatized  because  they  got  into  a  little  dif- 
ference with  President  Young,  or  with  President  Taylor,  or  per- 
haps with  President  Smith  or  whoever  it  may  have  been  as  the 
head  of  the  Church,  or  perhaps  the  Bishop.  Some  people  I  have 
known,  have  denied  the  faith,  and  have  gone  away  from  the  gos- 
pel of  Jesus  Christ  because  they  got  angry  at  the  Bishop,  or 
thought  the  Bishop  was  not  doing  his  duty.  What  foolishness! 
Can  you  conceive  of  anything  more  nonsensical  than  that -a  man 
or  a  woman  whose  salvation  depends  upon  his  or  her  own  fidelity 
in  the  cause  of  Zion  turning  away  from  his  or  her  hopes  of  hap- 


320  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

piness  because  somelxxly  cist-  fails  to  do  right,  or  they  think 
somebody  else  fails  to  do  the  right  thing.  I  never  heard  of  any- 
thing more  foolish  in  my  life  than  that  a  man  should  be  offended 
before  God  and  should  turn  away  from  the  love  of  God  in  whom 
there  is  no  shadow  of  variableness  nor  turning,  because  he  gets 
offended  at  some  of  his  brethren.  Now  I  have  made  up  my 
mind  long  years  ago  that  it  doesn't  make  any  difference,  or  would 
not  make  any  difference  to  me,  who  did  right  or  who  did  wrong 
in  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  That  is  not 
my  business.  My  business  is  to  see  to  it  that  1  do  right,  that  I 
maintain  my  standing  in  t lie  Church,  that  I  am  devoted  to  prin- 
ciple myself,  and  I  have  no  determination,  nor  wish,  nor  thought, 
that  is  not  and  may  not  be  seconded  by  the  blessing  of  the  Lord. 
T  know  that  I  could  not  do  anything  without  His  blessing,  without 
His  favor,  wihout  His  mercy.  I  do  not  expect  to  be  able  to 
stand,  any  more  than  I  have  ever  been  able  to  stand,  in  the  Church 
of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  without  the  help  of  the 
Lord,  and  I  do  not  like  to  see  men  nor  women  get  so  strong 
within  themselves  that  they  think  that  they  could  stand  by  them- 
selves and  of  themselves.  They  cannot  do  it.  We  must  have  the 
Spirit  of  the  Lord  with  us,  mothers  and  sisters,  in  order  that  we 
may  be  enabled  to  endure  the  temptation  and  trials  and  anxieties 
of  life  and  stand  the  test  to  the  end. 

\<>w  T  am  infringing  upon  your  time.  I  am  pleased  to  see 
so  many  of  us  here.  1  certainly  feel  that  my  whole  soul  goes  out 
in  love,  in  appreciation  and  blessing  to  the  mothers  in  Israel,  those 
who  are  associated  with  this  glorious,  great  organization,  the 
Womens'  Relief  Society.  T  feel  in  my  heart  to  bless  you,  mothers 
and  sisters,  with  all  my  heart  and  with  all  the  power  and  right 
that  I  possess  in  the  priesthood  which  is  after  the  order  of  the 
Son  of  I  rod.  I  hold  the  power  and  the  right  to  pronounce  patri- 
iarchal  blessings.  I  have  the  right  and  the  authority  in  the  priest- 
hood to  bless  Israel,  and  to  bless  those  who  are  faithful,  espe 
daily  ;  and  T  feel  in  my  heart  to  say  T  bless  you.  May  God  bless 
you,  which  is  greater  than  all.  But  if  I  bless  you  in  the  spirit 
of  righteousness  and  in  the  Spirit  of  God  and  in  the  true  love 
of  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  of  the  doctrines  of  Zion,  Go  I 
will  bless  you,  too,  for  He  will  recognize  and  acknowledge  the 
blessing  that  is  pronounced  by  His  faithful  servants  when  those 
blessings  are  given  in  the  spirit  of  the  gospel  and  in  the  love  of 
the  people  of  God.  The  Lord  bless  you.  Here  is  our  dear  Aunt 
Fm,  who  has  the  honor  to  stand  as  the  President  of  the  board  of 
directors  of  this  great  organization  in  Zion.  The  Lord  has  pre- 
served her  life  till  she  is  past  eighty-nine  years,  still  possessing 
her  faculties,  her  memory  and  her  intellect,  and  a  wonderful 
amount  of  physical  energy  for  one  of  her  extreme  age.  I  am 
proud  and  thankful  that  the  Lord  is  so  merciful  to  her  and  to 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  321 

those  who  are  associated  with  her  in  this  great  organization,  and 
I  pray  that  the  same  blessings  may  be  extended  unto  all  those 
who  are  called  to  presiding  positions  in  the  various  organizations 
of  the  Relief  Society  throughout  the  Church  in  all  lands,  which 
may  God  grant,  I  humbly  pray  in  the  name  of  Jesus.     Amen. 

At  the  close  of  the  address  of  President  Smith,  Bishop 
Charles  W.  Nibley  made  the  following  remarks  : 

BISHOP  CHARLES  W.  NIBLEY. 

I  will  detain  you,  my  dear  sisters,  but  a  moment  or  two,  as  the 
time  has  already  expired  for  closing  your  meeting.  I  endorse 
heartily  the  words  that  have  been  spoken  by  our  President.  They 
are  the  words  of  eternal  life.  They  are  given  by  the  same  spirit 
that  the  Savior  enjoyed  when  Peter  said,  "Lord,  if  we  turn  from 
thee,  to  whom  shall  we  go?  Thou  hast  the  words  of  eternal  life." 
There  is  salvation  in  the  counsel  and  advice  of  the  servants  of 
the  Lord  who  give  their  best  efforts, — the  best  efforts  of  their 
lives — to  their  labors  in  the  ministry. 

I  am  proud  of  this  organization.  I  speak  of  it  wherever  I 
go  among  strangers.  It  is  my  chief  theme,  I  may  say,  in  connec- 
tion with  the  gospel  work.  I  refer  to  the  wonderful  service  that 
these  sisters,  these  organizations  are  giving  to  the  Church,  and  the 
wonderful  and  magnificent  examples  that  they  are  showing  to 
the  world.  They  are  as  a  city  set  upon  a  hill,  whose  light  cannot 
be  hid.  Men  note  it,  marvel  at  it,  and  thoughtful  men  say  at 
once,  "Well,  there  is  something  wonderful  in  it!" 

As  has  been  stated,  we  are  living  in  the  most  wonderful  age 
of  all  the  history  of  this  world.  Things  are  transpiring,  matters 
are  coming  to  pass,  not  only  with  respect  to  this  little  handful  of 
people,  but  with  respect  to  the  millions  of  people  in  the  world. 
Events  are  transpiring,  in  such  a  way  and  in  such  rapid  succession, 
that  we  see  clearly  that  the  Lord  is  cutting  his  great  work  short 
in  righteousness.  He  will  not  do  that  which  is  unrighteous,  but 
so  far  as  He  can  cut  it  short  in  righteousness,  that  is,  .do  it  in  a 
righteous,  just  manner,  He  will  do  it.  He  said  He  would  cut  it 
short  in  righteousness.  Now  we  see  these  things  are  coming  to 
pass.  You  are  custodians,  in  a  way,  of  some  of  His  purposes  and 
a  certain  amount  of  His  work.  You  have  in  charge,  certainly,  the 
greatest  work  given  to  any  women  in  all  the  history  of  the  world. 
I  believe  I  am  perfectly  safe  in  saying  that,  to  you  is  given  the 
leadership  among  the  women  of  all  the  world.  Is  not  that  worth 
something?  "Though  the  great  and  the  wise,"  as  Brother  Pen- 
rose's song  has  it.  "all  thy  beauties  despise,  to  the  humble  and 
pure  thou  art  dear."  The  principles  that  you  have  are  grand, 
the  lives  that  you  are  permitted  to  lead,  the  blessings  that  you 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

bestow,  the  helpfulness  that  you  give,  the  service  that  you  render 
to  the  Church  and  to  the  world  are  magnificent.  Your  work  is 
Morions.  I  believe  with  all  my  heart  and  soul  that  it  is  approved 
of  the  Lord.  I  feel  sure  it  is.  That  being  so,  the  blessing  of  the 
Lord  will  follow  you.  The  blessing  of  the  President  of  the  high 
priesthood  of  His  Church  is  upon  you  and  upon  your  work.  Is 
not  that  a  great  and  splendid  thing  in  every  way?  I  do  not  see 
how  you  could  be  more  blessed. 

1  endorse  most  thoroughly  the  expression  of  President  Smith 
in  that  the  Lord  can  use  me  or  you,  every  one  of  us,  if  we  allow 
Him  to  do  it.  and  if  we  will  keep  humble.  lie  cannot  use  the 
haughty.  He  cannot  use  the  person  who  sets  himself  or  herself 
up  to  be  a  great  big  something  above  everybody  else ;  but  the 
bumble,  the  meek,  the  lowly  of  heart,  the  strong  also,  the  resolute 
and  determined — these  He  can  use  and  He  will  make  them  the 
leading  spirits  in  His  Church.  He  is  doing  it,  and  has  done  it. 
The  Lord  is  blessing  you  wonderfully.  The  work  that  you  have 
done,  the  work  that  you  are  doing,  I  say  again,  is  marvelous,  it  is 
grand.  Continue  in  it.  my  dear  sisters.  Be  faithful  in  it.  Be  de- 
voted to  it.  Persevere,  have  courage,  fear  not,  and  God  will  be 
with  you.  You  will  be  blessed  more  abundantly  than  ever,  and 
you  will  be  set  even  upon  a  higher  bill,  so  to  speak,  before  all  the 
world,  and  all  the  world  will  yet  glorify  the  name  of  our  God 
because  of  your  good  works.     Amen. 

At  the  close  of  the  afternoon  session,  Mrs.  Susa  Young 
Gates  presented  the  following  resolutions  on  Birth  Control  and 
moved  their  adoption.  Mrs.  Julia  P.  M.  Farnsworth  seconded  the 
motion,  and  it  was  enthusiastically  carried  by  the  vast  assem- 
blage : 

RESOLUTIONS  CONCERNING  RIRTII    CONTROL 

OR  RACE  SUICIDE 

PRESENTED  TO  THE   RELIEF  SOCIETY 

OF  THE  CHURCH  OF  JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS. 

IN    CONFERECE   ASSEMBLED 

APRILS.  1017, 

SALT   LAKE  CITY,  UTAH. 

]Vhereas,  Many  of  the  men  and  women,  clubs  and  papers 
r.f  the  United  States  arc  uniting  in  an  effort  to  violate  the  laws 
of  God  and  nature  by  urging  the  use  of  the  contraceptive  devices 
to  prevent  child-bearing,  thus  giving  greater  license  to  abandoned 
men  and  women,  while  making  of  marriage  a  mockery  in  the  sigh) 
of  God,  and 

JVhereas.  This  birth-prevention  movement  has  become  na- 
tion-wide with  a  "Birth  Control  League"  which  publishes  a  paper 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  323 

and  which  has  affiliated  with  similar  organizations  in  England, 
Holland,  Germany,  France,  Spain,  Belgium,  Switzerland,  Bo- 
hemia, Austria,  Portugal,  Brazil,  Cuba,  Sweden,  Italy  and  Africa  ; 
with  United  States  branches  in  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan;  Boston, 
Massachusetts;  Cleveland,  Ohio;  Denver,  Colorado;  Detroit. 
Michigan ;  Indianapolis,  Indiana ;  Los  Angeles,  California ; 
Minneapolis,  Minnesota  ;  New  York :  The  Birth  Control  League 
of  New  York ;  The  Committee  of  One  Thousand  ;  The  Mother's 
Birth  Control  League  of  Brownsville,  Brooklyn ;  The  National 
Birth  Control  League ;  The  Woman's  Committee  of  One  Hun- 
dred ;  Painesville,  Ohio ;  Paterson,  New  Jersey ;  Pittsburg,  Pen- 
nsylvania;  Portland,  Oregon;  Rochester,  New  York;  St.  Louis, 
Missouri ;  St.  Paul,  Minnesota ;  The  Minnesota  State  Birth  Con- 
trol League  ;  The  Birth  Control  League  of  San  Francisco ;  The 
Seattle  Birth  Control  League ;  Spokane,  Washington ;  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  The  Birth  Control  League  of  Washington. 

Whereas,  Clubs  such  as  the  New  York  City  Club  and  similar 
clubs  in  other  cities  are  actively  engaged  in  petitioning  legislatures 
to  pass  laws  protecting  these  nefarious  practices  by  demanding 
the  repeal  of  anti-birth-control  laws,  supported  in  part  by  the 
medical  and  journalistic  profession,  and 

Whereas,  We  desire  to  manifest  our  faith  in  God's  laws  by 
a  movement  for  better  babies  and  as  many  of  them  as  virtuous 
marriage,  and  the  decrees  of  a  just  and  merciful  Father  will  per- 
mit the  parents  of  this  people  to  bear ; 

Therefore  be  it  Resolved:  That  we  call  upon  the  Latter- 
ter-day  Saint  women  everywhere  to  repel  this  pernicious  doctrine 
both  in  private  conversation,  in  public  talks,  in  our  own  homes 
and  families ;  and  to  pass  similar  resolutions  in  all  our  stake  and 
ward  organizations,  and  then  to  live  up  to  them. 

Resolved:  That  we  sever  all  connections  with  any  club,  so- 
ciety, or  associates  who  advocate  and  practice  birth-control  or  race 
suicide.  That  we  refuse  to  sustain  papers,  magazines,  publishers 
and  writers  who  teach  this  doctrine. 

Resolved:  That  we  sustain  by  our  voice  and  vote  all  laws 
and  law-makers  who  advocate  and  maintain  laws  prohibiting 
every  unnatural  and  immoral  birth-control  propaganda.  And  be  it 

Resolved,  in  conclusion,  that  we  invite  the  co-operation  and 
support  of  the  Priesthood  quorums  and  auxiliary  organizations 
of  the  Church  in  this  effort  to  maintain  our  high  and  holy  ideals 
and  principles. 

OFFICERS'  MEETING. 

Morning  Session. — At  the  opening  of  the  officers'  meeting. 
Counselor  Clarissa  S.  Williams  explained  that  the  two  officers' 
meetings  had  been  limited  to  stake  officers  because  the   room 


324  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE, 

would  not  accommodate  both  stake  and  ward  officers.  She  recom- 
mended that  the  stake  officers  pay  the  strictest  attention  to  all  mat- 
ters of  business,  taking  notes  of  the  imporant  items  in  order 
that  they  might  take  hack  to  the  societies  the  instructions  that 
were  given. 

After  the  roll  call  the  annual  financial  and  statistical  general 
report  of  the  Society  was  read  by  the  General  Secretary.  Amy 
Brown  Lyman,  and  was  listened  to  with  the  closest  attention  by 
all  officers  present.  The  stake  officers  all  being  familiar  with  their 
(  wn  respective  reports  listened  with  the  greatest  of  interest  for 
the  final  totals  of  the  general  report. 

The  report  showed  the  Society  to  he  growing  in  all  depart- 
ments of  its  work.  The  balance  net  resources  at  the  present  time 
are  $606,087.57.  and  the  wheat  on  hand  215,393^  bushels— all 
property  being  held  in  the  respective  wards.  The  shrinkage  and 
waste  in  wheat  is  less  this  year  than  any  previous  year,  due  to  the 
fact  that  better  wheat  is  being  stored  and  better  methods  of  stor- 
ing are  being  employed.  Comment  was  made  on  the  fact  that 
wheat  had  reached  a  very  high  market  price  and  satistaction  was 
felt  over  the  priceless  value  of  grain  so  patiently  stored  by  the 
Relief  Society  women.  The  report  showed  the  present  member- 
ship of  the  Society  to  be  43.894  and  the  number  of  branches. 
1.191.  These  figures  include  the  various  missions  of  the  Church. 
The  amount  paid  for  charitable  purposes  for  the  vear  1916  was 
$55,162.25. 

Mrs.  Lyman  praised  the  work  of  the  stake  secretaries  in  com- 
piling the  stake  reports,  stating  that  their  work  had  shown  re- 
markable intelligence  and  ability  on  their  part.  The  reports  from 
the  following  stakes  were  pronounced  perfect:  Alpine.  Black- 
foot.  Boise.  Box  Elder.  Cottonwood,  No.  Weber,  Ogden.  Salt 
Lake,  Shelley.  Snowflake,  Young.  Central  States  Mission,  Euro- 
pean Mission.  Hawaiian  Mission  and  Southern  States  Mission. 
The  following  stakes  had  very  slight  errors:  Bingham.  Cache. 
Granite.  Jordan.  Liberty.  Maricopa.  Pioneer,  St.  Joseph,  Sevier, 
So.  Davis,  So.  Sanpete;  Western  States  Mission,  Eastern  States 
Mission,  California  Mission.  The  following  reports  were  pro- 
nounced as  good  reports:  Alberta,  Bear  Lake.  Deseret.  Ensign. 
ITvrum,  Malad,  No.  Davis,  No.  Sanpete,  Oneida,  Panguitch.  Raft 
River,  St.  George,  St.  Johns,  San  Juan,  San  Luis,  Tooele,  Union, 
Yellowstone. 

Mrs.  Lyman  reported  the  following  changes  in  stake  organ- 
izations:  Bannock  Stake.  President  Gwen  H.  Redford  in  place 
of  Julia  A.  Pond,  resigned. 

Bingham  Stake,  Mayme  H.  Laird.  President,  in  place  of 
Elvira  C.  Steele,  resigned. 

Boise  Stake,  Laura  J.  Adamson,  President,  in  place  of  Mary 
A.  Rawson,  resigned. 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OE  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  325 

t 

Curlew  Stake,  Rebecca  N.  Cutler,  President,  in  place  of 
Mary  E.  Bennett,  resigned. 

No.  Weber  Stake,  Lucy  A.  Steers,  President,  in  place  of 
Georgina  G.  Marriott,  resigned. 

Oneida  Stake,  Nellie  P.  Head,   President,  in  place  of  Lousia 
B.  Benson,  resigned. 

Panguitch  Stake.  Sarah  E.  Cameron,  President,  in  place  of 
Hannah  A.  Crosby,  resigned. 

Wasatch  stake,  Sophia  G.  Luke,  President,  in  place  of  Jo- 
hannah  Jensen,  resigned. 

Woodruff  Stake,  Zina  Taggart,  President  in  place  of  Phoebe 
Brough,  resigned. 

One  new  stake  has  been  reported  organized  during  the  year— 
the  Idaho  stake,  Sarah  M.  McClellan,  president. 

Attention  was  called  to  the  fact  that  there  are  now  in  the 
Society  three  Lamanite  branches  located  as  follows :  Wolf  Point, 
Northwestern  States  Mission,  membership,  35;  Catawba,  South- 
ern States  Mission,  membership,  16:  Papago  Ward,  Maricopa 
Stake,  membership,  22.  The  women  in  these  Societies  are  espe- 
cially interested  in  visiting  and  caring  for  the  sick.  Attention  was 
also  called  to  the  report  that  a  Relief  Society  has  been  organized 
in  the  Tahitian  Mission,  with  a  membership  of  84. 

The  remainder  of  the  morning  session  was  turned  over  to  a 
dicussion  of  Relief  Society  problems.  The  discussion  was  led  by 
Counselor  Clarissa  S.  Williams  and  participated  in  by  the  whole 
body  of  officers. 

Afternoon  Session.  At  the  afternoon  session  remarks  were 
made  by  Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates,  Mrs.  Lucy  May  Green,  Mrs. 
Emily  S.  Richards  and  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde. 

Mrs.  Gates  gave  a  brief  report  of  the  Genealogical  work  and 
made  some  suggestions  for  the  future.  She  felt  gratified  with 
the  results  of  the  Society  in  their  work  on  living  record  sheets, 
index  cards,  and  in  the  numerous  excursions  to  the  temple.  The 
annual  report  shows  that  26,201  days  have  been  spent  in  temple 
work,  an  increase  of  9,312  over  the  number  of  days  reported  for 
last  year.  Mrs.  Gates  regretted  that  it  had  been  impossible  to 
furnish  the  books  that  were  suggested  at  the  beginning  of  the 
year,  and  because  of  the  great  disappointment  in  this  matter  the 
Genealogical  Society  of  Utah  decided  to  compile  a  book  on 
surnames  for  the  use  of  all  organizations  interested  in  Genealogi- 
cal research.  Material  for  this  book  is  now  ready  for  the  printers, 
and  the  book  will  be  out  in  time  for  our  fall  work.  The  speaker 
stated  that  all  genealogical  questions  in  the  wards  should  be  re- 
ferred to  the  stake  president. 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards,  who  had  just  returned  from  an  ex- 


326  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

ccutive  session  of  the  National  Woman's  Suffrage  Association, 
where  she  went  as  a  -delegate  from  the  Utah  Suffrage  Association, 
reported  that  .preparedness  was  the  watch  ward  throughout  the 
women's  organization  of  the  East.  This  meeting  which  she  had 
just  attended  was  called  to  devise  some  plan  of  assistance  to  the 
Nation  during  the  present  war  crisis. 

Mrs.  Carrie  Chapman  Catt,  president  of  the  association,  said 
it  is  not  enough  in  the  face  of  the  present  situation  for  women 
to  make  mere  protestations  of  loyalty  to  the  Government,  but 
that  they  should  devise  some  plan  of  assisting  which  would  be 
definite  in  scope  and  practical  in  character  and  wh'ch  the  women 
should  guarantee  to  perform. 

Practically  the  whole  country  was  represented  at  that  meet- 
ing, and  the  women  assembled  pledged  themselves  to  wage  a 
campaign  for  increasing  the  food  supply  by  encouraging  thrift 
and  economy  and  by  the  elimination  of  waste. 

Mrs.  Richards  reported  that  one  thousand  women  have  en- 
rolled themselves  in  a  national  service  school  at  Washington,  D.  C, 
for  a  course  of  five  weeks'  encampment,  during  which  time  they 
will  live  under  military  discipline  and  receive  instructions  from 
men — commissioned  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy.  The  uni- 
form for  the  women  taking  this  course  is  an  olive  drab  coat  and 
skirt,  one  army  blouse,  olive  necktie,  high  laced  tan  boots  and 
campaign  hat  and  olive  cord.  Personal  baggage  is  limited  to  one 
suit  case  and  a  hand  bag.  Jewelry  and  vanity  boxes  are  abso- 
lutely  barred.  Stringent  health  regulations  are  to  be  observed,  and 
no  one  will  be  admitted  without  a  health  certificate  showing  that 
the  applicant  can  endure  camp  routine. 

While  it  is  not  intended  to  place  women  aboard  ships  they 
may  be  utilized  for  shore  duty  as  stenographers,  book-keepers, 
general  clerks,  etc.,  and  it  is  felt  that  the  discipline  and  training 
teceived  in  this  camp  will  make  them  more  efficient  for  service. 

Mrs.  Richards  stated  that  in  connection  with  the  National 
Council,  to  which  the  Relief  Society  belongs,  the  Suffrage  Asso- 
ciation expects  to  register  the  powers  and  resources  of  the  women 
of  the  organization. 

Mrs.  Lucy  May  Green,  Chorister  of  the  Granite  stake  Re- 
lief Society  choir  read  a  paper  on  "Music  in  the  Relief  Society." 
This  paper  contained  many  practical  hints  and  suggestions.  We 
give  the  following  excerpts  : 

"In  the  brief  glimpses  given  us  in  the  scriptures  of  our  pie- 
existent  state,  we  learn  that  music  has  formed  a  part  of  the  wor- 
ship of  God  since  before  the  dawn  of  creation.  The  first  account 
we  have  on  record  is  'when  the  foundations  of  the  earth  were 
laid,  when  the  morning  stars  sang  together,  and  all  the  sons  of 
God  shouted  for  joy.'    Music  is  the  only  art  wh:ch  is  mentioned 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  327 

in  the  scriptures  as  a  part  of  heaven  itself.  We  read  of  the  music 
of  the  angels,  also  of  the  song  of  the  redeemed,  of  the  new  song 
which  will  be  sung  by  them,  songs  of  everlasting  joy.  In  Sec- 
tion 84  of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  we  have  the  words  given 
of  a  beautiful  anthem  which  will  be  sung  by  the  Saints  at  the 
redemption  of  Zlon.  While  the  Israelites  were  in  captivity  in 
Babylon,  they  were  often  required,  by  the  Chaldeans,  to  'sing 
the  songs  of  Zion.'  The  Prophet  Joseph  dearly  loved  music,  and 
made  it  a  part  of  all  the  gatherings  of  this  Church.  His  suc- 
cessors in  office  have  encouraged  'this  art,  and  the  fame  of  our 
great  organ  and  Tabernacle  Choir  has  gone  abroad  throughout 
the  world.  The  Lord  set  the  seal  of  his  divine  approval  on  the 
song  of  praise  when  he  commanded  that  Emma  Smith  should 
make  a  selection  of  sacred  hymns  to  be  used  in  the  Church. 

"One  of  the  objects  of  the  organization  of  the  Relief  Society 
was  for  women  to  gain  knowledge  and  to  develop  along  higher 
lines.  We  have  progressed  rapidly  in  many  directions :  in  charit- 
able work,  in  storing  wheat,  in  the  fields  of  home  nursing,  in 
theology,  literature,  "and  art.  Until  recent  years,  however,  we 
have  paid  very  little  attention  to  music  in  this  Society.  We  have 
been  quite  content  to  sing  without  instrumenal  support,  often 
without  a  leader,  and  still  more  often  without  books.  The  time 
has  come  when  we  should  wake  up  musically  and  do  our  part 
in  this  department  of  the  service  of  the  Lord.  It  is  an  inspiration 
and  will  lift  the  soul  above  the  trials  of  life  and  bring  comfort 
and  hope.  Hand  in  hand  with  the  preaching  of  the  gospel  should 
,eo  the  music  of  the  gospel.  The  success  of  the  great  evangelist 
Moody  was  largely  due  to  the  sweet  singing  of  his  wonderful 
musical  companion,  Ira  D.  Sankey. 

"The  hymn  sung  by  John  Taylor,  'A  Poor  Wayfaring  Man 
of  Grief,'  gave  the  Prophet  Joseph  the  courage  and  strength  to 
bear  the  last  hours  in  Carthage  Jail,  and  the  song  'Come,  Come, 
Ye  Saints'  cheered  the  Pioneers  on  their  weary  march  across  the 
plains. 

"Let  us  make  music  an  important  part  of  our  gatherings. 
First  in  every  stake  and  ward  we  should  choose  a  good  chorister 
and  organist.  Wherever  it  is  possible  to  do  so,  stake  and  ward 
choirs  should  be  organized.  Relief  Society  choirs  should  lead 
the  singing  in  all  of  onr  Relief  Society  gatherings.  It  would 
be  a  good"  thing  if  the  presidents  would  allow  the  chorister  a 
half  hour  occasionally  to  practice  with  the  Society,  that  new 
hymns  and  songs  might  be  learned.  This  mi,ght  be  possible  on 
I  tome  Economics  day. 

"Membership  in  stake  Relief  Society  choirs  should  consist 
of  all  ward  choristers,  assistants,  organists  and  local  choir  mem- 
bers.    There  are  many  who  used  to  sing  in  girlhood  days  who 


328  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

would  be  glad  to  sing  again ;  and  others,  especially  those  from 
foreign  lands,  deem  it  a  .privilege  to  take  an  active  part  in  the 
worship  of  praise.  In  stakes  where  the  wards  are  scattered  it 
night  be  advisable  to  meet  before  the  regular  monthly  officers' 
meetin,g.  Other  practices  might  be  announced  aside  from  the 
regular  monthly  practice.  It  is  not  wise  to  confine  your  choir  to 
all  young  people ;  there  are  many  good  vo:ces  among  the  elderly 
women,  who   with  a  little  experience  will  do  really  good  work. 

"A  competent  organist  is  a  necessity,  and  where  it  is  possible 
to  use  the  piano  as  well  as  the  organ,  so  much  the  better.  Be  sure 
and  have  plenty  of  alto.  It  is  rarely  possible  to  sing  four  part 
music  owing  to  the  inability  of  gettuig  good  second  sopranos,  and 
second  altos  but  there  are  many  beautiful  duets  and  trios  which 
can  be  sun,g.  Have  plenty  of  congregational  singing;  learn  some 
of  the  hvmns  that  are  rarely  sung,  and  sing  them  often.  You 
will  find  many  of  them  in  the  Sunday  School  Song  Book,  The 
Psalmody,  and  some  of  our  earlier  anthem  books,  and  there  are 
many  beautiful  songs  in  Parks'  Concert  Quart etts.  New  hymns 
often  appear  in  our  various  Church  magazines. 

"Tn  choosing  soloists  and  members  of  quartets,  use  judgment 
;u  (1  change  your  singers  at  times:  have  no  favorites.  The  secret 
of  success  is  work.  Set  your  standard  as  high  as  possible,  but 
remember  that  what  a  Relief  Society  choir  may  lack  in  musical 
ability,  may  be  more  than  made  up  in  love  of  the  work,  in  faith- 
fulness and  willing  service. 

"In  conclusion  let  me  express  the  hope  that  sometime  soon 
the  General  Board  will  publish  for  us  a  Relief  Society  song  book, 
a  collection  of  songs,  hymns,  duets,  trios  and  choruses  set  to  music 
especially  arranged  for  women's  voices.  Until  that  t:me  arrives. 
let  us  choose  the  best  music  available,  and  use  all  that  expresses 
the  spirit  and  genius  of  the  Relief  Society  work." 

Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde,  business  manager  of  the  Relief  So- 
ciety Magazine,  gave  some  instructions  to  officers  and  Magazine 
agents  with  regard  to  proper  methods  of  carrying  on  business 
in  connection  with  the  General  Office.  Mrs.  Hyde  made  the  fol- 
lowing suggestions: 

1.  All  Magazine  agents  should  use  for  subscriptions  the 
proper  printed  forms  that  are  supplied  by  the  General  Office.  All 
lists  sent  in  by  agents  are  filed  for  future  reference,  and  when 
names  come  in  on  papers  of  all  shapes  and  sizes  great  incon- 
venience is  encountered  in  looking  up  and  checking  names.  All 
lists  should  contain  the  date  when  sent. 

2.  Agents  should  keep  duplicate  copies  of  all  lists  sent  to 
the  General  Office  so  that  when  questions  arise  as  to  names  and 
addresses  the  agent  may  refer  to  her  own  copy.  Agents  should 
give  individual   receipts  to  subscribers,   using  the  receipt  books 


GENERAL  CONFERENCE  OF  RELIEF  SOCIETY.  329 

furnished  by  the  General  Office.    All  receipts  should  contain  the 
date  when  issued. 

3.  All  names  should  be  written  plainly  with  addresses  com- 
plete. In  many  instances  Magazines  have  been  lost  because  the 
box  number  or  the  R.  F.  D.  has  been  left  off  by  agents  in  sending 
in  addresses,  and  the  mistake  is  not  discovered  until  several 
Magazines  have  miscarried. 

4.  All  Magazine  letters  and  subscription  lists  should  be  ad- 
dressed to  the  Relief  Society  Magazine,  except  articles  and  ma- 
terial for  the  editor,  and  not  to  any  individual.  All  money  orders 
and  checks  sent  in  for  Magazine  subscriptions  should  be  made 
payable  to  the  Relief  Society  Magazine,  and  not  to  any  individual. 

5.  Nothing  but  Magazine  orders  and  letters  pertaining  to 
Magazine  work  should  come  to  the  Relief  Society  Magazine.  All 
other  communications  should  be  addressed  to  the  General  Secre- 
tary, Amy  Brown  Lyman. 

Mrs.  Hyde  expressed  her  great  interest  in  the  business  end 
(if  the  Magazine  work,  and  asked  for  the  co-operat:on  of  all 
Magazine  agents  in  working  for  greater  efficiency  along  business 
lines.  She  took  the  opportunity  to  thank  all  the  stake  officers 
present  for  their  hearty  support  of  the  Magazine  which  has  been 
greatly  appreciated  in  the  General  Office. 

Counselor  Clarissa  S.  Williams  reported  that  the  National 
Council  of  Women  has  recently  held  an  executive  session  in 
Washington.  D.  C.  to  consider  the  advisability  of  offering  the 
help  of  the  women  of  the  Council  to  the  Government  in  connec- 
tion with  the  war.  She  stated  that  Miss  Margaret  Edward,  Pres- 
ident of  the  Relief  Society  in  the  Eastern  States  Mission,  had 
represented  very  ably  the  General  Board  of  the  Rel'ef  Society 
at  this  meeting  where  it  was  decided  to  register  and  tabulate  the 
powers  and  resources  of  the  women  of  all  organizations  belonging 
to  the  Council.  Mrs.  Williams  further  explained  that  the  Relief 
Society  itself  felt  that  a  tabulation  of  the  powers  and  resources 
of  the  women  of  the  organization  would  be  excellent  informaton 
for  our  own  files,  and  to  this  end  letters  on  this  subject  with 
proper  blank  forms  will  soon  be  sent  to  all  stake  presidents  with 
instructions  as  to  the  information  to  be  tabulated. 

The  Baby  Week  campa:gn  was  explained  by  the  speaker. 
She  stated  that  the  General  Boards  of  the  auxiliary  organizations 
of  the  Church,  in  connection  with  other  organizations  are  doing 
what  they  can  to  further  the  work  of  saving  the  babies.  Baby 
Week  this  year  has  been  set  for  May  1st  to  May  6th.  The  purpose 
of  the  campaign  in  general  is  educational,  the  desire  being  to  give 
the  parents  of  the  community  the  opportunity  of  learning  the 
facts  with  regard  to  the  care  of  their  babies  and  the  need  of  con- 
stant effort  and  permanent  work  for  their  welfare  and  protection. 
Stake  officers  were  instructed  to  ask  their  ward  officers  to  join 


330  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

with  other  auxiliary  organizations  to  co-operate  in  making  plans 
for  this  week.  It  is  recommended  that  in  arranging  for  meet- 
ings the  local  officers  should  secure  capable  and  enthusiastic 
speakers  who  will  be  able  to  give  intelligent  and  authentic  advice 
with  regard  to  the  care  of  children.  Mrs.  Williams  said  that 
letters  on  this  subject  would  be  sent  out  immediately  to  stake 
presidents. 

Mrs.  Williams  reported  a  very  successful  year  for  the  Relief 
Society  School  of  Obstetrics  and  Nursing.  Seven  students  from 
the  Obstetrics  class  took  the  State  Medical  Board  examination  and 
all  passed  successfully  and  will  receive  certificates  from  the  Utah 
Medical  Board  which  will  entitle  them  to  practice  Obstetrics  in 
I  rtah. 

The  School  of  Obstetrics  and  Nursing  for  next  year  will 
cpen  in  September.  1017,  to  continue  for  eight  months.  It  was 
explained  that  an  effort  will  be  made  during  the  next  year  to  give 
the  students  in  this  school  opporunity  for  some  pracical  experience 
in  nursing  by  having  each  one  spend  a  few  hours  a  week  in  the 
sirk  room. 

Mrs.  Amy  Brown  Lyman  announced  that  circulars  on  Dress 
and  Dancing  would  be  sent  to  all  the  women  officers  in  the  Church 
in  a  very  short  time,  that  those  going  to  stake  officers  would  l>e 
sent  to  stake  presidents,  an  I  those  going  to  ward  officers  would 
be  sent  through  the  Presiding  Bishop's  Office  to  the  ward  bishops 
for  delivery  to  ward  officers.  Mrs.  Lyman  announced  that  the 
Relief  Society  stake  conferences  which  are  held  in  connection 
with  the  quarterly  conferences  would  begin  in  May  and  continue 
throughout  May.  June  and  July.  Such  conferences  as  are  held 
independent  of  stake  conferences,  (in  the  near-by  stakes)  would 
be  held  in  November.  She  stated  that  conference  dates  with  sug- 
gestive programs  would  be  mailed  out  immediately  to  stake  pres- 
idents. 

Mrs.  W.  W.  Riter  was  given  a  few  minutes  to  speak  upon 
the  work  of  the  Red  Cross.  She  urged  all  members  to  assist  the 
movement  by  joining  the  Sorely,  and  explained  that  the  follow- 
ing day  had  been  set  apart  by  the  Re  1  Cross  for  soliciting  mem- 
berships on  the  street. 

President  Emmelinc  B.  Wells  made  a  few  closing  remarks 
asking  Cod's  blessing  on  the  work  of  the  Relief  Society,  that  all 
the  members  might  be  prospered  in  the  work  which  thev  were 
railed  to  do.  and  that  if  any  should  be  called  to  the  other  side 
before  another  conference,  they  would  die  in  the  Lord. 

After  the  benediction  bv  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Wilcox,  the  con- 
ference was  adjourned  for  six  months. 

The  General  "Board  of  the  Relief  Society  is  verv  grateful 
for  the  splendid  services  of  the  very  capable  ushers  from  the 
Liberty  stake  who  were  instrumental  in  making  everybodv  com- 
fortable, and  in  handling  the  large  crowds  so  efficiently. 


The  Disease  Germ  in  Utah. 

Dr.  Ellen  W.  Osier  had  spent  an  hour  lecturing  to  our  Relief 
Society  on  "disease  germs."  Indeed,  she  had  explained  every 
phase  of  the  subject  so  vividly  that  every  woman  in  the  room  felt 
a  creepy  sensation  up  and  down  her  spinal  column. 

We  now  know  better  than  to  use  cream  with  our  breakfast 
cereals,  unless  we  are  certain  the  milk  has  been  placed  on  the 
stove  and  heated  to  60  degrees  C.  for  twenty  minutes  before  set- 
ting away.  In  fact  we  feel  that  milk,  cream  and  butter  should 
henceforth  be  cancelled  from  our  menus.  It  seems  hard,  how- 
ever, to  discard  good,  cool,  fresh  water,  and  use  only  the  sickly 
stuff  previously  boiled,  but,  if  we  are  to  live  to  the  age  of  a  tree, 
we  know  we  shall  be  obliged  to  do  so. 

We  had  learned  that  it  is  positively  unsafe  to  breathe  the 
air  with  any  other  person  in  the  room.  To  tell  the  truth,  we  were 
all  somewhat  anxious  to  get  out  of  meeting,  for,  we  feared  even 
then  we  were  inhaling  millions  of  tiny  bugs  that  would  multiply 
and  increase  in  our  internal  mechanisms  and  cut  short  our  mortal 
careers. 

You  should  have  seen  the  look  of  terror  in  Myra  Fehringer's 
eyes,  and  how  she  drew  the  shawl  right  over  her  baby's  face  when 
old  Sister  Bently  gave  an  influenzical  sneeze. 

Well,  Dr.  Osier  finished  her  enlightening  discourse,  excused 
herself  on  the  plea  of  another  appointment  and  rustled  out. 

When  the  door  had  closed  on  her  retreating  figure.  Aunt 
Matilda  Peterson  rose  slowly  to  her  feet. 

"Sisters."  she  said.  "I  am  happy  to  say  that  I  arrived  in  Utah 
before  the  disease  germ.  That  is  why,  I  suppose,  I  have  enjoyed 
more  than  seventy  years  of  good  health.  I  have  been  permitted  to 
bring  into  this  world  eleven  robust  sons  and  daughters,  all  of 
whom  also  arrived  in  Utah  before  the  deadly  disease  germ.  Con- 
sequently they  have  all  had  need  of  appendixes  and  tonsils  and 
have  never  found  it  necessary  to  dispense  with  either. 

"As  you  know,  I  was  one  of  the  number  who  walked  across 
the  plains  to  Utah  and  helped  draw  a  handcart  most  of  the  way. 
in  which  was  stored  our  clothing,  bedding  and  eatables.  This 
miscellaneous  freight  would  now  he  considered  unsairtary,  but 
being  before  the  disease  germ  (lay.  we  suffered  no  harm. 

"I  was  young  in  Utah  when  girls  could  chew  each  other's 
gum  with  no  premonition  of  ('anger.  It  was  customary  to  borrow 
or  loan  a  delectable  chew  until  recess,  in  my  school  days ;  but  re- 
member, there  were  then  no  disease  germs  in  these  beautiful 
mountain  vales. 

"But  gum  as  well  as  flour  was  scarce  in  those  days. 


332  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

"Our  lecture  this  afternoon  has  brought  to  my  mind  an  inci- 
dent I  should  like  to  relate. 

"Among  the  articles  of  wearing  apparel  stored  away  m  one 
of  the  handcarts  our  family  drew  across  the  plains,  was  a  pair  of 
rubbers  belonging  to  myself. 

"These  proved  quite  a  luxury,  the  winter  following  our  ar- 
rival in  Utah,  for  they  were  the  only  pair  in  the  settlement  in 
which  we  lived. 

"One  stormy  morning  I  wore  them  to  school.  On  entering 
the  building  I  took  them  off  and  placed  them  near  the  door.  At 
the  noon  intermission,  when  I  went  to  get  my  rubbers,  one  was 
missing.  I  looked  all  around  but  was  unable  to  find  it  and  so 
wore  only  one  rubber  home  to  dinner. 

"Of  course,  my  mother  felt  somewhat  annoyed  at  my  loss  as 
mothers  usually  do,  especially  under  our  circumstances.  But  I 
promised  to  make  a  thorough  search  through  the  afternoon  and 
hurriedly  ate  my  dinner  and  rushed  back  to  school. 

"T  looked  through  our  l'ttle  schoolroom  inside  and  out.  but 
found  no  trace  of  the  missing  rubber. 

"At  length  the  noon  bell  summoned  us  all  to  our  places  again 
rrd  T  was  obliged  to  relinquish  the  search.  Through  the  after- 
noon I  noticed  all  the  boys  and  girls  around  me  chewing  some- 
thing that  had  the  appearance  of  gum ;  had  I  been  less  nrserable 
over  my  loss,  I  might  have  observed  the  merry  side-glances  being 
cast  in  my  direction. 

"At  recess  I  enquired  where  the  supply  of  gum  had  come 
from. 

"A  big,  awkward  fellow,  who  was  in  the  habit  of  showing  me 
extra  courtesies,  answered  my  question  by  slipping  his  hand  into 
his  pocket  and  drawing  out  a  piece  of  rubber,  which  he  generously 
offered  to  me. 

"It  flashed  across  mv  mind  in  a  moment,  my  schoolmates 
were  chewing  my  rubber ! 

"Yes.  it  was  true !  My  precious  rubber  had  been  cut  in 
pieces  and  was  now  serving  my  companions  for  gum. 

"I  have  been  thinking  this  afternoon,  had  this  occurred  in 
this  enlightened  age.  all  the  lads  and  lasses  would  certainly  have 
suffered  from  some  fatal  epidemic. 

"But,  fortunately  it  happened  before  the  arrival  of  the  disease 
rerm  in  Utah,  and  no  one  suffered  anv  inconvenience." 


MOTTOES  ADOPTED  BY  THE  CORRELATION 

COMMITTEE. 

1.  Modesty  in  Dress  and  Dancing. 

2.  Thrift  and  Economy  for  Home  and  Country. 

3.  Spirituality  in  Teaching. 


June  Entertainment. 

By  Morag. 

BEAUTIFUL  JUNE.   SUNSHINY  JUNE. 

"The  earth  and  the  air  are  in  perfect  attune 
Singing-  to  welcome  thee,  beautiful  June." 

June  is  the  month  of  brides,  roses,  strawberries,  and  many 
other  beautiful  things,  and  one  of  the  prettiest  functions  imagi- 
nable is  a  rose  luncheon  and  musical. 

Decorate  the  rooms  with  the  lovely  flowers,  and  for  a  table 
centerpiece  use  a  basket  of  roses,  with  a  longstemmed  rose  with 
name  card  attached  at  each  place.  The  lunch  menu  may  consist 
of: 

Spring  salad  Creamed  chicken  in  pastry  shells 

Green  peas  New  potatoes  Tiny  biscuits 

Strawberries  and  cream  with  lady  fingers,  macaroons  or  wafers. 

Have  a  program  of  "rose"  music.  Some  songs  may  be  "My 
Love  is  Like  a  Red,  Red  Rose,"  "My  Wild  Irish  Rose,"  "Garden 
of  Roses,"  "Roses  and  Lilies,"  "Last  Rose  of  Summer,"  "My 
Rosary,"  "To  a  Wild  Rose,"  etc. 

A  ROSE  GAME. 


Prepare  a  list  for  each  guest. 

Answers  are  names  of  roses. 

1. 

Never    seen     on    a 

rolling 

8. 

A  vegetable. 

stone. 

9. 

A  country. 

2. 

Blooms  on  a  girl's  cheek. 

10. 

One  American's  honor. 

3. 

An  aspiring  rose. 

11. 

A  spicy  rose. 

4. 

A  wanderer. 

12. 

A  beautiful  linen. 

r 

A  beverage. 

13. 

A  perfume. 

6. 

Like  a  popular  book. 

14. 

A  brave  general. 

7. 

What  you  would  do 
burned  yourself. 

if  you 

15. 

An  Irish  Rose. 

ANSWERS. 

1. 

Moss. 

8. 

Cabbage. 

2 

Mar1en  Blush. 

9. 

La  France. 

3. 

Climbing. 

in. 

American  Beauty. 

4. 

Rambler. 

ll. 

C'nnamon. 

5. 

Tea. 

12. 

Damask. 

t>. 

Fed. 

13. 

Musk. 

7. 

Yellow    (Yell  oh). 

14. 
15. 

Marechal  Neil. 
Killarney. 

334  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

FLAG  DAY. 

One  of  our  newer  holidays  occurs  on  June  14,  and  is  cele- 
brated as  Flag  Day.  On  this  day  Old  Glory  is  displayed  on  all 
public  buildings  and  schools,  and  in  many  places  patriotic  exer- 
cises are  held.  The  hostess  who  entertains  on  this  occasion  can 
use  a  red,  white  and  blue  color  scheme  with  our  beloved  stars  and 
stripes  in  evidence  among  the  decorations.  Flower  combinations 
are  red.  white  and  blue  sweet  peas  or  scarlet  geraniums,  with 
blue  and  white  larkspur.  It  is  a  good  time  to  hold  a  children's 
party.  It  may  be  held  on  a  flag  decorated  porch,  or  on  the  lawn. 
Make  the  children  realize  what  the  flag  means  to  them.  Let  some 
one  tell  the  story  of  Betsy  Ross  and  the  first  American  Flag,  and 
of  Barbara  Fritchie. 

A  good  story  to  relate  is  'The  Man  Without  a  Country,"  by 
Edward  Everett  Hale.  Have  a  program  of  patriotic  songs,  chil- 
dren love  to  sing  them.  Have  a  flag  race.  This  is  like  the  old 
potato  race,  using  flags  instead  of  potatoes.  The  prize  may  be 
a  silk  flag  to  be  hung  in  the  room  of  the  winner. 

Serve  ice  cream  with  a  flag  stuck  in  the  center  and  small 
cakes. 

Here  is  the  oath  or  pledge  of  allegiance  used  in  the  public 
schools.    Stand  at  salute  and  repeat : 

"I  pledge  allegiance  to  the  flag  and  to  the  Republic  for  which 
it  stands,  one  nation  indivisible — with  libertv  and  justice  for  all." 


In  this  month  the  great  outdoor  beckons  us,  and  lawn  parties, 
picnics,  auto  rides,  canyon  and  lake  trips  are  in  order.  Remember 
to  have  these  affairs  properly  chaperoned,  or,  better  still,  go  in 
family  groups.  For  a  change  try  a  sunrise  party,  meet  at  five  a. 
ni.,  watch  the  sunrise,  listen  to  the  song  of  the  early  birds,  then 
serve  a  dainty  breakfast  on  the  screened  porch. 

For  the  Home  Evening  there  are  two  special  events  which 
may  be  celebrated.  One  occurs  on  June  1st  when  the  great 
leader  of  modern  Israel.  Brigham  Young,  was  born. 

An  evening  might  be  spent  in  considering  his  wonderful 
life  and  achievements. 

On  June  27  the  anniversary  of  the  martyrdom  of  the  Prophet 
Joseph  and  his  brother  Ilyrum.  On  this  evening  a  program  de- 
voted to  the  lives  and  labors  of  these  great  leaders  may  be  ar- 
ranged. 


Pin  Money  Suggestions. 

By  Morag. 

A  woman  who  wishes  to  make  money  at  home  should  first 
consider  her  aptitude  for  certain  lines  of  work,  her  strength,  the 
amount  of  time  she  can  spare  from  her  home  duties,  also  her 
surroundings  and  the  needs  and  purses  of  her  neighbors.  In  these 
•days,  when  living  expenses  are  so  high,  many  of  our  women  would 
gladly  earn  a  little  pin  money  and  supplement  the  family  income 
or  make  possible  a  course  of  study,  a  much  desired  trip,  or  .do 
some  of  the  many  little  things  which  bring  so  much  pleasure  into 
our  daily  lives.  To  the  woman  who  lives  in  the  city  or  large 
town  there  are  many  ways  of  adding  to  the  family  expense  fund. 
Home  cooking  always  pays  and  the  woman  who  likes  to  cook  has 
the  path  to  success  open  before  her.  Among  the  things  which 
would  find  a  ready  market  are  whole  wheat  bread,  nut  brown 
bread,  raisin  bread,  doughnuts,  cakes  of  various  kinds,  potato 
chips,  orange  marmalade,  and  many  others. 

If  you  live  near  a  factory  or  large  office  building,  fifteen  and 
twenty-five  cent  lunches  might  be  served. 

A  really  good  cook  can  usually  find  a  ready  market  for  cook- 
ing, if  she  will  let  it  be  known  that  it  is  for  sale.  Home  made 
candy  and  confectionery  are  also  in  demand.  Many  women  who 
are  fond  of  fancy  work  do  not  care  for  plain  sewing,  and  a 
woman  with  a  genius  for  plain  sewing  could  earn  a  good  living 
by  making  tailored  shirt  waists,  large  aprons,  rompers  for  chil- 
dren and  plain  dresses  and  aprons  for  school  girls,  also  middy 
waists. 

Materials  must  be  purchased  wholesale  and  several  garments 
cut  at  one  time. 

A  nice  little  sum  may  be  earned  in  making  complete  infants 
layettes.  Making  sunbonnets,  and  boudoir  and  sweeping  caps  is 
another  practical  suggestion. 

If  you  own  a  good  vacuum  cleaner  you  can  rent  it  to  your 
neighbors  at  so  much  per  .day. 

Shopping  on  commission  for  one's  friends  in  the  country 
might  bring  in  a  little.  You  can  take  advantage  of  all  special 
sales,  etc.  A  holiday  sale  of  Christmas  presents  would  be  suc- 
cessful if  you  make  practical  things,  such  as  dainty  corset  covers, 
kimonas,  bags  of  various  kinds,  bureau  scarfs  and  trimmings, 
also  handkerchiefs.  Invite  your  friends,  serve  chocolate  and  small 
cakes ;  arrange  your  things  to  the  best  possible  advantage  and  you 
will  find  a  ready  sale.     The  women  of  rural  communities  have 


336  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

many  opportunities  for  earning  some  pin  money.  Some  farm 
women  make  a  good  living  by  supplying  their  city  friends  with 
vegetables,  fruit,  and  eggs  sent  by  parcel  post.  Dried  fruit  and 
corn  is  in  great  demand,  also  home  made  jams,  jellies,  and  pickles. 
There  is  also  quite  a  demand  in  early  spring  for  day  old  chicks ; 
many  people  in  town  prefer  to  buy  them  that  way,  and  if  you  are 
succcessful  in  running  an  incubator  and  are  careful  in  packing, 
and  shipping  the  chicks  you  can  earn  a  reasonable  profit.  If  you 
are  the  fortunate  owner  of  a  small  greenhouse  or  a  few  good  hot- 
beds, raise  tomato,  cabbage  and  celery  plants,  also  some  flowers 
such  as  stocks,  asters,  verbenas,  snapdragons,  and'others.  Among 
the  cut  flowers  which  find  a  quick  sale,  are  peonies  and  Iris  (for 
Decoration  day),  asters,  gladioli,  and  sweet  peas.  These  should 
all  be  picked  overnight  and  kept  in  water  before  they  are  sold  or 
packed  for  shipment.  If  you  are  successful  in  raising  house 
plants  you  might  root  cuttings  of  geranium,  begonia  and  others 
in  small  pots  in  the  late  fall.  These  will  sell  readily  in  the  early 
spring  for  fifteen  cents  each.  Other  choice  varieties  may  be  raised 
from  seed  as  asparagus,  plumose,  cineraria,  coleus  and  primroses. 

If  you  have  a  good  warm  cellar  start  a  number  of  bulbs, 
hyacinths,  narcissus,  Easter  lilies,  tulips  and  daffodils. 

These  are  planted  during  October  and  November  and  are 
kept  in  the  cellar  from  eight  to  twelve  weeks,  then  brought  gradu- 
ally to  the  light.  They  will  find  a  ready  sale  in  early  spring.  A 
large  number  of  dry  bulbs  may  be  sold  in  early  fall  among  your 
friends  and  a  small  profit  made. 

Christmas  greens  find  a  good  market  in  the  city  and  these 
may  be  gathered  and  kept  for  some  weeks  beforehand.  There  are 
many  other  ways  of  earning  money  on  the  farm  which  will 
readily  suggest  themselves,  as  raising  chickens,  squabs,  turkeys, 
ducks  and  geese  as  well  as  home  cured  meat  and  honey. 

We  all  like  to  earn  and  spend  our  own  money,  and  as  we 
need  so  much  extra  at  some  times  of  the  year  when  our  Magazine 
and  Journal  subscriptions  fall  due,  with  Christmas  coming  and 
lots  of  extra  things  to  buy,  so  the  writer  hopes  that  among  these 
suggestions  you  may  find  one  which  will  prove  a  benefit  to  you, 
and  wishes  you  all  success  in  whatever  vou  undertake. 


BIBLE  LESSONS  EOR  JULY. 

"I  will  mediate  in  thy  precepts.    I  will  not  forget  thy  word." 
For  the  thirtv-one  davs  read:    Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sec- 
tions 58-98. 


Evolution  of  the  American  Flag 

By  A.  B.  L. 

The  idea  of  a  national  flag  is,  by  no  means,  a  modern  one. 
The  primitive  peoples  of  the  earth  all  had  symbols  or  emblems  of 
some  sort,  which  they  chose  for  sentimental  reasons,  and  which 
they  raised  aloft  in  time  of  festivity,  and  in  times  of  war.  Each 
tribe  had  its  own  emblem,  just  as  each  nation  of  today  has  its 
own  flag;  and  before  the  manufacture  of  cloth,  these  standards 
consisted  of  carved  wooden  objects  attached  to  poles  or  staves. 

America  was  colonized  under  several  flags.  Each  group  of 
settlers  used  the  flag  of  its  mother  country,  and  from  the  various 
colonies  might  have  been  seen,  waving  in  the  breeze,  the  English, 
Swedish,  Dutch  and  Spanish  flags,  respectively. 

The  majority  of  the  early  settlers  of  America  were  English, 
and  for  many  years,  the  English  flag  (a  red  flag  with  the  union 
jack  in  the  corner)  was  used  by  them.  However,  as  the  colonists 
grew  apart  from  the  mother  country,  modifications  of  the  English 
flag  appeared  here  and  there,  and  when  the  Stamp  Act  was  passed 
by  the  English  government,  in  1765,  there  was  a  general  outbreak 
of  special  flags. 

These  special  flags  were  patterned  after  the  British  flag. 
They  were  red  and  white  in  color,  and  most  of  them  contained  the 
cross  of  St.  George,  but  special  devices  or  features  were  added 
to  them.  The  New  England  colonists  used  a  pine  tree,  the  South 
ern  colonists  a  rattle  snake,  and  Rhode  Island,  an  anchor.  Many 
of  the  flags  contained  mottoes  expressing  the  indignation  of 
the  colonists. 

There  was  no  attempt  in  the  very  beginning  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary war  to  adopt  a  uniform  flag,  and  these  various  devices 
were  used ;  but  after  a  few  months  of  the  war,  it  was  decided 
that  a  uniform  flag  was  not  only  desirable,  but  was  also  necessary. 

In  December,  1775,  a  committee  was  appointed,  with  Ben- 
jamin Franklin  as  chairman,  to  look  after  several  matters  pertain- 
ing to  the  war,  among  which  was  the  consideration  of  the  adop- 
tion of  a  uniform  flag.  In  the  report  from  this  committee,  no 
mention  was  made  of  the  flag,  but  there  must  have  been  some 
recommendation  with  regard  to  it,  for  in  January,  1776,  General 
Washington  hoisted  over  his  headquarters,  in  Cambridge,  the  new 
continental  flag.  This  new  flag  was  very  much  like  the  British 
ensign;  it  had  the  union  jack  in  the  corner,  but  instead  of  the 
solid  red  of  the  English  flag,  red  and  white  stripes  were  used, 
^he  thirteen  stripes  represented  the  thirteen  colonies,  but  the 
union  jack  recognized  the  sovereignty  of  England. 


118  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

The  origin  of  the  stripes  is  not  agreed  upon — there  arc  two 
theories:     First,   that    the   idea   was   borrowed    from   the    Dutch 
flag  ;  second,  that  it  was  taken  from  the  coat  of  arms  of  the  Wash 
ington  family!    The  continental  flag  was  used  about  one  and  one 
half  years. 

In  June,  177<>.  six  months  alter  the  Continental  flag  was  first 
used,  it  ua>  decided  that  in  view  of  the  impending  Declaration 
of  Independence,  a  change  should  be  made  in  the  flag.  The  reso- 
lution which  was  passed,  making  the  change  .possible,  was  as  fol- 
lows : 

Resolved:  That  the  flag  of  the  United  States  be  thirteen 
stripes,  alternated  red  and  white,  that  the  union  be  thirteen  stars 
■—white,  in  a  blue  field,  representing  the  new  constellation. 

In  June.  1777.  this  flag  was  adopted  by  the  Continental  con- 
gress. 

The  credit  of  making  the  first  American  flag,  combining  the 
Stars  and  stripes,  is  uniformly  given  to  Mrs.  Betsey  Ros  .  of 
Philadelphia.  Mrs.  Ross  was  a  young  widow,  whose  husband 
had  been  killed  in  an  accidental  explosion  of  military  stores.  She- 
was  a  fine  seamstress,  and  when  it  was  learned  by  her  friends 
that  she  had  decided  to  take  up  sewing  as  a  vocation,  she  was 
eagerly  sought  after  by  those  who  desired  to  have  expert  needle 
work  done.  Mrs.  Ross  sewed  for  the  Washington  family,  and 
for  George  Washington,  personally,  making  his  fine  shirts  and 
embroidered  ruffles.  It  was,  therefore,  only  natural  that  when 
General  Washington  was  looking  for  some  one  to  put  together 
the  first  flag,  he  should  turn  to  Betsey  Ross. 

According  to  the  story,  General  Washington  rode  up  to  Mrs. 
Ross's  modest  little  house,  on  horseback,  and  presented  to  her  a 
rough  drawing  of  the  flag,  which  he  explained  to  her.  Mrs.  Ross 
objected  to  the  six  pointed  star  in  the  design,  and  suggested  that 
it  be  changed  to  five  pointed  star.  She  folded  up  a  piece  of  paper, 
and  with  a  single  cl:p  of  her  scissors,  produced  a  perfect  five 
pointed  star.  Her  suggestion  was  accepted,  and  the  sketch  was 
redrawn  by  Washington.  „ 

Mrs.  Ross  was  employed  a  number  of  years  making  flags  for 
the  government,  and  after  her  death,  her  daughter  continued  in 
the  business. 

The  little  house  in  Philadelphia,  where  the  first  flag  was 
made,  has  been  purchased  by  an  association  known  as  the  Betsey 
Ross  Memorial  Association.  Funds  were  raised  for  the  purpose 
by  soliciting  from  donors — only  ten  cents  each.  Subscriptions 
came  in  from  every  state  in  the  Union,  and  from  many  foreign 
countries.  The  building  has  been  turned  over  to  the  Federal 
Government,  as  a  historical  shrine,  and  all  visitors  to  Philadelphia 
make  it  a  point  to  call  at  this  very  interesting  house,  and  to  sit 


EVOLUTION  OF  THE  AMERICAN  FLAG,  339 

in  the  dingy  back  room  where  it  is  supposed  that  Betsey  Ross  sat 
while  doing  this  piece  of  very  important  work. 

The  stars  in  the  first  flag  were  placed  in  a  circle,  but  as  the 
number  of  states  increased,  they  were  placed  in  rows.  At  the 
present  time,  there  are  six  rows  of  stars,  with  eight  in  each  row — 
forty-eight  in  all,  to  represent  the  forty-eight  states  of  our  great 
republic. 

Thus,  we  see  that  the  American  flag  of  today  is  a  growth 
rather  than  a  creation. 

In  a  toast  on  the  American  flag,  given  by  George  Washing- 
ton, at  the  time  of  its  adoption,  he  said  :  "We  take  the  stars  from 
Heaven,  the  red  from  our  Mother  Country,  separating  it  by  white 
stripes,  thus  showing  that  we  have  separated  from  her,  and  the 
white  stripes-  shall  go  down  to  posterity,  representing  liberty." 

Salute  to  the  Flag:  /  pledge  my  allegiance  to  the  Hag  and 
lo  the  Republic  for  which  it  stands — one  Nation  indivisible,  zvith 
liberty  and  justice  for  all. 


COMMON  SENSE. 

Longfellow  could  take  a  worthless  piece  of  paper,  write  a 
poem  on  it  and  make  it  worth  sixty-five  dollars — that's  genius. 

There  are  some  men  who  could  write  a  few  words  on  a  piece 
of  paper  and  make  it  worth  eight  million  dollars — that's  capital. 

The  United  States  can  take  an  ounce  and  a  quarter  of  gold 
and  can  make  it  worthy  twenty  dollars — that's  money. 

A  mechanic  can  take  material  worth  five  dollars,  and  make 
it  into  watch-springs  worth  one  thousand  dollars — that's  skill. 

There  is  a  man  in  Boston  who  can  take  a  fifty-cent  piece  of 
canvas,  paint  a  picture  on  it  and  make  it  worth  one  thousand  dol- 
lars— that's  art. 

A  tinsmith  can  take  an  article  worth  seventy-five  cents  and 
sell  it  for  one  dollar — that's  business. 

A  woman  could  purchase  a  hat  for  seventy-five  cents,  but 
prefers  one  worth  twenty-seven  dollars — that's  foolishness. 

A  ditch-digger  handles  several  tons  of  earth  for  one  dollar 
and  fifty  cents  a  day — that's  labor. 

The  author  of  this  can  write  a  check  for  nine  million  dollars 
but  it  wouldn't  be  worth  a  dime — that's  rough. 

There  are  people  who  will  tell  you  that  other  magazines  are 
as  good  as  this — that's  nerve. 

You  can  take  a  sheet  of  paper,  sign  your  name  and  send  it 
to  us  for  a  subscription — that's  common  sense, 


Home  Science   Department. 

By  Janette  A.  Hyde. 

UP-TO-DATE  COOKERY. 

Women  have  been  chained  so  long  to  kitchen  stoves  with 
ball  attachment  to  the  pantry  and  dining  room,  half  a  mile  distant, 
that  habit  and  tradition  have  made  slaves  of  them  in  very 
deed  to  cooking  and  cleaning;  but  here  and  there  a  woman  rises 
up  in  meeting  and  asks  science  and  discovery  to  free  her  from 
her  age-long  shackles.  The  answer  has  been  a  long  while  in 
coming,  but  it  is  arriving  on  the  electric  train. 

With  a  view  of  ascertaining  the  availability  and  desirability 
of  the  new  methods  of  cookery  now  devised  by  both  the  electric- 
companies  and  the  gas  compames  of  this  region,  the  editor  and 
business  manager  of  the  Magazine  agreed  to  test  the  new  electric 
stove  with  a  fireless  cooker  oven  attachment,  and  the  gas  stove 
also  with  a  fireless  cooker  attachment,  in  their  own  homes.  More- 
over, the  Home  Science  department  arranged  demonstrations  al 
the  late  conference  where  the  representatives  of  this  Society 
might  see  for  themselves  what  could  be  done  when  men  set  their 
wits  to  work  for  women.  The  result  was  highly  satisfactory  in 
both  cases. 

THE  ELECTRIC  STOVE. 

The  editor  of  the  Magazine  replaced  an  excellent  gas  stove 
for  an  electric  stove,  about  two  months  ago.  She  had  used  for 
over  eight  years  the  fireless  cooker  with  the  iron  discs  for  sup- 
plementary cooking,  and  found  it  very  excellent  indeed  ;  only  the 
discs  had  always  to  be  heated  up;  so  that  the  electric  stove  which 
carried  a  fireless  cooker  made  an  instant  appeal  to  her.  With  a 
sincere  desire  to  persuade  all  women  that  their  time  and  strength 
are  financial  assets  in  the  business  of  home  making,  the  editor  has 
undertaken  manv  tests  with  her  new  electric  stove.    She  reports. 


1. 

2. 

Extreme  simplicity  of  arrangement. 
Cleanliness. 

3. 

4. 

Frying. 

Roiling. 

Baking. 

Roasting. 
Fireless  Cooker  Oven. 
The  cost. 

Simplicity. — The  ease  with  which  the  switch   is  turned  and 
the  heat  generated  does  away  even  with  the  slight  labor  of  strik- 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT. 


341 


ing  a  match.  All  of  the  surface  burners  which  are  used  for  boil- 
ing or  frying  have  three  heat  degrees :  hot,  medium  and  low 
heats.  The  central  disc  which  has  extra  coils,  fries  meat  per- 
fectly— indeed  too  rapidly,  unless  watched  very  carefully.  A  turn 
of  the  switch,  however,  reduces  the  heat.  The  clock  attachment 
foi  the  ovens  is  most  admirable  in  its  simplicity.  Meat,  bread, 
puddings  and  cereals  can  be  set  in  the  oven  hours  before  needed, 
and  the  clock  set  at  the  hour  when  the  food  is  to  begin  cooking. 
The  clock  starts  the  oven  to  heating  at  the  proper  time  and  then 
when  the  heat  of  the  oven  has  reached  a  certain  point  it  is  at  once 
turned  off  automatically  and  the  heat  is  retained  in  the  oven 
for  hours,  through  the  fireless  cooker  principle. 

Cleanliness. — The    cleanliness    of    the    stove    is    beyond    re- 


ELECTRIC  STOVE,  WITH   FIRELESS  COOKER  OVEN. 

proach, — no  soot,  grease  nor  black  accumulations ;  sauce  pans  are 
as  clean  outside  as  inside  after  two  months'  use ;  no  soot  accumu- 
lates on  the  walls,  and  the  stove  is  always  clean,  unless  food  is 
spilled  over  it. 

Frying. — Frying  may  be  done  rapidly  either  in  the  oven 
or  on  top  of  the  stove.  Fish  and  griddle-cakes  which  require  a 
lower  temperature  can  be  cooked  with  the  medium  heat  without 
burning  at  all. 

Boiling. — You  can  boil  rapidly,  or  stew,  or  keep  things  just 
nicely  hot  on  these  upper  discs.  A  steam  cooker  can  be  placed 
on  the  disc  and  the  water  kept  at  boiling  point  all  day  without 
watching  or  replenishing  through  regulation  of  the  switch. 

Baking  and  Roasting. — The  baking  oven  is  as  near  perfect 


342 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 


as  human  ingenuity  can  devise.  A  thermometer  regulates  the 
exact  heat  to  be  attained  for  the  baking  of  bread  or  the  baking 
of  roast  meat  or  the  baking  of  biscuits,  and  if  directions  are  fol- 
lowed each  article  comes  out  absolutely  perfect  as  to  crust  and 
quality.  Meat  baked  in  this  way  loses  none  of  its  juice  and  flavor 
and  the  crisp,  brown  crust  formed  over  the  meat  is  attractive  to 
the  eye  and  delicious  to  the  taste.  So  long  does  the  oven  retain 
heat  that  you  can  roast  your  meat  and  potatoes,  then  put  in  your 
bread  ;  with  one  extra  degree  of  heat  added  your  bread  will  bake 
and  when  that  comes  out  you  can  put  in  cereal  with  the  same 
heat  which  will  be  found  cooked  in  the  morning  and  still  warm. 

The  Firelcss  Cooker  Oven. — Some  of  the  stoves — the  editor's 
in  particular — have  small  ovens  which  are  designed  for  slow  boil- 
ing. All  kinds  of  vegetables  can  be  cooked  perfectly  in  these 
ovens.  Meat  can  be  stewed,  and  dried  fruit  is  cooked  to  a  mellow 
consistency  without  breaking  the  fruit  or  loosing  the  flavor. 

The  Cost. — Special  wires  are  put  into  the  house  for  the  stove 
and  to  this  can  be  attached  the  flatiron  and  toaster  and  thus  the 
cost  of  lighting  the  house  and  cooking  is  considerably  less  than 
lighting  the  bouse  and  cooking  with  gas.    Of  course,  in  most  «)f 


ELECTRIC    HEATER   AND  QUICK   OVENS. 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT.  343 

homes  cooking  is  done  on  a  range  which  heats  the  water  jacket 
and  warms  the  kitchen,  but  with  a  small  stove  which  can  be  pur- 
chased for  about  $12  to  heat  the  water  jacket  and  warm  the 
kitchen,  the  electric  stove  can  be  used  perfectly  all  winter  long, 
for  the  little  kitchen  stove  will  d,o  most  of  the  boiling  and  the 
electric  stove  can  be  set  up  in  the  pantry,  thus  making  a  kitchen- 
ette and  then  turn  the  dreaded  kitchen  into  the  family  sitting 
room.  All  in  all,  the  electric  stove  is  an  absolute  necessity  to  the 
woman  who  would  save  time  and  strength  to  spend  in  acquiring 
knowledge,  working  in  the  temple,  and  in  preparing  herself  for 
larger  usefulness  at  home  and  abroad. 

I  have  found  in  the  newly  constructed  gas  cooker,  the  very 
thing-  for  which  I  have  been  searching  for  the  past  ten  years — 
namely,  a  device  self-heated,  without  the  ordeal  of  creating  some 
kind  of  extra  heat  for  making  ready  the  discs  used  in  the  ordi- 
nary fireless  cooker.  Every  one  knows  the  value  of  a  good  gas 
stove.  The  new  stove  has  a  fireless  cooker  oven  and  it  is  of 
this  feature  that  I  speak. 


GAS   BROILER  AND  QUICK  OVEN. 

The  oven  is  one  of  the  most  economical  labor  saving  devices 
used  in  the  kitchen,  today.  The  Gas  Fireless  Oven,  with  its  as- 
bestos and  mineral  wool-lined  walls  covered  with  enameled  metal 
surface  is  practically  rust  proof  as  well  as  holding  the  heat  for 
from  9  to  15  hours,  sufficiently  long  to  cook  the  toughest  meat, 
and  render  it  delicious  and  tender. 

The  range  is  beautifully  constructed  and  very  easy  to  keep 
dean,  and  is  as  ornamental  as  it  is  useful.  On  account  of  the 
thickness  of  the  walls  and  the  lining,  it  may  require  a  greater 
amount  of  time  for  heating  than  the  thin  sheet  metal,  old  style  gas 


344 


RELIEF  SOCIETY    MAGAZINE. 


stoves,  but  it  also  has  the  great  advantage  of  holding  the  heat 
to  almost  a  triple  amount  of  time  that  the  thinner  grades  of 
ranges   do. 

Time-Saver. — The  greatest  advantage  to  be  gained  by  the 
use  of  the  Gas  Fireless  Cooker  is  the  time,  as  well  as  the  extra 
heat  saved  in  the  preparation  of  a  meal.  For  instance,  if  you  wish 
to  bake  bread  at  the  noon  hour,  while  getting  your  lunch,  it  may 
he  placed  in  the  oven  with  the  meat,  vegetables,  pudding  or  any 


GAS  STOVE  WITH    FIRELESS   II  RAT-HOLDER,  WITH  QUICK  OVEN. 

desert  desired  for  the  noon  meal,  and  all  is  cooked  with  the  same 
beat  that  would  be  required  to  bake  the  bread  or  cook  any  one 
article  of  food  which  is  used  in  the  ordinary  lunch  course. 

Heat  Conserved. — The  heat  is  turned  on  and  left  to  reach 
the  point  of  about  450  degrees,  which  is  indicated  on  the  oven  by 
a  heat  dial  on  the  outside.  The  food,  having  been  prepared,  is 
placed  in  the  oven ;  at  the  same  time,  the  heat  is  turned  off,  and 
the  food  is  left  to  cook  itself  without  burning  or  being  spoiled  in 
any  way.  It  is  so  simple  to  operate  that  after  a  child  has  been 
instructed  how  to  use  this  Fireless  Cooker,  she  can  do  so  without 
the  least  bit  of  danger  or  fear. 

On  one  occasion,  I  baked  five  loaves  of  bread,  a  nice  pan  of 
poato  au  gratin,  a  bread  pudding,  and  creamed  cabbage  all  with 
the  same  heat.    After  the  gas  was  turned  off,  T  went  down  town 


HOME  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT.  345 

and  stayed  for  four  hours,  and  returned  home  to  find  everything 
perfectly  cooked — not  over-cooked — and  steaming  hot — just  ready 
to  be  served.  It  seems  to  me  that  the  great  problem  of  the 
house-wife  has  been  solved ;  she  can  go  and  do  her  errands,  do 
her  shopping,  and  attend  to  Relief  Society  meeting,  while  her 
meal  cooks  perfectly  at  home,'  and  she  can  feel  upon  her  ar- 
rival, just  about  meal  time,  that  all  of  the  hungry  mouths  wait- 
ing at  home  to  be  fed  can  be  just  as  well  taken  care  of  and  sup- 
plied with  properly  cooked  food,  as  if  she  had  been  there  stir- 
ring, mixing,  shoveling  coal,  and  watching  over  things,  as  must 
be  done  with  the  ordinary  coal  stove  or  range. 

I  hope  the  day  will  come,  when  the  women  of  our  Church 
and  nation  will  seize  the  opportunity  to  use  the  new  inventions 
and  appliances,  such  as  electric  and  gas  stoves  and  irons,  that  they 
may  have  more  time  for  educational  and  cultural  purposes. 
Wherever  there  is  gas  in  a  community,  we  trust  that  the  sisters 
will  seize  the  opportunity  to  have  the  same  installed  in  their 
homes,  that  they  may  receive  the  benefit  of  this  perfect  heat  and 
light  system.  Afer  all,  it  serves  another  purpose,  it  is  much 
cleaner  and  not  so  expensive  as  a  coal  range.  We  find  it  so  in 
our  locality  here  in  Salt  Lake  City. 

Hence,  we  recommend  a  thorough  investigation,  as  well  as  a 
liberal  trial  of  this  quicker,  cleaner,  cheaper  heat  and  light  fuel. 

RECIPES. 

DTSHES     PREPARED     FOR     DEMONSTRATION     ON     GAS     RANGE     BEFORE 
WOMAN'S  RELIEF  SOCIETY. 

Cream  of  Corn  Soup.  By"  Louise  Palmer  Weber. 

1  cup  corn. 
1  tablespoon  butter. 
1  teaspoon  salt. 
1   teaspoon  sugar. 
1  tablespoon  minced  onion. 
]/%  teaspoon  pepper. 

1  quart  of  milk. 

Place  butter  in  steaw  pan — aluminum  or  enameled,  and  when 
melted,  ad.d  onion,  then  corn  and  seasonings.  When  well  heated, 
add  milk.    Serve  when  the  boiling  point  is  reached. 

Escallop ed  potatoes. 

6  medium-sized  potatoes. 
3  onions. 

2  tablespoons  flour,  salt,  pepper  or  paprika,  enough  milk  to 
cover. 

Slice  the  potatoes  and  onions,  then  butter  a  baking  dish  or 
a  casserole  well.  Place  a  layer  of  sliced  potatoes,  a  layer  of  sliced 


346  RELIEF  SOCIETY  \UGAZ1NE. 

onion,  sprinkle  a  little  Hour,  salt,  pepper,  then  the  potatoes, 
etc.,  again,  until  all  are  used.  Pour  milk  over  and  hake  in  a  h<»i 
oven  about  45  minutes  <>r  an  hour. 

Broiled  Steak. 

Select  a  T-hone  steak  or  a  "3rd  cut"  sirloin.  Turn  on  hoth 
burners  of  gas  range  oven  and  place  steak  in  hroiler.  When  a 
light  "gray"  in  color,  turn,  and  when  this  side  is  "gray"  turn 
again  ;  lower  the  steak  in  hroiler  and  turn  from  time  to  time, 
lower  the  flame  after  the  first  six  minutes.  A  three  pound  steak- 
will  broil  perfectly  in  is  minutes. 
Cabbage  Salad. 

Cream  dressing — shred  cabbage  and  a  small  onion.  Place  hoth 
cabbage  and  onion  in  a  large  howl,  add  2  tablespoons  sugar,  1 
teaspoon  salt,  one-eighth  teaspoon  paprika,  1  teaspoon  celery  seed. 
Combine  well  and  add  the  following  dressing:  1  cup  cream.  1 
tablespoon  sugar.  1  tablespoon  vinegar,  yolk  of  one  egg. 

Beat  the  egg  yolk  until  thick  and  lemon  colored.    Add  sugar 
then  cream  and  vinegar  last.     Combine  with  cabbage.     Serve  in 
green  pepper  "cases"  or  orange  baskets,  or  with  a  slice  of  orange 
as  a  garnish. 
Tea  Biscuits. 

Cream  one-eighth  pound  butter,  add  1  tablespoon  sugar,  1 
tablespoon  salt,  and  alternately  3-4  cup  of  milk  and  3  cups  of 
flour,  having  sifted  2  teaspoons  of  baking  powder  with  the  flour. 
Mix  well;  turn  on  a  floured  board,  pat,  and  cut  with  a  small 
biscuit  cutter.  Brush  the  top  of  each  biscuit  with  milk  or  place  a 
small  piece  of  butter  on  each  one — a  little  salt  may  be  added  to  the 
top  of  each  biscuit.  Bake  in  a  hot  oven.  These  biscuits  may  be 
cut  in  squares  or  in  "fingers,"  and  may  be  used  as  a  basis  for  any 
of  the  fruit  short  cakes. 
Wonder  Pudding. 

Whites  of  6  eggs  beaten  stiff  and  dry,  add  one  anil  one- 
fourth  cups  granulated  sugar.  Continue  beating  with  dover 
beater,  add  one  tablespoon  gelatine,  dissolved  first  in  cold  water, 
then  liquified  over  hot  water.  Separate  into  three  parts — flavor 
each  and  color — add  chopped  pecan  meats  to  one  candied  fruit 
chopped  to  another — and  sprinkle  chopped  nuts  over  the  top  of 
pudding.  Mold  in  a  well  buttered  mold,  and  cut  with  a  knife 
when  ready  to  serve.  The  coloring,  nuts,  and  candied  fruits  may 
be  omitted  if  desired. 
Toad  in  the  Hole. 

Place  carrots,  well  scraped  and  quartered,  in  the  bottom  of 
a  large  casserole,  place  a  layer  of  parsnips  on  the  carrots,  then 
turnips,  then  onions,  lastly  cakes  of  Hamburg  steak,  well  sea- 
soned. Add  salt,  pepper,  and  sprig  of  water  cress.  Cover  tightly 
and  hake  in  medium  oven  about  two  hours. 


Current  Topics. 

James  H.  Anderson. 


In  Russia,  under  the  new  form  of  government;  women  and 
>men  are  to  have  equal  elective  franchise  privileges. 

119  ships  in  American  ports  were  taken  over  by  the  United 
States  at  the  breaking'  off  of  relations  with  Germany  and  Austria, 
in  April. 


Aliens  from  either  Germany,  Austria,  Bulgaria  or  Turkey, 
in  the  United  States,  have  been  required  to  surrender  all  war 
weapons  until  peace  is  declared. 


Congress  passed  a  law  for  a  seven-billion  dollar  bond  issue, 
and  the  same  week  the  U.  S.  Government  loaned  Great  Britain 
two  hundred  million  dollars  to  aid  in  the  war. 


Austria,  then  Turkey,  broke  with  the  United  States  when 
the  latter  announced  a  state  of  war  with  Germany,  though  there 
was  no  real  necessity  therefor  except  to  comply  with  German 
wishes. 


Special  commissions  of  high  dignitaries  came  from  Great 
Britain,  France  and  Italy  to  the  United  States,  during  April,  to 
confer  with  the  administration  here  relative  to  the  conduct  of 
the  war. 


The  first  U-slrmarine  sunk  by  an  American  boat  was  that 
to  which  one  shot  from  the  Mongolia,  an  armed  freight  ship, 
brought  final  disaster,  while  the  submarine  was  maneuvering  to 
torpedo  the  great  liner. 


The  U.  S.  agricultural  department  has  issued  a  series  of 
bulletins  on  "how  to  grow  potatoes,"  while  numbers  of  farmers 
have  replied,  asking  the  experts  to  demonstrate  their  theories 
by  actual  farm  work. 


Bread  prices  in  Salt  Lake  City  in  April  reached  fifteen  cents 
per  pound-and-a-qnarter  loaf,  or  twelve  cents  per  pound  ;  in  Lon- 
don, England,  it  was  lid.  per  four-pound  loaf,  or  five  and  one- 
half  cents  per  pound — both  loaves  made  from  American  flour. 


348  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

Mexico  might  have  been  a  good  base  for  Germany  to  make 
<;n  advance  into  the  United  States,  if  it  were  not  the  fact  that  the 
British  fleet  prevents  the  Germans  from  getting  into  Mexico  with 
any  considerable  force. 


An  incendiary  fire  and  explosion  at  Eddystone,  Pa.,  caused 
the  destruction  of  a  big  munitions  plant  there,  the  loss  of  112 
lives  and  the  injury  of  121  other  persons,  in  April,  as  the  first 
5-erious  event  in  this  country  following  the  declaration  of  war 
with  Germany. 


Norway  fears  to  cease  selling  nickel  to  Germany  lest  the 
latter  will  make  an  attack  on  the  basis  of  Norway's  being  un- 
neutral. At  the  same  time,  the  nickel  is  used  in  making  torpedoes 
with  which  420  Norwegian  ships  already  have  been  sunk  and  450 
Norwegian  sailors  killed. 


Conscription  of  youths  between  19  and  25,  for  the  U.  S. 
army,  has  been  the  great  war  question  in  Congress.  The  objec- 
tion to  the  system  is  that  it  takes  for  army  training  mere  youths, 
at  a  time  when  their  moral  characer  is  more  liable  to  injury  from 
the  associations  there  than  at  any  other  period  in  life. 


Equal  suffrage  for  women  with  men  in  Great  Britain,  has 
been  promised  by  the  British  premier.  David  Lloyd  George.  He 
assumes  this  attitude  on  the  question  by  reason  of  the  patriotic 
services  of  the  women  there  during  the  great  war,  and  not  because 
of  any  suffragist  agitation. 


The  V-roat  policy  of  Germany  has  been  a  success  in  at 
least  one  respect — that  of  bringing  a  declaration  of  war  from  the 
V.  S.  on  the  morning  of  April  6,  this  being  followed  by  similar 
action  on  the  part  of  Brazil,  Cuba,  and  other  heretofore  neutral 
nations. 


In  Palestine  the  British  forces  have  made  notable  advances 
west  of  Jerusalem ;  and  the  Mesopotamian  expedition  has  ad- 
vanced 100  miles  beyond  Bagdad.  This  makes  it  appear  that  the 
redemption  of  the  Holv  Land  from  Turkish  rule  mav  be  an  event 
of  1917. 


The  European  war  has  undergone  considerable  change  on 
the  western  front,  by  British  and  French  successes  in  great  battles 
during  April.  But  the  Germans  have  an  even  stronger  line  than 
now,  along  the  Meuse  in  France  and  Belgium,  if  they  should 
be  driven  back  to  it ;  therefore  these  successes  by  no  means  indi- 
cate a  near  ending  of  the  war. 


EDITORIAL 


Entered   as  second-class  matter  at  the  Post  Office,   Salt   Lake   City,    Utah. 

Motto — Charity   Never   Faileth. 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

Mrs.     Emmeline     B.     Wells President 

Mrs.    Clarissa    S.    Williams First   Counselor 

Mrs.   Julina   L.    Smith Second   Counselor 

Mrs.    Amy   Brown    Lyman General    Secretary 

Mrs.    Susa   Young    Gates Corresponding    Secretary 

Mrs.    Emma   A.    Empey «. Treasurer 

Mrs.  Sarah  Jenne  Cannon  Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  Miss  Edna  May  Davis 

Dr.  Romania  B.  Penrose  Mrs.  Priscilla  P.  Jennings         Miss  Sarah  McLelland 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards  Mrs.  Elizabeth  S.  Wilcox  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  Crismon 

Mrs.  Julia  M.  P.  Farnsworth  Mrs.  Rebecca  Niebaur  Nibley  Mrs.  Janette  A.  Hyde 

Mrs.  Phoebe  Y.  Beatie  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McCune        Miss  Sarah  Eddington 
Mrs.  Ida  S.  Dusenberry  Miss  Lillian  Cameron 

Mrs.  Lizzie  Thomas  Edward,   Music  Director 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Susa    Young    Gates 

Business    Manager Janette    A.    Hydk 

Assistant   Manager    Amy   Brown    Lyman 

Room  29,   Bishop's  Building,   Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

Vol.  IV.  JUNE,  1917.  No.  6 


OUR  CONFERENCE. 

The  Annual  Conference  of  the  Relief  Society, 
President  in  April,  1917,  was  blessed  with  the  presence 

Joseph  F.  Smith    and  teachings  of  our    beloved    leader    and 
Speaks.  president,  Joseph  F.  Smith ;  and  no  less  im- 

portant were  his  exhortations  and  blessings 
pronounced  in  our  own  conference  than  those  wondrous  texts 
he  delivered  at  the  opening  session  of  the  General  Conference. 
Read  his  remarks  in  these  pages;  note  how  practically  he  deals 
with  our  wheat  and  conservation  questions;  his  tender  solici- 
tude for  the  youth  and  the  necessity  of  parents  training  them 
in  the  spiritual  things  of  the  kingdom  ;  and  withal,  reverence 
for  the  aged  and  parents  should  develop  with  the  growth  of 
youth. 

The  fashions  of  the  day  received  careful  at- 
Modesty  tention — not  only  by  his  inspired  utterances 

In  Dress.  but  also  in  the  addresses  of  our  counselors, 

Clarissa  S.  Williams  and  Julina  L.  Smith. 
The  folly  of  youth  needs  checking  in  these  extreme  times. 
Early  marriages  were  advocated  by  the  President,  and  he  gave 
leaves  from  his  own  rich  experiences  to  garnish  this  advice. 

The  remarks  of  our  general  president,  Em- 
Our  Own  incline  B.  Wells,  were  remarkable  in  clear- 

President  Wells    ness  and  pertinency.       She  dwelt  on  the  loyal 
on  Loyalty.  attitude  of  the  members  of  this  Society  to 

the   Church   and   to   our   Countrv.     She   again 


350  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

lifted  up  licr  voice  in  testimony  of  the  Prophet  Joseph's  mis- 
sion, and  referred  in  moving  tones  to  her  commission  to  urge 
the  sisters  to  store  grain  as  given  by  President  Brigham 
Young.  Strange,  is  it  not,  that  this  solitary  historic  figure 
should  be  left  on  the  earth  to  see  the  actual  fulfilment  of  her 
divinely  appointed  mission!  How  rarely  Moses  enters  the 
promised  land. 

The  practice  of  so-called  birth-control  or 
Birth  Control  race-suicide  was  pronounced  a  crime  by 
Denounced.  I 'resident   Smith   and    Counselor  Julina   L. 

Smith.  Latter-day  Saints  who  indulge  in 
this  will  not  be  blood-guiltless.  The  resolutions  afterwards 
presented  to  the  conference  were  sustained  by  the  hearty  vote 
of  the  President  and  the  Presiding  Bishop  as  well  as  by  the 
whole  conference.  Ceasing  to  bear  children  or  limiting  off- 
spring would  not  make  right  wrong,  nor  cleanse  the  earth 
from  sin.  To  make  of  marriage  a  licensed  debauchery  could 
never  eliminate  criminals  nor  the  feeble-minded;  rather  would 
it  tend  to  increase  all  the  fruits  of  selfishness  and  sin. 

The  concluding  thought  given  by  President 
Christ  Stands  Smith  is  one  that  we  shall  do  well  to  ponder: 
at  the  Head  of  God,  not  man.  is  at  the  head  of  this  work. 
His  Church.  Not  the  President,  nor  any  of  his  predeces- 

sors in  office — not  the  Prophet  himself  is  at 
the  head  of  this  work — but  God  stands  at  the  head;  Christ  is 
the  possessor  of  all  authority,  power,  honor  and  glory. 

When  men  and  women  seek  glory,  fame,  and 
Give  Glory  honors,  when  their  feet  hurry  after  the  flat- 

to  God.  tery  of  men  and  their  souls  are  unsatisfied 

with  the  meek  gifts  of  silent  service,  then 
should  they  pause  and  consider  well  this  parting  exhortation. 
For  it  applies  to  our  Relief  Society  in  supreme  measure.  Not 
[oseph  Smith  who  organized  this  Society,  in  1842:  not  Brig- 
ham  Young  who  reorganized  it,  in  1866;  not  Joseph  F.  Smith 
who  regulated  and  gave  life  and  the  spirit  and  genius  of  growth 
and  progress  to  its  weakened  and  debilitated  forces,  in  1911; 
no.  nor  Eliza  R.  Snow,  Mary  Fielding  Smith,  Zina  D.  Young, 
Bathsheba  W.  Smith,  Sarah  M.  Kimball,  M.  Isabella  Home, 
nor  Emmeline  B.  Wells — not  any  nor  all  of  these  have  im- 
parted the  creative  life  and  inspired  development  of  this  great 
original  Relief  Society.  It  is  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church 
..f  Jesus  Christ  of  Patter-day  Saints  of  which  Christ  stands  at 
the  head.  His  is  the  work,  the  spirit,  the  power  and  the  in- 
spiration. Men  and  women  who  have  sought  to  follow  His 
guidance,  all  give  Him  the  honor  and  the  glory.  How  good 
it  is  to  serve  Him  and  how  sweet  are  His  teachings! 


Guide  Lessons. 

JUNE. 

Home  Economics 

LESSON  I. 

Note. — These  lessons  may  be  subdivided  and  arranged  for 
four  meeting's. 

PRESERVATION  OF  FRUITS  AND  VEGETABLES. 

It  is  the  patriotic  duty  of  every  American  citizen  to  help  in 
every  way  possible  in  the  production  and  conservation  of  our  food 
products/  One  of  the  very  best  ways  of  doing  this  is  to  economize 
in  food  waste.  To  waste  anything  is  a  crime.  Women  and  girls 
can  help  in  this  important  matter  by  canning  and  putting  up  for 
next  winter  fruits,  vegetables,  meats,  soups,  anything  and  every- 
thing that  will  have  a  food  value.  The  lr'gh  cost  of  living,  the 
shortage  of  food  supplies,  have  made  it  necessary  to  urge  this  mat- 
ter very  earnestly. 

Not  only  can  fruits  be  canned  successfully  and  economically 
in  glass  and  tin,  but  so  also  can  all  kinds  of  fresh  vegetables,  all 
kinds  of  meats  and  soup  stocks.  This  will  enable  us  to  have  on 
hand  at  a  moment's  notice  any  and  all  of  the  necessaries  of  life. 
Since  canning  is  a  means  of  preserving  food  from  bacteria, 
it  is  well  to  know  something  of  their  characteristics.  First,  they 
are  so  small  that  they  are  invisible  except  under  a  powerful  lens. 
On  this  account,  people  either  don't  believe  in  them,  or  forget 
about  them. 

Second,  the  air,  the  dust  and  all  objects  are  covered  with 
them. 

Third,  temperature  affects  them.  Cold,  even  to  freezing  point, 
does  not  kill  them,  but  only  prevents  their  growth.  -  Sunshine  and 
scalding  heat  applied  a  certain  length  of  time,  destroys  them. 
Moderate  heat  or  normal  body  temperature  is  the  best  possible 
medium  for  their  growth. 

Fourth,  some  bacteria  form  a  spore  or  small  seed  which  is 
covered  with  a  hard  coat.  When  the  seed  bursts  through  the 
covering,  another  germ  is  formed.  These  spores  are  not  easily 
killed  even  by  intense  heat.  Fifth,  meats,  sugars  and  starches  are 
spoiled  when  exposed  to  the  germ-laden  air  and  dust.     Excess 


352  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE. 

of  sugar,  as  in  preserving  fruits,  kills  germ  life.  Acid  fruits  are 
not  readily  attacked,  and  an  excess,  as  in  pickling  vegetables 
or  meats,  destroys  them. 

STERILIZATION. 

To  render  an  article  sterile  is  to  treat  it  in  such  a  manner 
that  germ  life  is  entirely  killed,  and  to  keep  the  article  under  such 
conditions  that  germs  cannot  gain  access  to  it. 

The  first  is  accomplished  by  exposing  articles  to  direct  sun- 
light, heat,  wet  or  dry,  and  the  application  of  acids,  salts  01 
spices :  the  second  by  sealing  the  articles  in  air-tight  sterile  con- 
tainers. 

GENERAL  RULES  FOR  CANNING. 

( 1 )  Cleanliness  of  person,  equipment  and  surroundings  is 
necessary  to  insure  success. 

(2)  Small  utensils  such  as  forks,  knives  and  spoons  should 
be  kept  in  a  pan  of  boiling  water  when  not  in  use.  Rubbers  should 
be  dipped  in  boiling  water.  Jars  and  lids  should  be  placed  in  cool 
water,  allowed  to  come  to  a  boil  and  kept  boiling  until  needed  fin- 
use. 

(3)  Vegetable--  and   fruits  should  be  gathered  as  soon  be 
fore  canning  as  possible.      Peas  are  particularly   liable  to  infec- 
tion. 

(4)  Seal  jars  while  hot.  If  necessary  to  steam  the  second 
day  on  account  of  the  possible  presence  of  spores,  do  not  loosen 
the  lid.  If  it  is  desired  to  add  anything  to  a  jar  that  has  been 
scaled  and  cooled,  steam  again  as  a  precaution. 

(5)  Handle  materials  and  utensils  as  little  as  possible.  Do 
not  touch  the  interior  of  jars  with  the  fingers.  Use  a  long- 
handled  fork  or  spoon  to  remove  them  from  the  boiling  water. 

(6)  Label,  giving  date,  variety  of  vegetable  and  fruit, 
method  and  time  used  in  process.  This  will  add  in  standardizing 
the  work. 

(7)  Never  use  chemical  powders  to  preserve  food.  If 
they  are  strong  enough  to  destroy  germs  and  spores,  they  are 
likely  to  have  an  injurious  effect  on  human  beings  sooner  or  later. 

METHODS  OF   FOOD  PRESERVATION. 

Sun-Drying. 

Place  fruit  or  vegetable  to  be  dried  in  a  dripper  and  set  in  a 
moderately  hot  oven.  Allow  to  steam  for  an  hour.  Put  on 
racks  made  of  fine  screening,  cover  with  a  cloth  to  protect  from 
flies  and  other  dirt  and  allow  to  remain  in  direct  sunlight  for  a 
day,  turning  often. 


GUIDE  LESSONS.  353 

Heat-Smoking  or  Curing  (applied  to  meat). 

Make  a  brine  solution  as  follows :  To  each  100  lbs.  meat,  8 
tc  12  lbs.  common  salt,  3  lbs.  brown  sugar,  3  ounces  salt  petre, 
6  gallons  water.  Boil  all  together  gently  for  one  hour  in  a  clean 
vessel.     Cook  before  using. 

Trim  meat  to  proper  shape  and  size.  Lay  in  barrel,  meat 
side  up,  placing  heavy  weights  on  top  of  pieces.  Cover  with  cold 
brine  at  least  two  inches  above  the  top  piece.  Keep  meat  con- 
tinually covered  with  brine.  Time  for  keeping  meat  in  the  brine : 
small  pieces,  three  to  four  weeks ;  large  pieces,  about  eight  weeks. 

The  meat  should  be  smoked  after  it  is  taken  from  the  brine 
or  it  is  liable  to  spoil  in  warm  weather.  Time  for  smoking  meat : 
three  to  four  days. 

Sacking  the  meat :  After  the  meat  is  cooled,  protect  it  by 
placing  in  strong  flour  sacks,  tied  tightly  and  painted  on  the 
outside  with  the  following : 

For  100  pounds  ham  or  bacon — 3.0  pounds  of  bartyes 
(barium  sulphate),  .06  pounds  of  glue,  .08  pounds  of  chrome  yel- 
low (lead  chromate),  .40  pounds  of  flour.  Fill  a  3-  to  4-gallon 
bucket  one-half  full  of  water.  Mix  in  flour.  Dissolve  the  lead 
chromate  in  one  quart  water  in  a  separate  vessel.  Add  this  solu- 
tion and  the  glue  to  the  flour  and  water.  Bring  to  a  boil,  and 
while  boiling,  add  the  barium  sulphate  slowly,  stirring  constantly. 

The  painting  of  the  sack  keeps  the  meat  moist  by  rendering 
it  impervious  to  the  air. 

Pickling  is  accomplished  by  the  use  of  salt,  vinegar,  spice 
and  oil. 

METHODS  OF  CANNING. 

Open  Kettle. 

The  food  is  cooked  completely  and  then  poured  into  jars 
previously  sterilized.  In  order  to  avoid  possible  infection,  it  is 
safest  to  place  the  filled  jars  in  a  boiler  and  steam  for  at  least 
twenty  minutes. 

Cold  Pack. 

The  food  is  packed  into  sterilized  jars,  with  or  without  liquid, 
and  capped  loosely.  The  jars  are  placed  in  a  receptacle  contain- 
ing water,  and  steamed.  For  length  of  process  see  table.  The 
receptacles  that  may  be  used  are  as  follows : 

(a)  Wash  Boiler.  The  boiler  should  be  fitted  with  a  piece 
of  wood,  wire  scre